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The Evolution and Development of the Antibody Repertoire

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195497 Year: Pages: 122 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-549-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Allergy and Immunology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Although at first glance mechanisms used to create the variable domains of immunoglobulin appear to be designed to generate diversity at random, closer inspection reveals striking evolutionary constraints on the sequence and structure of these antigen receptors, suggesting that natural selection is operating to create a repertoire that anticipates or is biased towards recognition of specific antigenic properties. This Research Topics issue will be devoted to an examination of the evolution of antigen receptor sequence at the germline level, an evaluation of the repertoire in B cells from fish, pigs and human, an introduction into bioinformatics approaches to the evaluation and analysis of the repertoire as ascertained by high throughput sequencing, and a discussion of how study of the normal repertoire informs the construction or selection of in vitro antibodies for applied purposes.

Natural Antibodies in Health and Disease

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454051 Year: Pages: 180 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-405-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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Natural antibodies (NAbs) are found in normal individuals in the absence of exogenous antigenic stimulation. Natural antibodies rapidly recognize and protect against pathogens that have not been previously encountered. NAbs also cross-react with several self-antigens, which, besides their role as a first line of defense against pathogens, affords them the ability to perform important housekeeping functions in healthy organisms. Such housekeeping functions include the clearance of oxidized damaged structures and/or apoptotic cells, which prevents the induction of pro-inflammatory effects. In addition, NAbs play a role in preventing the expansion of specific auto-reactive clones, thereby behaving as regulatory elements in acute or chronic inflammation. To maintain the non-pathogenic balance between the dual pathogen/self-antigen cross-reactivities of NAbs, a strict regulation in NAb secretion and function is necessary to avoid autoimmune disease. Actually, some of the NAbs related auto-reactivities, such as anti-DNA and anti-MOG, have been associated with autoimmunity. Furthermore, NAbs have been shown to bind to ‘neo-self’ carbohydrate antigens on glycolipids and glycoproteins found on malignant but not normal cells, which suggests NAbs may take part in tumor immunosurveillance.Many aspects regarding NAbs have yet to be studied in more detail: the reactivity and function of NAbs in health and disease, the behavior of the NAb repertoire with increasing age, the regulation of natural antibody production and auto-reactivity, the ways to specifically activate NAbs producing cells with desired specificities, the characteristics of human NAbs, among others. This special topics eBook consists of a number of articles exploring the cells that produce NAbs as well as the characteristics, function, specificity, and/or the role of natural antibodies in health and disease.

Immune Interactions during the Reproductive Cycle

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195640 Year: Pages: 158 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-564-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Allergy and Immunology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Mammalian pregnancy represents a unique immunological riddle in that the mother does not reject her allogeneic fetus. In part this is largely due to a general sequestration or diminution of T cell activity, and an increased involvement of the innate immune system. The field of immunology is concerned primarily with how innate and adaptive mechanisms collaborate to protect vertebrates from infection. Although many cellular and molecular actors have evidently important roles, antibodies and lymphocytes are considered to be the principal players. Yet despite their importance, it would be definitely simplistic to conclude that they are solely essential for immunity overall. A major distinction between adaptive and innate immunity is the spontaneity of the innate immune response, which utilizes an already pre-existing but limited repertoire of responding modules. The slower onset of adaptive immunity compensates by its ability to recognize a much broader repertory of foreign substances, and also by its power to constantly improve during a response, whereas innate immunity remains relatively unaffected. The interactions between the reproductive system and the immune system are of particular interest, since the reproductive system is unique in that its primary role is to assure the continuity of the species, while the immune system provides internal protection and thus facilitates continued health and survival. The modus operandi of these two morphologically diffuse systems involves widely distributed chemical signals in response to environmental input, and both systems must interact for the normal functioning of each. Furthermore, dysregulation of normal physiological interactions between the reproductive and immune systems can lead to severe pregnancy-related disorders or complications. On the other hand, by ameliorating auto-inflammatory conditions such as MS and RA, pregnancy may provide a unique insight into novel immune modulatory strategies. The scientific focus on reproductive–immune research has historically provided substantial insight into the interface between these two physiological systems. A translational research approach would involve a tight interaction between diverse scientific and clinical disciplines including immunology, obstetrics, haematology, haemostasis and endocrinology. With so much recent progress in the field, we believe that it is valuable and well-timed to review the broad variety of the relevant physiologic and pathologic aspects – from menstruation to fertilization and implantation, and from placentation and pregnancy per se to the post partum condition - in which the immune system takes part. We are looking forward to a wide and vivid discussion of these and related issues, and we sincerely expect that our readers profoundly benefit from new exciting insights and fruitful collaborations.

