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Alternatives to Antimicrobial Growth Promoters and Their Impact in Gut Microbiota, Health and Disease

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453757 Year: Pages: 92 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-375-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Animal Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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In the context of disease pathogenesis, it has been observed that after inadequate administration of antibiotics, animals become more susceptible to intestinal colonization and organ invasion by enteropathogens, these could be related to changes caused in the gastrointestinal microbial community. Therefore, we must reconsider the negative consequences that disruption of the microbiome has in the biology of metazoans (dysbacteriosis). Alternations of the intestinal microbiota composition in animals can be caused by multiple factors, including the misuse of antibiotics, having as a result a negative impact on the development and function of the immune, endocrine, nervous, and digestive systems. For this reason, social concerns regarding the development of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms have resulted in an urgent necessity to find feasible alternatives to maintain animal health and performance without the use of antibiotic growth promoters (AGP), in order to sustain livestock production as an economically viable source of food for human consumption. Hence, research about AGP alternatives such as probiotics, prebiotics, phytochemicals, organic acids, enzymes, and vaccines has become a priority for many scientists around the world.

Antimicrobial Resistance and Virulence Common Mechanisms

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451814 Year: Pages: 138 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-181-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-28 14:01:09
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Multiple relationships exist between antimicrobial resistance and bacterial virulence, and the spread of clones combining multiple antibiotic resistance and a high virulence level is an increasing problem. It was previously described how mutation-driven or horizontally acquired resistance mechanisms can also have effects on virulence. It was also reported that mobile genetic elements often carry both resistance determinants and virulence-modulating genes, which favors the co-selection of both traits. In the present volume, we present a collection of articles which document additional aspects of the interactions between antimicrobial resistance and virulence in bacteria, and describe their potential therapeutic consequences.

Mycoplasma pneumoniae Clinical Manifestations, Microbiology, and Immunology

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453627 Year: Pages: 175 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-362-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp) is a major human pathogen that causes both upper and lower respiratory infections, and is one of the leading causes of community acquired pneumonia (CAP), accounting for 11–15% of CAP throughout the world. Additionally it is known to induce an inflammatory process which depends on several mechanisms such as virulence of Mp (lipoproteins, community acquired respiratory distress syndrome (CARDS) toxin, oxidative products) and host defenses (cellular immunity and humoral immunity). Although it is a common pathogen, the pathogenesis for Mp infections is not yet fully understood. From the clinical point of view, since the pioneer studies in the 1960s and 1970s on the clinical presentation of Mp associated disease, the diagnostics approaches have changed dramatically leading to a better understanding of the clinical presentation and new issues have emerged - such as antibiotics resistance. The purpose of this Frontiers ebook is to thoroughly review and discuss the clinical presentation in view of the improved diagnostics, microbiological and immunological analysis of Mp infections, with focus on the history of Mp, clinical features of disease, bacterial structure of Mp and mechanism of gliding, clinical and laboratory diagnostics, the role of lipoproteins and Toll-like receptor, CARDS toxin, subtyping of Mp isolates and genome analysis, macrolide resistance and treatment.

Surveying Antimicrobial Resistance: Approaches, Issues, and Challenges to Overcome

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451418 Year: Pages: 419 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-141-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Why Antibiotic Resistance? The use of antibiotics in human and veterinary medicine may have consequences beyond their intended applications. The “One Health” concept recognizes that the health of humans is connected to the health of animals and the environment. Progress in molecular genetics is facilitating the rapid evaluation of the essentiality of these targets on a genomic scale. In 2015, a group of researchers established the International Conference on Antibiotic Resistance (IC2AR).The primary objective of this meeting is to bring together scientists involved in antibiotic resistance prevention and control. The IC2AR conducted its inaugural world congress in January 2015 at Caparica (Portugal). Antimicrobial resistance presents a significant challenge to scientists in the field of infectious diseases. The full knowledge of how antibiotics resistance is evolving and being transmitted between hosts in different ecosystems is taking on great importance. Necessary action includes research to define the scope of the problem including its various sources. This eBook comprises a series of original research and review articles dealing with the epidemiology of resistance in animal and zoonotic pathogens, mobile elements containing resistance genes, the omics of antimicrobial resistance, emerging antimicrobial resistance mechanisms, control of resistant infections, establishing antimicrobial use and resistance surveillance systems, and alternatives strategies to overcome the problem of antimicrobial resistance worldwide. Gilberto Igrejas, José Luis Capelo and Patrícia Poeta Scientific Committee of IC2AR, February 20th, 2017Why Antibiotic Resistance? The use of antibiotics in human and veterinary medicine may have consequences beyond their intended applications. The “One Health” concept recognizes that the health of humans is connected to the health of animals and the environment. Progress in molecular genetics is facilitating the rapid evaluation of the essentiality of these targets on a genomic scale. In 2015, a group of researchers established the International Conference on Antibiotic Resistance (IC2AR).The primary objective of this meeting is to bring together scientists involved in antibiotic resistance prevention and control. The IC2AR conducted its inaugural world congress in January 2015 at Caparica (Portugal). Antimicrobial resistance presents a significant challenge to scientists in the field of infectious diseases. The full knowledge of how antibiotics resistance is evolving and being transmitted between hosts in different ecosystems is taking on great importance. Necessary action includes research to define the scope of the problem including its various sources. This eBook comprises a series of original research and review articles dealing with the epidemiology of resistance in animal and zoonotic pathogens, mobile elements containing resistance genes, the omics of antimicrobial resistance, emerging antimicrobial resistance mechanisms, control of resistant infections, establishing antimicrobial use and resistance surveillance systems, and alternatives strategies to overcome the problem of antimicrobial resistance worldwide. Gilberto Igrejas, José Luis Capelo and Patrícia Poeta Scientific Committee of IC2AR, February 20th, 2017

