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Alternatives to Antimicrobial Growth Promoters and Their Impact in Gut Microbiota, Health and Disease

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453757 Year: Pages: 92 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-375-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Animal Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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In the context of disease pathogenesis, it has been observed that after inadequate administration of antibiotics, animals become more susceptible to intestinal colonization and organ invasion by enteropathogens, these could be related to changes caused in the gastrointestinal microbial community. Therefore, we must reconsider the negative consequences that disruption of the microbiome has in the biology of metazoans (dysbacteriosis). Alternations of the intestinal microbiota composition in animals can be caused by multiple factors, including the misuse of antibiotics, having as a result a negative impact on the development and function of the immune, endocrine, nervous, and digestive systems. For this reason, social concerns regarding the development of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms have resulted in an urgent necessity to find feasible alternatives to maintain animal health and performance without the use of antibiotic growth promoters (AGP), in order to sustain livestock production as an economically viable source of food for human consumption. Hence, research about AGP alternatives such as probiotics, prebiotics, phytochemicals, organic acids, enzymes, and vaccines has become a priority for many scientists around the world.

Low-dose antibiotics: current status and outlook for the future

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193554 Year: Pages: 167 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-355-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:32
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Antimicrobial therapy is a key factor in our success against pathogens poised to ravage at risk or infected individuals. However, we are currently at a watershed point as we face a growing crisis of antibiotic resistance among diverse pathogens. One area of intense interest is the impact of the application of antibiotics for uses other than the treatment of patients and the association with such utilization with emerging drug resistance. This Research Topic “Low- dose antibiotics: current status and outlook for the future” in Frontiers in Microbiology: Antimicrobials, Resistance and Chemotherapy details various aspects of the wide ranging effects of antimicrobial therapy from areas such as the regulation of host responses to modulation of bacterial virulence factors to acquisition of antibiotic resistance genes.

Mechanisms of antibiotic resistance

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195268 Year: Pages: 224 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-526-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:06
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Antibiotics represent one of the most successful forms of therapy in medicine. But the efficiency of antibiotics is compromised by the growing number of antibiotic-resistant pathogens. Antibiotic resistance, which is implicated in elevated morbidity and mortality rates as well as in the increased treatment costs, is considered to be one of the major global public health threats (www.who.int/drugresistance/en/) and the magnitude of the problem recently prompted a number of international and national bodies to take actions to protect the public (http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/health_consumer/docs/road-map-amr_en.pdf: http://www.who.int/drugresistance/amr_global_action_plan/en/; http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/docs/carb_national_strategy.pdf). Understanding the mechanisms by which bacteria successfully defend themselves against the antibiotic assault represent the main theme of this eBook published as a Research Topic in Frontiers in Microbiology, section of Antimicrobials, Resistance, and Chemotherapy. The articles in the eBook update the reader on various aspects and mechanisms of antibiotic resistance. A better understanding of these mechanisms should facilitate the development of means to potentiate the efficacy and increase the lifespan of antibiotics while minimizing the emergence of antibiotic resistance among pathogens.

Fungal Jewels: Secondary Metabolites

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451364 Year: Pages: 203 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-136-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Fungal natural products are friends and foes of humans such as deleterious mycotoxins, cytotoxic, carcinogenic compounds or beneficial compounds such as antibiotics, fungicides, insecticides, antiviral and antitumor metabolites. Understanding fungal diversity and estimation of fungal species on our planet poses a great challenge to researchers. This complexity is further multiplied by secondary metabolite diversity of fungi, which requires interdisciplinary studies. It is extremely important to understand the fungal secondary metabolism to stop human, animal and plant diseases caused by fungi and harvest their valuable metabolites. Furthermore, many secondary metabolite gene clusters are silenced under laboratory conditions. It is vital to develop effective methods to activate those clusters in order to discover novel potent metabolites. This e-book is a compilation of original review articles contributed by leading fungal secondary metabolite researchers with a wide range of expertise. Important aspects of fungal secondary metabolism, including regulation, genome mining, evolution, synthetic biology and novel methods have been discussed. This book will be a great source to those people, who are interested in understanding overall structure, diversity and regulation of production of these tiny but precious chemicals.