A living history of immunology

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196982 Year: Pages: 62 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-698-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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In the highly competitive world of biomedical science, often the rush to publish and to be recognized as "first" with a new discovery, concept or method, is lost in the hurly-burly of the moment, as "the maddening crowd" moves on to the next "new thing". One of the great things about immunology today is that it has only become mature as a science within the last half-century, and especially within the past 35 years as a consequence of the revolution of molecular immunology, which has taken place only since 1980. Consequently, most of those who have contributed to our new understanding of how the immune system functions are still alive and well, and still contributing. Thus, "A Living History of Immunology" collates many stories from the investigators who actually performed the experiments that have established the frontiers of immunology. Accordingly, this volume combats "revisionist science", by those who want to alter history by telling the stories a different way than actually happened. In this regard, one of the good things about science vs. other disciplines is that we have the written record of what was done, when it was done and by whom. Even so, we do not have the complete story or narrative of how and why experiments were done, and what made the differences that led to success. This volume captures and chronicles some of these stories from the past fifty years in immunology.

Induction of Central Nervous System Disease by the Adaptive Immune Response

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453474 Year: Pages: 141 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-347-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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Over the last years it has become evident that many neurological diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) are induced by a specific adaptive immune response directed against molecules expressed on CNS-resident cells. Well-recognized examples are anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis which is characterized by the presence of antibodies against neuron-expressed NMDAR, or neuromyelitis optica (NMO), induced by antibodies to astrocyte-expressed aquaporin-4. Many more examples exist, and antibodies, and T or/and B cells have increasingly been associated with CNS disease. Often the symptoms of these diseases have not been typically reported to have an immune aetiology. Beside classical neurological symptoms like ataxia, vision disturbance, and motor or sensory symptoms, these can include cognitive disturbances, behavioral abnormalities, or/and epileptic seizures. Although much has been learned regarding the pathophysiology of prototypic examples of these disorders, there are still major gaps in our understanding of their biology. This may be due to the fact that they are rare diseases, and their therapies are still very limited. This research topic includes contributions addressing the analysis of the adaptive immune response driving disease including target antigens, molecular epitope mapping, and factors involved in the disease pathogenesis such as complement activation cascades, genetic and genomic regulation, as well as environmental triggers. Diagnostic criteria and methods, and treatment are also discussed. The overall aim of the volume is to review progress in our pathophysiological understanding of immune-mediated CNS disorders in order to advance diagnostic and therapeutic approaches, and ultimately improve outcomes for patients.

HIV-Induced Damage of B Cells and Production of HIV Neutralizing Antibodies

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454617 Year: Pages: 171 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-461-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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Multiple dysfunctions take place in the B cell compartment during HIV-1 infection, comprising depletion of resting memory B cells carrying serological memory to vaccines and previously met pathogens. In addition, population of B cells characterized by the expression of exhaustion markers are enlarged during HIV-1 infection. Antibodies with the capacity to neutralize a broad range of HIV-1 isolates can be detected only in a minority of infected patients, after a year or more from acute infection. An open question is whether the inability of producing neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies is somehow linked to the B cell immunopathology observed in patients. In this research topic we invited scientists to summarize the current state of knowledge on regulation and development of B cells and antibody responses during HIV-1 infection; fifteen contributions were received comprising both reviews and original articles. The articles are related to B cell dysfunctions identified in HIV-1 infected individuals, production of different types of antibodies (neutralizing versus non neutralizing, and of different isotypes) in vivo during HIV-1 infection and the biological factors which may impact on this process, clinical potential and applications of anti-HIV antibodies and how to achieve neutralizing antibody responses to HIV-1 epitopes upon vaccination. The topic has gathered articles on front-line research undertaken in the field of B cells and antibodies in HIV-1 infection. It is our hope that the collection of articles presented in this book may be useful for new and experienced scholars in the field and add a piece to the complex puzzle of knowledge needed for the development of an HIV-1 vaccine.

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