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Macrocognition: The Science and Engineering of Sociotechnical Work Systems

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454181 Year: Pages: 152 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-418-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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The increasing complexity of work systems and changes in the nature of workplace technology over the past century have resulted in an exponential shift in the nature of work activities, from physical labor to cognitive work. Modern work systems have many characteristics that make them cognitively complex: They can be highly interactive; comprised of multiple agents and artifacts; information may be limited and distributed across space and time; task goals are frequently ill-defined, conflicting, dynamic and emergent; planning may only be possible at general levels of abstraction or require adaptive solutions; some degree of proficiency or expertise is required; the stakes are often high; and uncertainty, time-constraints and stress are seldom absent. To complicate matters further, cognition in complex work settings is typically constrained by broader professional, organizational, and institutional practice and policy. These features of cognitive work present significant challenges to scientific methodology and theory, and subsequent design of reliable interventions. Historically, philosophers and scientists have attempted to understand the mental activities experienced during cognitive work at multiple levels of analysis using divergent methods. Some have examined cognition at an associative, contextual, functional or holistic level, relying on naturalistic methods to understand the higher mental processes as they work in harmony during goal-directed behavior. Others have embraced experimental methods and favored internal over external validity, often reducing cognition to a psychology of fundamental acts, such as short-term memory access with millisecond shifts in attention. More recently, Macrocognition has evolved as a complementary paradigm. Macrocognitive researchers have studied the cognitive functions and processes associated with skilled, adaptive, collaborative, and resilient cognitive work in the context of the aforementioned complexities of psychotechnical and sociotechnical work systems. Typically, this research has been carried out using cognitive task analytic techniques that draw on both naturalistic and (quasi-)experimental methods. The primary goals of research in Macrocognition are to better understand cognitive adaptations to complexity, to increase our theoretical understanding of the organism-environment relations by studying the mapping between cognitive work and real-world demands, and to promote use-inspired research capable of improving system performance.

Barton Myers

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ISBN: 9781950192151 9781950192168 Year: Pages: 126 DOI: 10.21983/P3.0249.1.00 Language: English
Publisher: punctum books
Subject: Architecture
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-03 11:21:05
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"Drawing on the vast archival resources of its Architecture and Design Collection, the UCSB Art, Design & Architecture Museum (University of California, Santa Barbara) presents an assessment of 50 years of design by Barton Myers (b. 1934), beginning with his work in the Toronto firm A.J. Diamond and Barton Myers (1967–1975) to his own offices in Toronto and Los Angeles, Barton Myers Associates (1975–present). Myers’s strongest architectural ideas come out of the planning strategies of his early neighborhood activism in 1970s Toronto, his grounding in history, and his training in the classical traditions of site and space planning. Barton Myers is an avowed urbanist—a self-described radical in his early advocacy of old-fashioned qualities like density, mixed-use of new and re-purposed materials, and contextual planning in the late 1960s when that fundamentally conservative position was considered counter-culture. Myers’ urban manifesto was codified in “Vacant Lottery,” the title of the Design Quarterly issue co-edited by Myers and Canadian architect and educator George Baird in 1978 and which led to a renewal of interest in urban planning and offered a strategy for increasing population densities within cities while preserving the existing residential fabric. The term lived on long past the journal’s circulation cycle as both an urban infill strategy and an acknowledgment of the ceding of city planning responsibility to the “lottery” of private developers. Myers’s design practice has thus always been a social justice practice as well. Myers is also a brilliant designer of residential houses that take advantage of local landscape contexts and adaptive reuse of building materials, including steel and glass. Five essays – on urban planning, civic structures, reuse of historic buildings, single- and multi-family housing, and theaters – reinforce Myers’s commitment to urbanism and reveal his flexibility with modes of modernism. Natalie Shivers introduces the early planning work in Toronto and traces the “vacant lottery” idea of neighborhood infill to the influential Grand Avenue project in Los Angeles. Howard Shubert examines the architectural and planning strategies, and political complexities, of several civic structures in Canada and the United States. Luis Hoyos explores Myers’s additions and adaptations to historic buildings in diverse urban contexts. Lauren Bricker focuses on the use of steel and other industrial materials in Myers’s houses and analyses the neighborhood-based designs of his multi-family housing. Charles Oakley describes the technical innovations, site planning, and historical underpinnings of Myers’s theaters and performance complexes."

Adaptive Steuerung eines mehrsegmentigen Inspektionsroboters

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ISBN: 9783866444683 Year: Pages: 222 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000015312 Language: GERMAN
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:59
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Mehrsegmentige Roboter können verschiedene Umgebungen befahren und inspizieren. In dieser Arbeit wird eine Steuerung entwickelt, die die selbständige Durchführung komplexer Bewegungen in unstrukturierten Umgebungen ermöglicht. Vorgaben eines menschlichen Operators und Zustandsinformationen des Roboters werden in einem Regelkreis verarbeitet. Drei Sensorsysteme erfassen diesen Zustand. Die Teilkomponenten und das Gesamtsystem werden auf den Zielsystemen MakroPlus und Kairo-II evaluiert.

Artificial Societies

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9780203993699 9781857283051 9781138963924 9781135367312 9781135367305 9781135367268 Year: DOI: 10.4324/9780203993699 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Sociology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-08 11:21:30
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An exploration of the implications of developments in artificial intelligence for social scientific research, which builds on the theoretical and methodological insights provided by "Simulating societies".; This book is intended for worldwide library market for social science subjects such as sociology, political science, geography, archaeology/anthropology, and significant appeal within computer science, particularly artificial intelligence. Also personal reference for researchers.