Genetics of Acquired Antimicrobial Resistance in Animal and Zoonotic Pathogens

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453948 Year: Pages: 196 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-394-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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Development and spread of antimicrobial resistance is the result of an evolutionary process by which microorganisms adapt to antibiotics through several mechanisms including alteration of drug target by mutation and horizontal transfer of resistance genes. The concomitant occurrence of independent antimicrobial resistance mechanisms is a serious threat to human health and has appeared in several emerging epidemic clones over the past decade in humans and also in animals. The increasing prevalence of antimicrobial drug resistance among animal and zoonotic foodborne pathogens is of particular concern for public health. In this Ebook, we gathered a collection of articles which deal with the most important aspects of the genetics of acquired antimicrobial resistance extending from medically-important resistance, emerging epidemic resistant clones, main mobile genetic elements spreading resistance, resistomes, dissemination between animals and humans, to the “One Health” concept.

The Good, The Bad and The Ugly: Multiple Roles of Bacteria in Human Life

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455744 Year: Pages: 518 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-574-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Bacteria are among the earliest forms of life on Earth. Notwithstanding their small size and primitive origin, bacteria still have a tremendous impact on everyday human life. Over the centuries, research into bacteria have provided and enriched the fundamental biological knowledge due to their readily measured processes and effects on higher organisms. Although molecular genetics and microbiology were among the scientific fields that have mostly benefited from the discoveries made in bacteria, our current state of knowledge has gone beyond what anyone could have ever imagined. The present Research Topic aims to cover new and exciting broad aspects of the importance of bacteria to human life, both positive and negative influences. Regulation of bacterial gene expression, replication and segregation control mechanisms, cell to cell communication via quorum sensors, and the relatively recent finding of bacterial immunity via CRISPR, have led to the development of many, and very important new tools in biotechnology and the emerging field of molecular medicine. The battle against infectious diseases has also benefited from the genetic approaches that have been developed in the quest for finding new targets and novel drugs against pathogenic bacteria. At the next level, the human microbiome project has opened up new avenues in understanding the role of bacteria in human health and wellbeing. Finally, the relationship between bacterial infections and human cancers will also be covered, a subject that is still under verification through rigorous experimental approaches. Special emphasis will be given to the bacterial accessory genome, i.e the mobilome, as the primary cause of health-threatening antimicrobial resistance and the production of toxins and virulence factors. Taking into account the evolutionary importance of horizontal gene transfer and the additional beneficial roles of certain bacterial mobile genetic elements, they help project best “the Good, the Bad and the Ugly” outline of this topic.At the time this eBook is about to be published, our Research Topic has registered nearly 55, 000 views.

Antimicrobial Resistance in Environmental Waters

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ISBN: 9783038976080 9783038976097 Year: Pages: 188 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-609-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Environmental Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-05-09 17:16:14
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This Special Issue on Antimicrobial Resistance in Environmental Waters features 11 articles on the monitoring and surveillance of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in natural aquatic systems (i.e., reservoirs, rivers), and effluent discharge from water treatment plants to assess the effectiveness of AMR removal and resulting loads in treated waters. Some of the key elements of AMR studies presented in this Special Issue highlight the underlying drivers of AMR contamination in the environment and the evaluation of the hazard imposed on aquatic organisms in receiving environments through ecological risk assessments. As described in this Issue, screening antimicrobial peptide (AMP) libraries for biofilm disruption and antimicrobial candidates are promising avenues for the development of new treatment options to eradicate resistance.

