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Forest Pathology and Plant Health

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ISBN: 9783038426714 9783038426721 Year: Pages: VIII, 234 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-672-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-01-24 13:57:31
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Every year, a number of new forest pathosystems are discovered as the result of introduction of alien pathogens, host shifts and jumps, hybridization and recombination among pathogens, etc. Disease outbreaks may also be favored by climate change and forest management. The mechanisms driving the resurgence of native pathogens and the invasion of alien ones need to be better understood in order to draft sustainable control strategies. For this Special Issue, we welcome population biology studies providing insights on the epidemiology and invasiveness of emergent forest pathogens possibly by contrasting different scenarios varying in pathogen and host populations size, genetics, phenotype and phenology, landscape fragmentation, occurrence of disturbances, management practices, etc. Both experimental and monitoring approaches are welcome. In summary, this special issue focuses on how variability in hosts, pathogens, or ecology may affect the emergence of new threats to plant species.

Coastal Morphodynamics

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ISBN: 9783038426769 9783038426752 Year: Pages: 242 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-675-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Geography
Added to DOAB on : 2018-01-24 14:00:59
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Every year, a number of new forest pathosystems are discovered as the result of introduction of alien pathogens, host shifts and jumps, hybridization and recombination among pathogens, etc. Disease outbreaks may also be favored by climate change and forest management. The mechanisms driving the resurgence of native pathogens and the invasion of alien ones need to be better understood in order to draft sustainable control strategies. For this Special Issue, we welcome population biology studies providing insights on the epidemiology and invasiveness of emergent forest pathogens possibly by contrasting different scenarios varying in pathogen and host populations size, genetics, phenotype and phenology, landscape fragmentation, occurrence of disturbances, management practices, etc. Both experimental and monitoring approaches are welcome. In summary, this special issue focuses on how variability in hosts, pathogens, or ecology may affect the emergence of new threats to plant species.

Diversity and environmental variability of riparian tall herb fringe communities of the order Convolvuletalia sepium in Polish river valleys

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Book Series: Monographiae Botanicae ISSN: 2392-2923 ISBN: 9788395412325 Year: Volume: 108 Pages: 130 DOI: 10.5586/mb.2019.001 Language: English
Publisher: Polish Botanical Society
Subject: Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-07 13:10:34
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The riparian tall herb fringe communities of the order Convolvuletalia sepium represent an integral part of the natural vegetation in river valleys. The major objective of this study was to assess the relationships between the diversity and variability of these communities and various environmental factors. The survey was conducted in northwestern Poland, along 101 randomly selected 1–2-km long sections of 24 rivers and the Szczecin Lagoon. Samples were collected in 2008–2013 in all types of tall herb fringe vegetation found in the surveyed river sections. Data collected included hydrogeomorphic variables, soil parameters, potential and actual vegetation, and dominant land use form. A total of 24 vegetation units were documented, based on 300 sample plots (relevés). Tall herb fringe communities occurring in valleys of large rivers (Senecionetum fluviatilis, Fallopio-Cucubaletum bacciferi, Achilleo salicifoliae-Cuscutetum lupuliformis, Convolvulo sepium-Cuscutetum europaeae typicum and chaerophylletosum bulbosi subass. nov., Rubus caesius community, Solidago gigantea community) exhibited floristic and ecological differences in comparison with plant communities from small rivers (Eupatorietum cannabini typicum, aegopodietosum and cardaminetosum amarae subass. nov., Epilobio hirsuti-Convolvuletum sepium, Soncho palustris-Archangelicetum litoralis, Convolvulo sepium-Cuscutetum europaeae aegopodietosum, Urtico-Convolvuletum sepium typicum and aegopodietosum, Urtica dioica community, Galeopsis speciosa community, Rubus idaeus community). This finding fully justified their division into two alliances: the Senecionion fluviatilis and the Archangelicion litoralis, respectively. Significant differences between the tall herb fringe communities associated with large rivers and the plant communities occurring along small rivers included plant species richness, moss layer cover, contribution of river corridor plants, level of invasion, influence of adjacent plant communities on the floristic composition, relative elevation and distance away from the riverbed, degree of shading, proportions of all grain size fractions, soil pH, contents of organic matter, humus, organic carbon, total nitrogen, bioavailable phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, and calcium in the soil. The differences in environmental characteristics of individual plant communities were significant as well; they showed that most vegetation units were well defined. The variables that best discriminated between riparian tall herb fringe communities included the natural potential vegetation unit Salici-Populetum, headwater seeps, soil pH, sample elevation above the river water level, river size, flooding, degree of shading, soil moisture, K2O and CaO contents, and C/N ratio. The integration of the main riparian gradients (longitudinal, lateral, vertical) and patch perspective (e.g., natural potential vegetation units, and land use forms) significantly improved the comprehensive riparian vegetation patterns, because these two perspectives underpin different processes shaping the vegetation. This study contributed significantly to the knowledge of riparian tall herb fringe communities. Two subassociations are described here for the first time, whereas six others have not been previously reported from Poland. The data summarized in the synoptic table indicated that the species diagnostic for individual plant communities should be revised at the supra-regional scale. Some syntaxonomic issues were also determined. The inclusion of the order Convolvuletalia sepium to the class Epilobietea angustifolii resolved the problem of classifying the community dominated by Eupatorium cannabinum, a species showing two ecological optima: one in riparian tall herb communities and the other in natural gaps of the tree stands and clearings of fertile alder carrs and riparian woodlands. This also resolved the problem of classifying the communities dominated by Galeopsis speciosa and Rubus idaeus, intermediate between riparian tall herb and clearing communities. The results of this study may serve as a reference for management of the vegetation in river valleys and promote their conservation. They may also be essential for any future syntaxonomic revision of riparian tall herb fringe communities at a larger geographical extent.