Surveying Antimicrobial Resistance: Approaches, Issues, and Challenges to Overcome

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451418 Year: Pages: 419 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-141-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Why Antibiotic Resistance? The use of antibiotics in human and veterinary medicine may have consequences beyond their intended applications. The “One Health” concept recognizes that the health of humans is connected to the health of animals and the environment. Progress in molecular genetics is facilitating the rapid evaluation of the essentiality of these targets on a genomic scale. In 2015, a group of researchers established the International Conference on Antibiotic Resistance (IC2AR).The primary objective of this meeting is to bring together scientists involved in antibiotic resistance prevention and control. The IC2AR conducted its inaugural world congress in January 2015 at Caparica (Portugal). Antimicrobial resistance presents a significant challenge to scientists in the field of infectious diseases. The full knowledge of how antibiotics resistance is evolving and being transmitted between hosts in different ecosystems is taking on great importance. Necessary action includes research to define the scope of the problem including its various sources. This eBook comprises a series of original research and review articles dealing with the epidemiology of resistance in animal and zoonotic pathogens, mobile elements containing resistance genes, the omics of antimicrobial resistance, emerging antimicrobial resistance mechanisms, control of resistant infections, establishing antimicrobial use and resistance surveillance systems, and alternatives strategies to overcome the problem of antimicrobial resistance worldwide. Gilberto Igrejas, José Luis Capelo and Patrícia Poeta Scientific Committee of IC2AR, February 20th, 2017Why Antibiotic Resistance? The use of antibiotics in human and veterinary medicine may have consequences beyond their intended applications. The “One Health” concept recognizes that the health of humans is connected to the health of animals and the environment. Progress in molecular genetics is facilitating the rapid evaluation of the essentiality of these targets on a genomic scale. In 2015, a group of researchers established the International Conference on Antibiotic Resistance (IC2AR).The primary objective of this meeting is to bring together scientists involved in antibiotic resistance prevention and control. The IC2AR conducted its inaugural world congress in January 2015 at Caparica (Portugal). Antimicrobial resistance presents a significant challenge to scientists in the field of infectious diseases. The full knowledge of how antibiotics resistance is evolving and being transmitted between hosts in different ecosystems is taking on great importance. Necessary action includes research to define the scope of the problem including its various sources. This eBook comprises a series of original research and review articles dealing with the epidemiology of resistance in animal and zoonotic pathogens, mobile elements containing resistance genes, the omics of antimicrobial resistance, emerging antimicrobial resistance mechanisms, control of resistant infections, establishing antimicrobial use and resistance surveillance systems, and alternatives strategies to overcome the problem of antimicrobial resistance worldwide. Gilberto Igrejas, José Luis Capelo and Patrícia Poeta Scientific Committee of IC2AR, February 20th, 2017

Lung Diseases: Chronic Respiratory Infections

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ISBN: 9783038973386 9783038973393 Year: Pages: 216 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-339-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-07 11:27:31
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Both chronic and acute infections play a significant role in the pathogenesis and clinical course of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and both cystic fibrosis (CF) and non-CF bronchiectasis. There is also specific evidence that chronic infection, even in the absence of acute infection, has an influence on the manifestations and disease course. The infections found in COPD, CF, and bronchiectasis share a number of clinical similarities, the most striking of which are bacterial persistence despite the use of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance.In the last two decades, the rate of antibiotic resistance has increased dramatically and poses serious threats for patients and public health. There are different reasons for this increase in resistance, but the overuse of antibiotics in the community is certainly the most prominent. On the other hand, the chronic use of antibiotics in chronic diseases like COPD, CF, and bronchiectasis is also potentially associated with an increase in MDR pathogens. During the last decade, a growing interest has been raised in evaluating nontuberculous mycobacteria’s role in chronic respiratory diseases like bronchiectasis.

Digital Transformation of Animal Health Data: Proceedings of the AHEAD 2017 Workshop

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455683 Year: Pages: 63 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-568-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Animal Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)’s Co-operativeResearch Programme on Biological Resource Management for SustainableAgricultural Systems sponsored the AHEAD 2017 workshop, bringing together expertsfrom the farming and pharmaceutical industries, information and communicationstechnology, policy, research (and more) to create a roadmap to the digital transformationof animal health surveillance.In many countries, policy supports the reduction of antibiotic use and a growingfocus in the veterinary practice is to move away from blanket dosage of antibiotics,for example for mastitis. Significant and speedy improvements can take place, but only with coordinated actions supported by the entire value chain.Reducing the use of antibiotics is of massive societal importance, but changingon farm or veterinary methods requires thought and a user-centred approach.The most glaring and addressable challenge is the absence of near real-time dataand information.AHEAD 2017 explored how governments globally can benefit from increased digitisationin animal health. For effective monitoring, it is important to first understandthe relevant tasks of each stakeholder in the food value chain. In these proceedingswe openly discuss and define these tasks, identify existing challenges to completionof these tasks, and suggest the business opportunities overcoming these challengescan create. Through this publication, it is our intention to encourage open discussion,design and co-creation of an improved digital approach to animal health anddrug usage in agriculture.The Workshop was sponsored by the OECD Co-operative Research Programmeon Biological Resource Management for Sustainable Agricultural Systems, whosefinancial support made it possible for most of the invited speakers to participate inthe Workshop.The opinions expressed and arguments employed in this publication are the soleresponsibility of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the OECD or ofthe governments of its Member countries.