Isolation and Structure Elucidation of Bioactive Compounds (Dedicated to the memory of the late Professor Charles D. Hufford)

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ISBN: 9783038977803 9783038977810 Year: Pages: 276 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-781-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
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We are very pleased to introduce the Book Version of our Special Issue in Molecules dedicated to the memory of the late Professor Dr. Charles D. Hufford. The issue has been a huge success, with 22 full-length peer-reviewed papers and a tribute by Professor Alice M.Clark. Authors, reviewers, and collaborators from many countries across the worldhave contributed to this endeavour, and we are truly grateful to all. This Special Issue isrepresentative of the broad impact that “Charlie” had on the field of bioactive naturalproducts. This Special Issue comprises papers from Professor Hufford’s former students,colleagues, and collaborators throughout the world who have utilized a wide array ofstate-of-the-art techniques to examine diverse natural sources to isolate and identify avariety of natural products with a wide spectrum of biological activities, including somenew microbial transformations and insights into bioactive molecules. Many new bioactive compounds are described and reported here for the first time. Bioactivities reportedinclude cytotoxicity, antimicrobial activity, anti-inflammatory activity, antileishmanialactivity, antitrypanosomal activity, antimalarial activity, analgesic activity, and beneficialliver activities, just to name a few. This Special Issue will undoubtedly have a lasting impact on the field of bioactive natural products, as exemplified by the career of Dr. Hufford.Lastly, without the timely and outstanding contributions from all of you, this Special Issue would not have been possible. We thank you all very much for your contributions and your time devoted to this Special Issue in memory of a special person. Finally, we express ourgratitude and thanks to the journal Molecules and their excellent team of expert reviewers for giving us the support and opportunity to make this Special Issue a huge success!

Keywords

fusidic acid --- Cunninghamella echinulata --- C-26-oxidation --- C-27-oxidation --- Morus alba L. --- aldose reductase inhibitor --- neuroprotective agent --- natural products --- Mitracarpus scaber Zucc. --- pentalogin --- anti-inflammatory --- MS/MS --- Il-8 --- Crinum amabile --- augustine N-oxide --- buphanisine N-oxide --- biological activities --- Cryptococcus neoformans --- cryptococcosis --- HepG2 --- Prosopis glandulosa --- prosopilosidine --- amphotericin B --- fluconazole --- resveratrol --- dietary supplement --- gastro-resistant --- microparticles --- obesity --- HPLC --- Jatropha pelargoniifolia --- alkaloids --- flavonoids --- coumarinolignans --- diterpenes --- anti-inflammatory --- analgesic --- antipyretic --- Cochlospermum vitifolium --- Cochlospermaceae --- flavonoids --- lignans --- aromatic compounds --- carotenoids --- sterols --- liver activity --- Arthrinium sp. --- chromone --- polyketide --- antioxidant activity --- Rubiaceae --- jenipapo --- HPLC-ESI-IT-MS/MS --- flavonoids glycosides --- Baccharis --- antimalarial activity --- antitrypanosomal activity --- insecticidal activity --- GC/MS --- DNA barcoding --- microscopy --- antibacterial --- channel catfish --- columnaris disease --- Flavobacterium columnare --- stilbenes --- muscadine --- pyranoanthocyanin --- anti-leishmanial activity --- Leishmania donovani --- maleimides --- cytotoxicity --- SAR --- phlorogluciniol --- acylphloroglucinol --- anti-inflammatory --- iNOS --- NF-?B --- endophytic fungi --- sesterterpene --- cytotoxic activity --- pancreatic cancer --- Stevia rebaudiana --- diterpene glycosides --- rebaudioside A isomers --- 13(S)-hydroxyatisenoic acid derivative --- iso-stevioside X-ray structure --- Litsea cubeba --- cytotoxicity --- isolation and elucidation --- lignans --- antimicrobial resistance --- multi-drug resistant (MDR) --- methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) --- Zingiber monatnum --- terpenes --- (E)-8(17),12-labdadiene-15,16-dial --- zerumbol --- microbial transformation --- hop prenylflavanone --- isoxanthohumol --- cardiomyogenesis --- factor VII --- factor X --- inflammation --- thrombosis --- vasculogenesis --- herbal medicine --- n/a --- Nemania --- Xylariaceae --- Torreya taxifolia --- plant pathogenic and endophytic fungi --- cytochalasins --- malaria --- cytotoxicity --- phytotoxicity --- acacetin 7-methyl ether --- acacetin --- monoamine oxidase-A --- monoamine oxidase-B --- molecular docking --- molecular dynamics --- neurological disorder --- Turnera diffusa

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