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Transcellular Cycles Underlying Neurotransmission

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196548 Year: Pages: 105 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-654-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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Synaptic transmission demands the operation of a highly specialized metabolic machinery involving the transfer of metabolites and neurotransmitters between neurons, astrocytes and microvessels. In the last years, important advances have occurred in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying cerebral activation, neuroglial coupling and the associated neurovascular response. Briefly, exacerbated oxygen consumption in stimulated neurons is thought to trigger glycolytic lactate and glucose transfer from astrocytes which, in turn, obtain these fuels from the microvasculature. Neurotransmitter release is made possible by a combination of transcellular cycles exchanging metabolites between these three compartments, returning eventually the synapsis to its pre-firing situation in the resting periods. In spite of the enormous progresses achieved in recent years, the drivers determining the predominant direction of the fluxes, their quantitative contribution and their energy requirements, have remained until today incompletely understood, more particularly under the circumstances prevailing in vivo. In many instances, progress derived from the implementation of novel methodological approaches including advanced neuroimaging and neurospectroscopy methods. As a consequence, literature in the field became vast, diverse and spread within journals of different specialities. The e-book "Transcellular cycles underlying neurotransmission" aims to summaryze in a single volume, recent progress achieved in hypothesis, methods and interpretations on the trafficking of metabolites between neurons and glial cells, and the associated mechanisms of neurovascular coupling.

Proceedings of the International School on Magnetic Resonance and Brain Function - XII Workshop

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455546 Year: Pages: 150 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-554-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology --- Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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In the last thirty years, Magnetic Resonance has generated a wide revolution in biomedical research and in medical imaging in general. More recently, the "in vivo" studies of the human brain were extended by new original ways to the dynamic study of function and metabolism of the human brain. The enormous interest in expanding the investigation of the brain is emphasizing the search for new NMR methods capable of extracting information of so-far obscure aspects of the brain function. In fact, many quantitative approaches have been proposed in order to complement the information obtained by functional MRI, and several multimodal and multiparametric approaches have been developed to exploit the information, either functional or structural, made available by the flexible contrast generation typical of MRI, and to combine it with complementary information. The XII workshop of the International School on Magnetic Resonanceand Brain Function, held in Erice between 17 April and 6 May, 2016, was specially devoted to novel approaches aimed at better structural characterization of brain diseases, and at investigating frontiers MRI approaches to better understand the brain function. The papers included in this eBook offer a broad overview of the subjects covered during the Workshop, including applications of multiparametric MRI to neurological diseases, multimodal combination of MRI with electrophysiology, advanced methods for the investigation of brain networks and of brain physiology, and perspectives towards brain state reading.

Preservation of Cultural Heritage and Resources Threatened by Climate Change

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ISBN: 9783039211241 / 9783039211258 Year: Pages: 186 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-125-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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With its wide spectrum of data, case studies, monitoring, and experimental and numerical simulation techniques, the multidisciplinary approach of material, environmental, and computer science applied to the conservation of cultural heritage offers several opportunities for the heritage science and conservation community to map and monitor state-of-the-art knowledge on natural and human-induced climate change impacts on cultural heritage—mainly constituted by the built environment—in Europe and Latin America. Geosciences’ Special Issue titled “Preservation of Cultural Heritage and Resources Threatened by Climate Change” was launched to take stock of the existing but still fragmentary knowledge on this challenge, and to enable the community to respond to the implementation of the Paris agreement. These 10 papers exploit a broad range of data derived from preventive conservation monitoring conducted indoors in museums, churches, historical buildings, or outdoors in archeological sites and city centers. Case studies presented in the papers focus on a well-assorted sample of decay phenomena occurring on heritage materials (e.g., surface recession and biomass accumulation on limestone, depositions of pollutant on marble, salt weathering on inorganic building materials, and weathering processes on mortars in many local- to regional-scale study areas in the Scandinavian Peninsula, the United Kingdom, Belgium, France, Italy, Greece, and Panama). Besides monitoring, the methodological approaches showcased include, but are not limited to, original material characterization, decay product characterization, and climate and numerical modelling on material components for assessing environmental impact and climate change effects.