Bioactive Compounds from Microbes

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451852 Year: Pages: 142 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-185-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-28 14:01:09
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Microorganisms have had a long and surprising history. They were “invisible” until invention of microscope in the 17th century. Until that date, although they were extensively (but inconsciously) employed in food preservation, beer and wine fermentation, cheese, vinegar, yogurt and bread making, as well as being the causative agents of infectious diseases, they were considered as “not-existing”. The work of Pasteur in the middle of the 19th century revealed several biological activities performed by microorganisms including fermentations and pathogenicity. Due to the urgent issue to treat infectious diseases (the main cause of death at those times) the “positive potential” of the microbial world has been neglected for about one century. Once the fight against the “evil” strains was fulfilled also thanks to the antibiotics, industry began to appreciate bacteria’s beneficial characteristics and exploit selected strains as starters for both food fermentations and aroma, enzyme and texturing agent production. However, it was only at the end of the 20th century that the probiotic potential of some bacteria such as lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria was fully recognized. Very recently, apart from the probiotic activity of in toto bacteria, attention has begun to be directed to the chemical mediators of the probiotic effect. Thanks also to the improvement of techniques such as transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics, several bioactive compounds are continuously being discovered. Bioactive molecules produced by bacteria, yeasts and virus-infected cells proved to be important for improving or impairing human health. The most important result of last years’ research concerns the discovery that a very complex network of signals allows communication between organisms (from intra-species interactions to inter-kingdom signaling). Based on these findings a completely new approach has arisen: the system biology standpoind. Actually, the different organisms colonizing a certain environmental niche are not merely interacting with each other as individuals but should be considered as a whole complex ecosystem continuously exchanging information at the molecular level. In this context, this topic issue explores both antagonistic compounds (i.e. antibiotics) and “multiple function” cooperative molecules improving the physiological status of both stimulators and targets of this network. From the applicative viewpoint, these molecules could be hopefully exploited to develop new pharmaceuticals and/or nutraceuticals for improving human health.

Identification and Characterization of Antimicrobial Peptides with Therapeutic Potential

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ISBN: 9783038424628 9783038424635 Year: Pages: X, 280 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2017-12-27 08:54:14
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Antimicrobial peptides are key defense molecules adopted by all life forms to prevent infection. They also have other beneficial effects such as boosting immune response, anticancer, and wound healing. The antiviral effects of antimicrobial peptides have laid the foundations for developing new agents to combat seasonal Flu, HIV-1, RSV, Zika, and Ebola. This eBook is constructed to systematically deal with antimicrobial peptides from a variety of natural sources, including fungi, plants, and animals (insects, fish, amphibians, birds, and reptiles). It covers peptide discovery, antimicrobial activity, 3D structure, mechanisms of action and potential applications. Naturally Occurring Antimicrobial Peptides, an eBook published by the journal Pharmaceuticals, provides a helpful introduction to newcomers and refreshes the minds of veterans.

Antimicrobial Resistance in Environmental Waters

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ISBN: 9783038976080 9783038976097 Year: Pages: 188 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-609-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Environmental Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-05-09 17:16:14
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This Special Issue on Antimicrobial Resistance in Environmental Waters features 11 articles on the monitoring and surveillance of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in natural aquatic systems (i.e., reservoirs, rivers), and effluent discharge from water treatment plants to assess the effectiveness of AMR removal and resulting loads in treated waters.&nbsp;Some of the key elements of AMR studies presented in this Special Issue highlight the underlying drivers of AMR contamination in the environment and the evaluation of the hazard imposed on aquatic organisms in receiving environments through ecological risk assessments. As described in this Issue, screening antimicrobial peptide (AMP) libraries for biofilm disruption and antimicrobial candidates are promising avenues for the development of new treatment options to eradicate resistance.

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