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Screening and description of novel hydantoinases from distinct environmental sources

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ISBN: 9783866441736 Year: Pages: XVI, 148 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000007011 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Chemical Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:01
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Various bacteria with hydantoinase activity were recovered from terrestrial soil samples of different geographic origins (Antarctica, South Africa, China). Based on these findings it is shown that microorganisms with hydantoinase activity are (i) distributed in various geographically distinct environmental habitats (ii) distributed worldwide (iii) found in certain bacterial genera.

Spores and Spore Formers

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452385 Year: Pages: 121 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-238-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-13 14:57:01
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Bacterial spore formers have been the focus of intense study for almost half a century centered primarily on Bacillus subtilis. This research has given us a detailed picture of the genetic, physiological and biochemical mechanisms that allow bacteria to survive harsh environmental conditions by forming highly robust spores. Although, many basic aspects of this process are now understood in great detail, bacterial sporulation still continues to be a highly attractive model for studying various cell processes at a molecular level. There are several reasons for such scientific interest. First, some of the complex steps in sporulation are not fully understood and/or only are only described by 'controversial' models. Second, intensive research on unicellular development of a single microorganism, B. subtilis, left us largely unaware of the multitude of diverse sporulation mechanisms in many other Gram-positive endospore and exospore formers. This diversity would likely increase if we were to include sporulation processes in the Gram-negative spore formers. In addition, spore formers have great potential in applied research. Spore forming bacteria are becoming increasingly important in the areas of probiotics, vaccine technology and biotechnology. This Research Topic in Frontiers in Microbiology details the most recent advances in basic science of spore research and cover also emerging areas of scientific importance involving the use of spores.

The Insecticidal Bacterial Toxins in Modern Agriculture

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038426622 9783038426639 Year: Pages: 162 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-01-16 09:46:13
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Increased awareness about environmental adverse effects of human activities has prompted the use of insecticides with low impact on systems associated to agriculture. Currently, the most successful biological products are based on protein toxins from the bacterial species Bacillus thuringiensis. Because of the remarkable properties of these proteins, their encoding genes were introduced into farming species (the so called Bt-crops), in such a way, that these plants are self-protected against some key insect pests. Despite the fact that a relatively large number of these toxins, with different toxicity ranges, have been described, it is still important to find new resources with novel capabilities to complement, or to replace in the future, the currently used ones. On another hand, it is important to continue studying their mode action in susceptible insects, and the changes occurred in resistant ones, to determine the most effective strategy for long lasting pest control. The focus of this Special Issue of Toxins is to provide updated information on the use of B. thuringiensis and their toxins on different field crops, the interactions of these toxins with other molecules, analyze the biochemical and molecular basis of emerging cases of resistance and, in general, to provide information which can contribute to an effective pest management with these toxins.

Colloids and Interfaces in Oil Recovery

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ISBN: 9783039211067 9783039211074 Year: Pages: 234 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-107-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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It is well-known that colloid and interface science and petroleum production are inextricably linked. Whether in the reservoir, with its porous structure, or during recovery, crude oil is intimately associated with rock surfaces and with water, often in the form of emulsions. This situation leads to highly complex systems, comprising multiple colloids and interfaces, which require to be optimized if oil is to be recovered efficiently, both in terms of economic cost and with due concern for the environment. This book contains a compilation of contemporary research topics which illustrate various aspects of the importance of colloids and interfaces in crude oil recovery through modifying conditions between the rock, crude oil, and water in the reservoir, in order to achieve improved oil recovery. The specific topics covered relate both to conventional oils, in which waterflooding is the most common secondary and tertiary means of recovery, and to non-conventional heavy oil and natural bitumen, which require thermal recovery methods, owing to their high viscosity.

Novel Approaches to Minimising Mycotoxin Contamination

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039289370 / 9783039289387 Year: Pages: 244 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-938-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Contamination of foods and agricultural commodities by various types of toxigenic fungi is a concerning issue for human and animal health. Moulds naturally present in foods can produce mycotoxins and contaminate foodstuffs under favourable conditions of temperature, relative humidity, pH, and nutrient availability. Mycotoxins are, in general, stable molecules that are difficult to remove from foods once they have been produced. Therefore, the prevention of mycotoxin contamination is one of the main goals of the agriculture and food industries. Chemical control or decontamination techniques may be quite efficient; however, the more sustainable and restricted use of fungicides, the lack of efficiency in some foods, and the consumer demand for chemical-residue-free foods require new approaches to control this hazard. Therefore, food safety demands continued research efforts for exploring new strategies to reduce mycotoxin contamination. This Special Issue contains original contributions and reviews that advance the knowledge about the most current promising approaches to minimize mycotoxin contamination, including biological control agents, phytochemical antifungal compounds, enzyme detoxification, and the use of novel technologies.