Integrated Role of Nutrition and Physical Activity for Lifelong Health

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ISBN: 9783039212118 / 9783039212125 Year: Pages: 202 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-212-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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As computer and space technologies have been developed, geoscience information systems (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) technologies, which deal with the geospatial information, have been rapidly maturing. Moreover, over the last few decades, machine learning techniques including artificial neural network (ANN), deep learning, decision tree, and support vector machine (SVM) have been successfully applied to geospatial science and engineering research fields. The machine learning techniques have been widely applied to GIS and RS research fields and have recently produced valuable results in the areas of geoscience, environment, natural hazards, and natural resources. This book is a collection representing novel contributions detailing machine learning techniques as applied to geoscience information systems and remote sensing.

Keywords

aging --- chronic low-grade systemic inflammation --- physical activity --- nutrition --- physical performance --- chronic diseases --- adolescent --- free or reduced lunch --- National School Lunch Program --- Fitbit --- soccer --- low-income --- Latino --- added sugar --- sport nutrition --- sport --- older adults --- diet quality --- physical activity --- telemonitoring --- lifestyle intervention --- mechanisms of impact --- mediation analyses --- dietary restriction --- macronutrients --- physical exercise --- free radicals --- cytokines --- childhood memories --- sport spectators --- sport games --- sporting events --- music events --- food consumption --- out-of-home eating --- food healthiness --- immunity --- inflammation --- metabolism --- physical activity --- physical activity --- food intake --- adolescents --- movement skills --- fitness --- nutrition education --- health promotion --- behavioral intervention --- self-efficacy --- stunting --- overweight --- obesity --- physical activity --- dual burden of malnutrition --- compensatory eating --- exercise-induced anorexia --- food choice --- acute exercise --- behavioral economics --- nudges --- aging --- exercise --- diet --- telomerase --- TERRA --- telomere length --- senescence --- dietary intake --- physical activity --- body weight --- lifestyle change --- cardiometabolic health --- long-term follow-up --- vegetarian --- vegan --- half-marathon --- marathon --- running --- health conscious --- recreational athlete --- Protein --- oxidation --- anabolic competence --- breath test --- naturally enriched 13C-milk proteins --- endurance exercise --- skeletal muscle damage --- inflammation --- protein --- carbohydrates --- protein shake --- food --- n/a

Physiological Responses to Abiotic and Biotic Stress in Forest Trees

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ISBN: 9783039215140 / 9783039215157 Year: Pages: 294 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-515-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Environmental Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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As sessile organisms, plants have to cope with a multitude of natural and anthropogenic forms of stress in their environment. Due to their longevity, this is of particular significance for trees. As a consequence, trees develop an orchestra of resilience and resistance mechanisms to biotic and abiotic stresses in order to support their growth and development in a constantly changing atmospheric and pedospheric environment. The objective of this Special Issue of Forests is to summarize state-of-art knowledge and report the current progress on the processes that determine the resilience and resistance of trees from different zonobiomes as well as all forms of biotic and abiotic stress from the molecular to the whole tree level.

