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Biodegradable Metals

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ISBN: 9783038973867 9783038973874 Year: Pages: 200 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-387-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemistry (General) --- Chemical Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2018-12-06 10:15:09
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The interest in biocompatible and biodegradable metals, such as magnesium, is mainly related to their potential use as structural material for orthopedic and cardiovascular applications where a temporary medical device is required. However, in the case of magnesium, in vivo experiments have clearly shown that the corrosion degradation rate of magnesium and its alloys is too high and, hence, results in producing gas cavities that can promote the danger of gas embolism, tissue separation, and premature loss of mechanical integrity. The aim of this Special Issue on Biodegradable Metals is to explore and introduce innovative strategies to overcome the current limitations of magnesium.

Advance of Polymers Applied to Biomedical Applications: Cell Scaffolds

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ISBN: 9783038970330 9783038970347 Year: Pages: 406 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-034-7 Language: englisch
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-09-04 13:51:22
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Since Langer’s seminal work, polymers have been on every corner of tissue engineering. The roles of bioresorbable polymers, as a scaffold, are not merely structural, providing three-dimensional (3D) homing sites to cells, but also functional at their interface with the cells. The polymeric scaffolds actively act as both biochemical and physical cues for cell behaviors, such as adhesion, growth, proliferation, and differentiation. Polymers and cells could interact further with each other mutually, sensing and responding to the signals from the partner. Technological advances in this direction, including chemical modification of polymer scaffolds, highly cytocompatible hybrid materials/composites, dynamic scaffolds, control of juxtacrine interactions, and 3D bioprinting and microfluidic devices, ensure the advances in polymers as cell scaffolds. The detection and characterization methods for cell-material interactions and cell behaviors have been greatly improved, and new characterization techniques have emerged. Recent years have witnessed a quantum leap of progress in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, and this edited book illustrates some of the advances in polymers as cell scaffolds.

Polymers from Renewable Resources

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ISBN: 9783038974512 / 9783038974529 Year: Pages: 568 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-452-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemistry (General) --- Biochemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-10 09:45:29
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The use of polymeric materials from renewable resources dates back in history. Even though synthetic polymers dominated the market for years, there is now a need for the development of sustainable, safe, and environmentally benign plastics from renewable resources. Green polymers from renewable resources can be isolated from biomass, obtained through the chemical modification of natural polymers, or synthesized through a two-step process from biomass involving monomer synthesis and then polymerization. Finally, polymer synthesis can be achieved in plants through photosynthesis using carbon dioxide or in microorganisms (e.g. synthesis of poly(hydroxy-alkanoate)s). In this issue, the developments in sustainable polymers including PLA, PHB, and furan-based materials are presented together with those concerning bionanocomposites of lignocellulosic mater or starch, and blends of bioplastics. The use of biomass-based plasticizers, fillers, and additives for the improvement of polymers’ properties and the applications of biopolymers such as hyaluronic acid, carrageenans, chitosan, and polysaccharides in medicine and pharmaceutics are discussed.

Engineering Dielectric Liquid Applications

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ISBN: 9783038974024 9783038974031 Year: Pages: 170 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-403-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Technology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-12-11 10:19:26
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Dielectric liquids are used as impregnates of solid insulations or filling products in many kinds of equipment, such as transformers (power, rectifier, distribution, traction, furnace, potential, current), resistors, reactors, capacitors, cables, bushings, circuit breakers, tap changers, and thyristor cooling in power electronics, etc. Their role is paramount in the sense that their presence is one of the fundamental conditions for the proper functioning of such equipment. Similar to blood in the human body, dielectric liquids hold the responsibility of maintaining the entire equipment. The greatest challenges for engineers/maintenance planners are related to the need for methods to assess the condition of the liquid, along with how to improve equipment efficiency using chemical admixtures. The demand for environmentally friendly dielectric liquids is also rising as the environmental concerns about conventional petroleum-based fluids become increasingly more apparent.This book covers some theoretical and practical concerns related to the applications of dielectric liquids in electrical equipment. Understanding the fundamental theoretical phenomena is, therefore, important for properly designing practical liquid-filled power equipment and hardware. Graduate-level students and teachers, as well as scientists and engineers involved in power equipment design, diagnostics, and monitoring, will appreciate this systematic approach to the subject.