Keywords

deoxynivalenol --- degradation --- photocatalysis --- ?-Fe2O3 --- degradation products --- Aspergillus flavus --- Penicillium verrucosum --- AITC --- fungal growth reduction --- mycotoxin reduction --- decontamination --- mycotoxins --- Aflatoxin M1 --- milk --- binding --- stability --- zearalenone --- biological detoxification --- Bacillus --- fermentation --- roasted coffee --- mycotoxigenic fungi --- ochratoxin A --- cold plasma --- detoxification --- brine shrimp bioassay --- mycotoxins --- Fusarium sp., Botrytis sp., apple pomace --- phloridzin --- quercetin glycosides --- pinnatifidanoside D --- deoxynivalenol --- wheat --- superheated steam --- wheat quality --- crisp biscuit --- biological control --- post-harvest phytopathogen --- Penicillium digitatum --- Penicillium italicum --- Geothrichum citri-aurantii --- zearalenone --- estrogen response element --- gene expression --- cell proliferation --- estrogen receptor --- biotransformation --- Fusarium --- mycotoxins --- garlic-derived extracts --- green chemistry --- fungi --- EU limits --- abiotic factors --- storage --- wheat --- maize --- oats --- fumonisin --- enzymatic detoxification --- fumonisin esterase FumD --- enzyme kinetics --- maize --- Zearalenone --- biodegradation --- probiotics --- cell-free extracts of Aspergillus oryzae --- pig production performance --- Bacillus --- Fusarium graminearum --- antagonism --- mode of action --- essential oils --- Satureja montana --- Origanum virens --- Aspergillus flavus --- aflatoxin --- corn --- nanoparticles --- Penicillium nordicum --- biocontrol agents --- dry-cured ham --- ochratoxin A (OTA) --- n/a

Carbonates

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ISBN: 9783038977223 Year: Pages: 146 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-723-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Physics (General) --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 10:34:31
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This Special Issue is aimed at presenting the state of the art of the multidisciplinary science concerning all aspects of volcanic plumes, of relevance to the volcanology, climatology, atmospheric science, and remote sensing communities.

Promising Detoxification Strategies to Mitigate Mycotoxins in Food and Feed

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ISBN: 9783038970286 9783038970279 Year: Pages: 306 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-027-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:28
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Abstract

This book is a printed edition of the Special Issue Promising Detoxification Strategies to Mitigate Mycotoxins in Food and Feed that was published in Toxins

Keywords

deoxynivalenol --- epimer --- polarity --- Tri101 --- molecular --- interactions --- spores of Ganoderma lucidum --- oxidative stress --- aflatoxins --- antioxidant capability --- mycotoxin --- patulin --- biodegradation --- Pichia caribbica --- proteomics --- intracellular and extracellular enzymes --- Bacillus licheniformis CK1 --- zearalenone (ZEA) --- serum hormones --- estrogen receptor (ER) --- post-weaning female piglets --- curcumin --- aflatoxin B1 --- CYP450 --- AFBO–DNA --- chicks --- aflatoxin B1 --- photodegradation product --- TQEF-MS/MS --- cell viability --- furan rings --- mycotoxin --- toxigenic Fusarium --- biological control --- Trichoderma --- modified mycotoxin --- aflatoxin B1 --- aflatoxin biodegradation preparation --- Bacillus subtilis ANSB060 --- ameliorating effects --- growth performance --- antioxidant function --- residue --- aflatoxins --- biotransformation --- enzymatic detoxification --- laccase --- mild technologies --- food safety --- mycotoxins mitigation --- aflatoxin B1 --- aflatoxin-degrading enzyme --- biodegradation --- Bacillus shackletonii --- purification --- Sporobolomyces sp. IAM 13481 --- microbial patulin degradation --- desoxypatulinic acid --- ascladiol --- aflatoxins --- Aspergillus flavus --- Corylus avellana --- fatty acids --- thermal treatment --- Aflatoxin B1 --- Aspergillus flavus --- hyssop --- inhibition --- oxidative stress --- DBD --- atmospheric pressure --- low temperature plasma --- mycotoxins --- degradation --- maize --- aflatoxins --- neutral electrolyzed water --- detoxification --- turkey --- mycotoxins --- biotransformation --- degradation --- enzymes --- application --- mycotoxin --- detoxification --- biodegradation --- biotransformation --- enzyme --- microorganism identification --- mycotoxin --- trichothecene --- deoxynivalenol --- bioprospecting --- detoxification --- Fusarium --- cold atmospheric pressure plasma technology --- mycotoxins --- physical decontamination --- chemical decontamination --- biological decontamination --- patulin --- mycotoxin --- mitigation --- decontamination --- food and beverage --- processing --- n/a