Keywords

drought --- mid-term --- non-structural carbohydrate --- soluble sugar --- starch --- Pinus massoniana --- salinity --- Carpinus betulus --- morphological indices --- gas exchange --- osmotic adjustment substances --- antioxidant enzyme activity --- ion relationships --- Populus simonii Carr. (poplar) --- intrinsic water-use efficiency --- tree rings --- basal area increment --- long-term drought --- hydrophilic polymers --- Stockosorb --- Luquasorb --- Konjac glucomannan --- photosynthesis --- ion relation --- Fagus sylvatica L. --- Abies alba Mill. --- N nutrition --- mixed stands --- pure stands --- soil N --- water relations --- 24-epiBL application --- salt stress --- ion contents --- chloroplast ultrastructure --- photosynthesis --- Robinia pseudoacacia L. --- elevation gradient --- forest type --- growth --- leaf properties --- Pinus koraiensis Sieb. et Zucc. --- Heterobasidion parviporum --- Heterobasidion annosum --- Norway spruce --- disturbance --- water availability --- pathogen --- infection --- Carpinus turczaninowii --- salinity treatments --- ecophysiology --- photosynthetic responses --- organic osmolytes --- ion homeostasis --- antioxidant enzymes --- glutaredoxin --- subcellular localization --- expression --- tapping panel dryness --- defense response --- rubber tree --- Ca2+ signal --- drought stress --- living cell --- Moso Bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) --- plasma membrane Ca2+ channels --- signal network --- Aleppo pine --- Greece --- photosynthesis --- water potential --- ?13C --- sap flow --- canopy conductance --- climate --- molecular cloning --- functional analysis --- TCP --- DELLA --- GA-signaling pathway --- Fraxinus mandshurica Rupr. --- wood formation --- abiotic stress --- nutrition --- gene regulation --- tree --- bamboo forest --- cold stress --- physiological response --- silicon fertilization --- plant tolerance --- reactive oxygen species --- antioxidant activity --- proline --- Populus euphratica --- salt stress --- salicylic acid --- malondialdehyde --- differentially expressed genes --- n/a

Tropical Forest Ecology and Management for the Anthropocene

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ISBN: 9783039219643 / 9783039219650 Year: Pages: 242 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-965-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-07 09:08:26
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This Special Issue looks forward as well as backward to best analyze the forest conservation challenges of the Caribbean. This is made possible by 75 years of research and applications by the United States Department of Agriculture, International Institute of Tropical Forestry (the Institute) of Puerto Rico. It transforms Holocene-based scientific paradigms of the tropics into Anthropocene applications and outlooks of wilderness, managed forests, and urban environments. This volume showcases how the focus of the Institute’s programs is evolving to support sustainable tropical forest conservation despite uncertain conditions. The manuscripts showcased here highlight the importance of shared stewardship and a long-term, hands-on approach to conservation, research programs, and novel organizations intended to meet contemporary conservation challenges. Policies relevant to the Anthropocene, as well as the use of experiments to anticipate future responses of tropical forests to global warming, are reexamined in these pages. Urban topics include how cities can co-produce new knowledge to spark sustainable and resilient transformations. Long-term results and research applications of topics such as soil biota, migratory birds, tropical vegetation, substrate chemistry, and the tropical carbon cycle are also described in the volume. Moreover, the question of how to best use land on a tropical island is addressed. This volume is intended to be of interest to all actors involved in long-term sustainable forest management and research in light of the historical lessons and future directions that may come out of a better understanding of tropical cities and forests in the Anthropocene epoch.

Keywords

Anthropocene --- Forest Service --- vision --- contemporary conservation --- biomass --- allometry --- volume expansion factors --- soil organic carbon --- tropical forest area --- forest inventory data --- novel forests --- tree plantations --- secondary forests --- mature forests --- dry tropical forests --- humid tropical forests --- tropical deforestation --- annual cycle --- carry over effects --- climate change --- Guánica --- Nearctic-Neotropical --- novel forests --- stoichiometry of leaf litter --- nitrogen fixing trees --- naturalized species --- C/N --- C/P --- and N/P ratios --- Puerto Rico --- Caribbean --- element concentration in leaf litter --- succession --- species dominance --- tropical forests --- invertebrates --- microbiota --- soil biota --- litter --- wood --- latitude --- elevation --- disturbance --- gradients --- tropical karst --- element concentration --- N/P ratios --- Ca/Al relationship --- ?13C --- ?15N --- knowledge co-production --- idiom of co-production --- knowledge infrastructures --- knowledge systems --- knowledge systems analysis --- cities --- land use governance --- Anthropocene --- disturbance --- hurricane --- succession --- long-term --- basal area --- species composition --- trees --- tropical --- Luquillo Experimental Forest --- Caribbean --- land use planning --- tropical agriculture --- tropical forests --- geospatial analyses --- n/a --- landscape conservation --- network governance --- strategic teams --- communications --- leadership --- adaptive management --- tropical forest --- Anthropocene --- U.S. Forest Service Planning Rule --- El Yunque National Forest --- Luquillo Experimental Forest --- introduced species --- leaf C and N densities --- novel forests --- photosynthetic nitrogen use-efficiency --- leaf mass per area --- Tropical Forestry Research --- Long-Term Ecological Research --- Tropical Forest Management --- Tropical Forest Conservation --- Luquillo Experimental Forest --- tropical --- experiments --- manipulations --- large-scale --- Puerto Rico --- Caribbean --- conservation --- American tropics --- long-term ecological research --- tropical forest management --- Anthropocene --- Puerto Rico

