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Lipid Signaling in T Cell Development and Function

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196975 Year: Pages: 142 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-697-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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Abstract

Lipids are best known as energy storing molecules and core-components of cellular membranes, but can also act as mediators of cellular signaling. This is most prominently illustrated by the paramount importance of the phospholipase C (PLC) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathways in many cells, including T cells and cancer cells. Both of these enzymes use the lipid phosphatidylinositol(4,5)bisphosphate (PIP2) as their substrate. PLCs produce the lipid product diacylglycerol (DAG) and soluble inositol(1,4,5)trisphosphate (IP3). DAG acts as a membrane tether for protein kinase C and RasGRP proteins. IP3 is released into the cytosol and controls calcium release from internal stores. The PI3K lipid product phosphatidylinositol(3,4,5)trisphosphate (PIP3) controls signaling by binding and recruiting effector proteins such as Akt and Itk to cellular membranes. Recent research has unveiled important signaling roles for many additional phosphoinositides and other lipids. The articles in this volume highlight how multiple different lipids govern T cell development and function through diverse mechanisms and effectors. In T cells, lipids can orchestrate signaling by organizing membrane topology in rafts or microdomains, direct protein function through covalent lipid-modification or non-covalent lipid binding, act as intracellular or extracellular messenger molecules, or govern T cell function at the level of metabolic regulation. The cellular activity of certain lipid messengers is moreover controlled by soluble counterparts, exemplified by symmetric PIP3/inositol(1,3,4,5)tetrakisphosphate (IP4) signaling in developing T cells. Not surprisingly, lipid producing and metabolizing enzymes have gained attention as potential therapeutic targets for immune disorders, leukemias and lymphomas.

Keywords

Lipid --- T cell --- eicosanoid --- PI3K --- Vitamin D --- diacylglyerol --- Inositol --- Pten --- SHIP --- Adipokine

Adipokines 2.0

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ISBN: 9783039285860 / 9783039285877 Year: Pages: 406 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-587-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Abstract

Once viewed solely as fat storage cells, adipocytes and their adipokines have now been proven to be central for human health. Understanding that overweight and obesity may increase the risk for various diseases requires detailed characterization of adipokine function. Weight gain, weight regain, and fasting affect adipocyte health and accordingly their secretome. Different adipose tissue deposits exist and they vary in cellular composition and function. The evidence is strong of a role of adipokines in cancer, reproductive function, neurological diseases, cardiovascular diseases ,and rheumatoid arthritis. Adipokines are considered useful biomarkers for adipose tissue and metabolic health, and may be used as diagnostic tools in rheumatoid arthritis, cancer, or sepsis. This book contains 10 original articles and 9 review articles focusing on these bioactive peptides. Several articles deal with chemerin, an adipokine discovered more than 20 years ago. Data so far have resulted in promising insights related to its biological function. We are only beginning to understand the multiple roles of chemerin, the mechanisms regulating its activity, and the signaling pathways used by this chemokine. Adipokine receptor agonists and antagonists may result in the formulation of novel drugs and ultimately may lead to new therapeutic targets to be used in clinical practice.

Keywords

adipokines --- secreted frizzled-related protein 5 --- leptin --- ghrelin --- excessive gestational weight gain --- neonatal anthropometry --- obesity --- proteolysis --- Tango bioassay --- biologic activity --- chemerin receptors --- excessive gestational weight gain --- neonatal anthropometry --- leptin --- ghrelin --- Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease --- fatty liver --- free fatty acids --- label-free proteomic profiling --- adipokine --- obesity --- visceral fat --- sick fat --- annexins --- adipose tissue --- adiponectin --- cholesterol --- glucose homeostasis --- inflammation --- insulin --- lipid metabolism --- obesity --- triglycerides --- adipokine --- chemerin --- leukocyte --- cancer --- adipokines --- PCOS --- polycystic ovary morphology --- follicular fluid --- human granulosa cells --- chemerin --- chemerin receptors --- hypothalamus --- oestrous cycle --- early pregnancy --- pig --- alpha-fetoprotein --- liver steatosis --- hypertension --- adipokines --- SGBS adipocytes --- glucose restriction --- in vitro fat regain --- weight regain --- complement factors --- cathepsins --- extracellular remodeling --- adipokine --- rheumatic diseases --- inflammation --- osteoarthritis --- rheumatoid arthritis --- ovary --- testis --- adipose tissue --- polycystic ovary syndrome --- preeclempsia --- gestational diabetes --- testicular pathologies --- rheumatoid arthritis --- tocilizumab --- lipids --- adipokines --- adiponectin --- resistin --- leptin --- cancer --- obesity --- adipokine --- chemerin --- chemokine-like receptor 1 --- G protein-coupled receptor 1 --- C-C chemokine receptor-like 2 --- critical illness --- sepsis --- adipokines --- biomarker --- prognosis --- ICU --- adipokine --- adipose-brain axis --- brain health --- neurodegeneration --- depression --- energy metabolism --- inflammation --- hypothalamus --- microglia --- adiponectin --- adipokine --- myokine --- fitness --- metabolically healthy obese --- early-life programming --- epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) --- prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) --- EP3 receptor --- EP4 receptor --- exchange protein directly activated by cAMP isoform 2 (EPAC2) --- stimulating growth factor 2 (ST2) --- interleukin(IL)-33 --- Cardiovascular Diseases (CVDs) --- fat mass --- n/a

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