Invasive Alien Plants: Impacts on Development and Options for Management

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9781780646275; 9781786391346 Year: Pages: 232 DOI: 10.1079/9781780646275.0000 Language: English
Publisher: CABI
Subject: Ecology --- Agriculture (General) --- Plant Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-10-16 13:13:57
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Invasive alien plants pose a major threat to agriculture, the natural environment and livelihoods worldwide and create challenges for development. This is especially the case for those who live and work in rural areas. This book, for the first time, brings together a wide range of invasive plant specialists from the Asia-Pacific region who shares their experience in addressing the problem and delivering solutions. Mikania micrantha is used as case study in the book as it exemplifies many of the issues that need to be addressed. This neotropical vine is a major weed across the tropical humid zones of the region, where it smothers agroforestry, home gardens, natural forests and plantation production systems. The book emphasises the social and economic implications of plant invasion, and discusses direct impacts on livelihoods and biodiversity. It explains how various approaches to management including traditional ecological knowledge and classical biological control can be keys to the delivery of sustainable solutions, focusing on experiences in India, Nepal, Papua New Guinea and China. The use of policy frameworks in biological control and other management measures are also described.

Biological Invasions in Changing Ecosystems. Vectors, Ecological Impacts, Management and Predictions

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ISBN: 9783110438659 9783110438666 Year: Pages: 488 DOI: 10.1515/9783110438666 Language: English
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: Biology --- Ecology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-06 17:16:03
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When organisms are deliberately or accidentally introduced into a new ecosystem a biological invasion may take place. These so-called ‘invasive species’ may establish, spread and ecologically alter the invaded community. Biological invasions by animals, plants, pathogens or vectors are one of the greatest environmental and economic threats and, along with habitat destruction, a leading cause of global biodiversity loss.In this book, more than 50 worldwide invasion scientists cover our current understanding of biological invasions, its impacts, patterns and mechanisms in both aquatic and terrestrial systems.

Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Eastern Africa

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ISBN: 9781786394385; 9781786392145 Year: Pages: 601 DOI: 10.1079/9781786392145.0000 Language: English
Publisher: CABI
Subject: Ecology --- Botany --- Agriculture (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-10-16 15:15:27
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Both in Ethiopia and in the countries of East Africa, the continuing proliferation and spread of invasive alien species (IAS) is now recognized as a serious problem, which needs to be addressed. While this situation has improved dramatically over the past 10 years, further progress has been hampered by the absence, hitherto, of a comprehensive IAS database for the region. Countries in the region have repeatedly expressed the need for such a database, as a tool to assist in the identification of naturalized and invasive alien plant species, and in understanding their impacts, both existing and potential, while also providing pointers on what can be done to manage such species. This information is seen as essential, not only in enabling countries to develop effective IAS management strategies, but also in helping them to meet their obligations under various international agreements and treaties, including Article 8 (h) of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and Target 9 of the 2020 Aichi Biodiversity Targets. In providing such a database, this Guide is intended to give the countries of eastern Africa the information they require, in order to be able to develop effective strategies for combating the growing menace posed by invasive alien plants. It is further hoped that this Guide will foster increased regional collaboration, in responding to the challenges of managing shared invasive plant species. The Guide is based on the findings of extensive roadside surveys, carried out throughout the region, and on a review of the literature pertaining to naturalization and/or invasiveness among alien plants in eastern Africa. By this means, scores of exotic plant species were found to have escaped from cultivation, and to have established populations in the 'wild', to the detriment of natural resources and the millions of people in the region who depend on these resources. Included in the Guide are descriptions of roughly 200 exotic plant species which are either invasive already or which are deemed to have the potential to become invasive in the region. The profiled species include aquatic invasive plants or waterweeds (seven species); vines, creepers or climbers (20 species); terrestrial herbs, shrubs, and succulents (more than 30 species of each), and trees (more than 60 species). Also profiled in this Guide are many exotic plant species which, although their current distribution in the region may still be relatively localized, nevertheless have the potential to become considerably more widespread and problematic. The wide range of habitats and climatic conditions found within Ethiopia and across East Africa make the region as a whole particularly prone to invasions by a host of introduced plant species. Such invasions are being facilitated by increased land degradation, especially through overgrazing and deforestation, and also by climate change.

Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Southeast Asia

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ISBN: 9781786392107; 9781786394361 Year: Pages: 207 DOI: 10.1079/9781786392107.0000 Language: English
Publisher: CABI
Subject: Agriculture (General) --- Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2020-10-16 15:29:48
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Despite the significant impacts of alien plant species (IAS), there has not been a concerted effort to tackle the problem across the region. This can mainly be ascribed to a lack of policy, little awareness and limited capacity at a national and regional level. The UN Environment-Global Environment Facility project, 'Removing Barriers to Invasive Species Management in Production and Protection Forests in SE Asia', which was active in Cambodia, Indonesia, the Philippines and Vietnam, identified these barriers and produced this Guide which will go a long way to creating awareness about invasive plants, their impacts and how best to manage them. This Guide will serve as an invaluable aid in the identification, mapping, monitoring, and management of IAS that are already present in ASEAN member states, or which may become problematic in the future, due to increased trade and travel, economic development and climate change. It is hoped that this Guide would trigger similar efforts in other countries in Southeast Asia as the region moves toward socio-economic integration.