Polymeric Materials: Surfaces, Interfaces and Bioapplications

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ISBN: 9783038979623 / 9783038979630 Year: Pages: 342 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-963-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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This book collects the articles published in the Special Issue “Polymeric Materials: Surfaces, Interfaces and Bioapplications”. It shows the advances in polymeric materials, which have tremendous applications in agricultural films, food packaging, dental restoration, antimicrobial systems, and tissue engineering. These polymeric materials are presented as films, coatings, particles, fibers, hydrogels, or networks. The potential to modify and modulate their surfaces or their content by different techniques, such as click chemistry, ozonation, breath figures, wrinkle formation, or electrospray, are also explained, taking into account the relationship between the structure and properties in the final application. Moreover, new trends in the development of such materials are presented, using more environmental friendly and safe methods, which, at the same time, have a high impact on our society.

Keywords

corn stalk fiber --- friction composite --- friction and wear --- worn surface morphology --- antifouling coatings --- biofouling --- natural biofilms --- single-stranded conformation polymorphism --- polydimethylsiloxane --- multidimensional scale analysis --- antimicrobial coatings --- porous surfaces --- breath figures --- antimicrobial polymer --- coatings --- hydrogel --- protein-repellent polymer --- surface-attached polymer network --- polymer cross-linking --- alginate modification --- calcium chloride --- microparticles --- spray drying --- prolonged drug release --- gradient wrinkles --- UV/ozone --- irradiance --- polymeric composites --- bonding agents --- antibacterial --- oral biofilms --- periodontal pathogens --- caries inhibition --- recycling --- polypropylene --- biodegradable polymers --- degradation --- inmiscibility --- hemicelluloses --- chitosan --- composite films --- oxygen barrier property --- food packaging --- nanosecond laser surface modification --- ABS (Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene) --- surface wettability --- superhydrophobic --- superhydrophilic --- poly(x-chlorostyrene) --- honeycomb --- breath figures --- conformational entropy --- spinal anatomy --- intervertebral disc --- degenerative disc disease --- herniated disc --- spinal fusion --- total disc replacement --- tissue engineering --- Electrically conductive polymers --- Electroactive biomaterials --- Electrical stimulation --- Smart composites --- Bioelectric effect --- Drug delivery --- Artificial muscle --- bio-based --- fossil --- hybrids --- blends --- packaging --- bio-based polymers --- antimicrobial --- biodegradable --- sustainable --- eco-friendly --- graphene oxide --- chitosan --- composites --- scaffolds --- tissue engineering --- surface modification/functionalization --- surface segregation --- micro- and nanopatterned films --- blends and (nano)composites --- coatings --- surface wettability --- stimuli-responsive materials/smart surfaces --- bioapplications

Synthesis and Applications of Biopolymer Composites

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039211326 / 9783039211333 Year: Pages: 312 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-133-3 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- Chemical Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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This book, as a collection of 17 research articles, provides a selection of the most recent advances in the synthesis, characterization, and applications of environmentally friendly and biodegradable biopolymer composites and nanocomposites. Recently, the demand has been growing for a clean and pollution-free environment and an evident target regarding the minimization of fossil fuel usage. Therefore, much attention has been focused on research to replace petroleum-based commodity plastics by biodegradable materials arising from biological and renewable resources. Biopolymers—polymers produced from natural sources either chemically from a biological material or biosynthesized by living organisms—are suitable alternatives for addressing these issues due to their outstanding properties, including good barrier performance, biodegradation ability, and low weight. However, they generally possess poor mechanical properties, a short fatigue life, low chemical resistance, poor long-term durability, and limited processing capability. In order to overcome these deficiencies, biopolymers can be reinforced with fillers or nanofillers (with at least one of their dimensions in the nanometer range). Bionanocomposites are advantageous for a wide range of applications, such as in medicine, pharmaceutics, cosmetics, food packaging, agriculture, forestry, electronics, transport, construction, and many more.