Robuste Schmalband-Powerline-Kommunikation für Niederspannungsverteilernetze

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Book Series: Forschungsberichte aus der Industriellen Informationstechnik / Institut für Industrielle Informationstechnik (IIIT), Karlsruher Institut für Technologie ISSN: 21906629 ISBN: 9783731505396 Year: Volume: 12 Pages: VIII, 125 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000055630 Language: GERMAN
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:58
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Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit werden die spezifischen Kanaleigenschaften verschiedener Niederspannungsverteilernetze zur Datenübertragung im Frequenzbereich bis 500 kHz untersucht und ausgewertet. Hierauf aufbauend werden robuste, adaptive Datenübertragungskonzepte vorgestellt und mit Hilfe der aufgezeichneten Kanaleigenschaften realer Netze validiert.

Adaptive Reuse

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ISBN: 9783447107075 Year: Pages: 373 Seiten DOI: 10.26530/oapen_623411 Language: English
Publisher: Harrassowitz Verlag Grant: Austrian Science Fund - PUB 403
Subject: Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2017-02-27 11:01:19
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The present volume explores a specific aspect of creativity in South Asian systems of knowledge, literature and rituals. Under the heading of “adaptive reuse,” it discusses the relationship between innovation and perpetuation of earlier forms and contents of knowledge and aesthetic expressions within the process of creating new works. Although this relation rarely became the topic of explicit reflections in the South Asian intellectual traditions, it is here investigated by taking a closer look at the treatment of older materials by later authors.

Designing Adaptive Virtual Worlds

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ISBN: 9783110367669 9783110399219 Year: Pages: 144 DOI: 10.2478/9783110367669 Language: English
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2014-11-17 10:10:40
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Designing adaptive virtual worlds takes the design of places for education, entertainment, online communities, business, and cultural activities in 3D virtual worlds to a new level. The place metaphor provides a rich source of styles and examples for designing in 3D virtual worlds. This book is one of the first design books in the field showing how those styles can be captured in a design grammar so that unique places can be created through computational agents responding to the changing needs of the people in the virtual world. Applying the techniques introduced in this book has immediate implications on the design of games and functional places in existing virtual world platforms such as Second Life, OpenSim and Active Worlds as well as future virtual worlds in which the boundaries between digital and physical environments blur.

Molecular Regulation and Therapeutic Potential of Thermogenic Fat Cells

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198696 Year: Pages: 127 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-869-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Internal medicine --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Obesity has emerged as a major threat to public health in both the western and developing world. Essentially a disorder of energy balance, obesity occurs when energy intake and storage exceeds expenditure. Much of energy homeostasis depends on the activity and function of adipose tissue. Adipocytes in mammals fall into two categories classified by their primary functions: white fat cells that mediate energy storage and thermogenic fat cells that counteract hypothermia and obesity through adaptive thermogenesis. Whereas white fat and its function as an energy reservoir and endocrine organ have been studied for decades and are relatively well understood, until recently many aspects of the thermogenic fat biology have remained elusive. Accumulating evidence supports the hypothesis that thermogenic fat cells arise from at least two different developmental origins: the ones of a skeletal muscle-like lineage are now called “classical” brown fat cells, and the rest of the thermogenic fat cells are normally referred to as the beige fat cells. The last decade has witnessed an explosion of interest and studies focusing on the regulation of thermogenic fat cells and potential therapeutics targeting these adipocytes. Here we summarize the recent advancements in our understanding of these metabolically active fat cells.

NLR-protein functions in immunity

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196210 Year: Pages: 220 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-621-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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The Nod-like receptor (NLR) family of proteins are evolutionary conserved molecules that in plants and mammals have been implicated in innate immune sensing of microbes and infection-associated physiological changes, contributing to immune protection of the challenged host organism through the instruction of inflammatory responses, antimicrobial defense and adaptive immunity. Recent data however suggests that the biological roles of NLR go beyond the function of classical pattern recognition molecules (PRM) as they have been implicated in essential cellular processes including autophagy, apoptosis, modification of signal transduction and gene transcription as well as reproductive biology. In this research topic, we aim to provide a comprehensive state-of the art overview of the emerging functions of NLR in plant and mammalian immunity, cell biology and reproductive biology. Potential topics may include, but are not limited to the following areas: • Functions of NLRs as PRMs in infection • Cross-talk of NLRs with other PRMs • Signal transduction pathways of NLRs • New functions of NLRs other than pattern recognition • Structural aspects of NLR activation • Mechanisms of NLRs in cell biological processes • Aspects of NLRs in reproductive biology • Functions of NLRs in plant immune responses

Keywords

Adaptive Immunity --- Bacteria --- virus --- pathogens --- Sensing --- DAMP --- MAMP --- PAMP --- innate immunity --- LRR

Neuropeptides and Behaviour: From Motivation to Psychopathology

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453078 Year: Pages: 146 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-307-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Internal medicine --- Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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The discovery of the involvement of neuropeptides with behaviours other than regulatory motivated ones took place in the midst of 1960’s with David de Wied’s first report on the influence of pituitary peptides on memory. This major scientific breakthrough opened a new frontier of studies in Endocrinology and its related fields, Neuroendocrinology and Psychoneuroendocrinology. Neuropeptides were initially thought to be involved in homeostatic regulation and secreted only from neurons located in the hypothalamus; they are now recognized neurotransmitters, produced in and secreted from distinct brain areas, associated with a myriad of, not only, motivated, but also psychopathological behaviours. Motivated behaviours are determinant for individual and species survival, but their expression in a large spectrum and deviations from average may give rise to a number of psychiatric conditions.

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