Guide to the Naturalized and Invasive Plants of Laikipia

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ISBN: 9781786394378; 9781786392152 Year: Pages: 178 DOI: 10.1079/9781786392152.0000 Language: English
Publisher: CABI
Subject: Botany --- Agriculture (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-10-16 15:23:32
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The impetus for the development of this Field Guide came about as a result of pleas from the community around the village of Doldol, Laikipia County, to initiate a control programme for Australian prickly pear [Opuntia stricta (Haw.) Haw.; Fabaceae], an invasive plant which was having a dramatic impact on livelihoods. However, a number of other exotic plants, which were less widespread, but had the potential of becoming invasive, were not seen as a potential problem. In order to avoid a similar situation from arising in the future, the community expressed a need for a Field Guide, which would include descriptions of naturalized and invasive species already present in, and those that were most likely to invade Laikipia County and, information on how best to manage them. An additional impetus was to contribute to the four main objectives of the National Strategy and Action Plan for the Management of Invasive Species in Kenya's Protected Areas. The Field Guide contributes in some or other way to all of these objectives which are to (i) Enhance awareness of invasive species to relevant actors; (ii) Prevent new invasions, manage established invasions and rehabilitate degraded habitats; (iii) Enhance research, monitoring and information management on invasive species; and (iv) Enhance capacity, resource mobilization and coordination. Extensive surveys revealed the presence of a number of introduced plant species which had escaped cultivation and established populations in the 'wild' to the detriment of natural resources and the people that depend on them. Introduced succulents, especially those in the genus Opuntia (Cactaceae), were found to be the most widespread and abundant invasive species in the semi-arid regions in the north and east of Laikipia County. Other succulents, those in the genus Bryophyllum (Crassulaceae), were also found to have escaped cultivation and were locally abundant. In the higher rainfall areas to the west and southwest, introduced trees such as black wattle (Acacia mearnsii De Wild.; Fabaceae) and Australian blackwood (Acacia melanoxylon R. Br.; Fabaceae) and the shrubs/climbers, Mauritius thorn [Caesalpinia decapetala (Roth) Alston; Fabaceae] and yellow cestrum (Cestrum aurantiacum Lindl.; Solanaceae), were invasive. Introduced plants, which have the potential to become problematic in Laikipia, unless eradicated or controlled, have also been included in the Guide. This includes species such as famine weed (Parthenium hysterophorus L.; Asteraceae) and 'mathenge' [Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC.; Fabaceae], which are already abundant in areas adjoining the County.

Review of Invertebrate Biological Control Agents Introduced into Europe

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ISBN: 9781786390790; 9781786390806; 9781786390813 Year: Pages: 194 DOI: 10.1079/9781786390790.0000 Language: English
Publisher: CABI
Subject: Agriculture (General) --- Plant Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-10-16 16:28:31
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This review provides an overview of all documented releases of exotic (non-European) invertebrate biological control agents (IBCAs) into the environment in Europe and summarizes key information on the target species as well as on the biological control agent released. It is an update of A Review of Biological Control in Western and Southern Europe edited by Greathead (1976) and covers the period from 1897, when the beetle Rodolia cardinalis was introduced into Portugal against the invasive cottony cushion scale, Icerya purchasi, until the end of 2009. This review is based largely on the BIOCAT database (Greathead and Greathead 1992), which contains records of the introduction of insect natural enemies, namely parasitoids and predators, for the control of insect pests worldwide. This review may not provide the complete list of BC agents introduced into Europe. Nevertheless, the report includes a vast majority of the introductions, and hence provides a representative picture of the history of releases of exotic BC agents into the environment in Europe.

Biological Invasions in South Africa

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Invading Nature - Springer Series in Invasion Ecology ISBN: 9783030323943 Year: Pages: 975 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-32394-3 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Environmental Sciences --- Ecology --- Zoology --- Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-16 23:59:34
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This open access volume presents a comprehensive account of all aspects of biological invasions in South Africa, where research has been conducted over more than three decades, and where bold initiatives have been implemented in attempts to control invasions and to reduce their ecological, economic and social effects. It covers a broad range of themes, including history, policy development and implementation, the status of invasions of animals and plants in terrestrial, marine and freshwater environments, the development of a robust ecological theory around biological invasions, the effectiveness of management interventions, and scenarios for the future. The South African situation stands out because of the remarkable diversity of the country, and the wide range of problems encountered in its varied ecosystems, which has resulted in a disproportionate investment into both research and management. The South African experience holds many lessons for other parts of the world, and this book should be of immense value to researchers, students, managers, and policy-makers who deal with biological invasions and ecosystem management and conservation in most other regions.

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