Genome Mining and Marine Microbial Natural Products

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039280902 9783039280919 Year: Pages: 202 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-091-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Microbiology --- Biology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-30 16:39:46
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Two review papers, eight research articles, and one brief report were published in this Special Issue. They showed the rich resources that are present within the genomes of marine microorganisms and discussed the use of recently developed tools and technologies to exploit this genetic richness. Examples include the rational supply of precursors according to the relevant biosynthetic pathway and stress driven discovery together with the use of histone deacetylase inhibitors to facilitate the discovery of new bioactive molecules with potential biopharmaceutical applications. We believe that the content of this Special Issue reflects the current state-of-the-art research in this area and highlights the interesting strategies that are being employed to uncover increasing numbers of exciting novel compounds for drug discovery from marine genetic resources.

Biogenic Amines on Food Safety

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039210541 9783039210558 Year: Pages: 202 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-055-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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Biogenic amines have been known for some time. These compounds are found in varying concentrations in a wide range of foods (fish, cheese, meat, wine, beer, vegetables, etc.) and their formations are influenced by different factors associated to those foods (composition, additives, ingredients, storage, microorganism, packaging, handing, conservation, etc.). The intake of foods containing high concentrations of biogenic amines can present a health hazard. Additionally, they have been used to establish indexes in various foods in order to signal the degree of freshness and/or deterioration of food. Nowadays, there has been an increase in the number of food poisoning episodes in consumers associated with the presence of these biogenic amines, mainly associated with histamines. Food safety is one of the main concerns of the consumer and safety agencies of different countries (EFSA, FDA, FSCJ, etc.), which have, as one of their main objectives, to control these biogenic amines, principally histamine, to assure a high level of food safety.Therefore, it is necessary to deepen our understanding of the formation, monitoring and reduction of biogenic amines during the development, processing and storage of food, even the effect of biogenic amines in consumers after digestion of foods with different levels of these compounds.With this aim, we are preparing a Special Issue on the topic of ""Biogenic Amines in Food Safety"", and we invite researchers to contribute original and unpublished research articles and reviews articles that involve studies of biogenic amines in food, which can provide an update to our knowledge of these compounds and their impacts on food quality and food safety.

Fertilizer Application on Crop Yield

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ISBN: 9783038976547 Year: Pages: 252 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-655-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Agriculture (General) --- Biology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 10:34:31
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This book is a printed edition of the Special Issue Fertilizer Application on Crop Yield that was published in Agronomy

Keywords

soil organic matter --- soil biota --- soil acidity --- soil erosion --- fertilizer management --- site-specific nutrient management --- balanced use of fertilizers --- integrated nutrient management --- agronomic response --- calcium --- Copper --- NPK amendments --- Value Cost Ratio --- Zinc --- nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) --- nitrate assimilation --- nitrate reductase activity --- maize --- nitrate --- ammonia --- NADH --- NADH-dehydrogenase --- Complex I --- site-specific K management --- soil K supply --- maize yield response to K --- maize crop manager --- nutrient expert for maize --- durum wheat --- mineral N --- organic N --- S fertilization --- grain quality --- grain yield --- phosphorous --- potassium --- corn–soybean rotation --- management --- production system --- organic farming --- conventional farming --- organic nutrients --- chemical fertilizers --- global food demand --- agroforestry system --- evergreen agriculture --- biofertilizer --- Bacillus pumilus --- growth promotion --- N fertilizer --- rice --- yield --- green manure --- nitrogen uptake --- Orychophragmus violaceus L. --- soil nitrogen pools --- grain yield --- Zea mays L. --- hybrid rice --- K use efficiency --- potassium --- saline tract --- soil N supply --- soil N mineralization --- N fertilization --- potentially mineralizable N --- humid Mediterranean climate --- conservation agriculture --- NUE --- nitrogen recovery efficiency --- nitrogen physiological recovery --- wheat yields --- Agrotain® urea --- rice-wheat system --- organic farming --- forage legume --- long-term productivity --- soil health --- economics --- integrated nutrient management --- rice --- wheat --- yield --- net returns --- soil health --- sustainability

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