Keywords

nanocellulose --- protease sensor --- human neutrophil elastase --- peptide-cellulose conformation --- aerogel --- glycol chitosan --- ?-tocopherol succinate --- amphiphilic polymer --- micelles --- paclitaxel --- chitosan --- PVA --- nanofibers --- electrospinning --- nanocellulose --- carbon nanotubes --- nanocomposite --- conductivity --- surfactant --- Poly(propylene carbonate) --- thermoplastic polyurethane --- compatibility --- toughness --- biopolyester --- compatibilizer --- cellulose --- elastomer --- toughening --- biodisintegration --- heat deflection temperature --- biopolymers composites --- MgO whiskers --- PLLA --- in vitro degradation --- natural rubber --- plasticized starch --- polyfunctional monomers --- physical and mechanical properties --- cross-link density --- water uptake --- chitosan --- deoxycholic acid --- folic acid --- amphiphilic polymer --- micelles --- paclitaxel --- silk fibroin --- glass transition --- DMA --- FTIR --- stress-strain --- active packaging materials --- alginate films --- antimicrobial agents --- antioxidant activity --- biodegradable films --- essential oils --- polycarbonate --- thermal decomposition kinetics --- TG/FTIR --- Py-GC/MS --- wheat gluten --- potato protein --- chemical pre-treatment --- structural profile --- tensile properties --- biocomposites --- natural fibers --- poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-3-hydroxyvalerate) --- biodegradation --- impact properties --- chitin nanofibrils --- poly(lactic acid) --- nanocomposites --- bio-based polymers --- natural fibers --- biomass --- biocomposites --- fiber/matrix adhesion --- bio-composites --- mechanical properties --- poly(lactic acid) --- cellulose fibers --- n/a

Processing-Structure-Properties Relationships in Polymers

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ISBN: 9783039218806 / 9783039218813 Year: Pages: 400 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-881-3 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-07 09:08:26
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This collection of research and review papers is aimed at depicting the state of the art on the possible correlations between processing variables, obtained structure and special properties which this structure induces on the plastic part. The extraordinary capacity of plastics to modify their properties according to a particular structure is evidenced for several transformation processes and for many applications. The final common goal is to take profit of this peculiar capacity of plastics by inducing, through a suitable processing, a specific spatial organization.

Keywords

carbon nanotube --- homogeneous dispersion --- ethylene vinyl acetate --- mechanical performance --- electrical conductivity --- microencapsulation --- melamine polyphosphate --- polyurethane --- composite --- flame retardant --- biodegradable nanofibers --- PLGA --- collagen --- epinephrine --- lidocaine --- polyimide film --- linear coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) --- copper clad laminate --- structure and properties --- polymorphism --- isotactic polypropylene --- deformation --- phase transitions --- uniaxial compression --- uniaxial tensile deformation --- temperature --- in situ X-ray --- cavitation --- indentation --- Harmonix AFM --- polymer morphology --- mechanical properties --- ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) --- microcellular injection molding --- supercritical fluid --- supercritical N2 --- supercritical CO2 --- tissue engineering and regenerative medicine --- bioresorbable polymers --- 3D printing/additive manufacturing --- fused filament fabrication/fused deposition modelling --- degradation --- physicochemical characterization --- polycaprolactone --- layered double hydroxides --- ionic liquids --- PLA --- reactive blending --- biobased films --- graphene --- nanoreinforcement --- curing rate --- epoxy microstructure --- fatigue --- composites --- critical gel --- poly(lactic acid) --- carbon black --- graphite --- polymer blend --- poly(ethylene terephthalate) --- intrinsic viscosity --- polyolefin --- compatibilizer --- isotactic polypropylene --- stress-induced phase transitions --- structural analysis --- X-ray diffraction --- polyoxymethylene (POM) --- octakis[(3-glycidoxypropyl)dimethylsiloxy]octasilsesquioxane (GPOSS) --- composites --- morphology --- mechanical properties --- conductive filler --- orientation --- conductive polymer composites --- foam --- model --- PLLA --- bioresorbable vascular scaffolds --- stretch blow molding --- biaxial elongation --- SAXS --- WAXS --- microfibrillar composites --- crystalline morphology --- crystallinity --- mechanical properties --- crystallisation --- morphology --- nanoparticles --- shear --- flow --- orientation --- poly(?-caprolactone) --- polyvinyl butyral --- hydrophobicity --- contact angle --- polypropylene --- atomic force microscopy --- injection molding --- mold temperature evolution --- polycaprolactone --- ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene --- incremental forming --- SPIF --- XRD --- chain orientation --- temperature sensitive --- gel --- controllable gas permeability --- breathable film --- polymer composite --- processing --- polyamide 6 --- compression molding --- polymorphism --- polyamide 6 --- injection molding --- polymorphism --- humidity --- mechanical properties

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