Advances in Food Analysis

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039217427 / 9783039217434 Year: Pages: 488 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-743-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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This Topical Collection of Molecules provides the most recent advancements and trends within the framework of food analysis, confirming the growing public, academic, and industrial interest in this field. The articles broach topics related to sample preparation, separation science, spectroscopic techniques, sensors and biosensors, as well as investigations dealing with the characterization of macronutrients, micronutrients, and other biomolecules. It offers the latest updates regarding alternative food sources (e.g., algae), functional foods, effects of processing, chiral or achiral bioactive compounds, contaminants, and every topic related to food science that is appealing to readers. Nowadays, the increasing awareness of the close relation among diet, health, and social development is stimulating demands for high levels of quality and safety in agro-food production, as well as new studies to fill gaps in the actual body of knowledge about food composition. For these reasons, modern research in food science and human nutrition is moving from classical methodologies to advanced instrumental platforms for comprehensive characterization. Nondestructive spectroscopic and imaging technologies are also proposed for food process monitoring and quality control in real time.

Keywords

cuprous oxide nanoparticles --- reduced graphene oxide --- modified electrode --- sunset yellow --- second-derivative linear sweep voltammetry --- clenbuterol --- systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment --- real-time quantitative PCR --- high-throughput sequencing technology --- aptamers --- gold nanoparticles biosensor --- carbamates --- multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) --- enhanced product ion (EPI) --- mass fragmentation --- confirmatory method --- pesticide residues --- Croatian wines --- biogenic amines --- HPLC --- geographical origin --- polyelectrolyte composite film --- nitrite detection --- differential pulse voltammetry --- cyclic voltammetry --- mycotoxin --- dimerization --- HRMS --- NMR --- fruit jams --- food security --- phenolic acids --- quercetin --- agro-biodiversity --- HPLC fingerprint --- Polygonatum cyrtonema --- saccharides --- oligosaccharides --- fructose --- HPLC–QTOF–MS/MS --- steaming --- essential oil --- extraction techniques --- hops extracts --- hydrodistillation --- Marynka strain --- microwave-assisted hydrodistillation --- anthocyanins --- bioactive compounds --- Box–Behnken design --- microwave-assisted extraction --- myrtle --- Myrtus communis --- phenolic compounds --- Chia seed oil --- polyunsaturated fatty acid --- antioxidant --- lipid-lowering effect --- collagen peptide --- HPLC fingerprint --- antioxidant --- anti-inflammatory --- spectrum-effect relationship --- amino acids --- carbohydrates --- acidity --- polarity --- molecular weight --- Tricholoma matsutake --- Pol gene --- qualitative and quantitative PCR --- DNA extraction --- ?-blockers --- metabolites --- milk powder --- Q-Orbitrap --- rosé wines --- white wines --- bottle aging --- flavor profile --- closures --- anthocyanins --- bioactive compounds --- Box–Behnken design --- ultrasound-assisted extraction --- myrtle --- Myrtus communis L. --- phenolic compounds --- food safety --- kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis) --- molecular identification --- phylogeny --- DNA barcode --- hard clams --- Meretrix lyrata --- lipid classes --- fatty acids --- phospholipids --- molecular species of phospholipid --- high resolution mass spectrometry --- impedimetric aptasensor --- screen-printed interface --- bifunctional polymer arms --- PAT detection --- apple juice --- chiral --- chiral stationary phases --- enantiomers --- food --- review --- Piper methysticum (kava) --- kavalactones --- flavokavains --- UHPLC-UV --- mass spectra --- isomerization --- single-laboratory validation --- quality control --- Lactarius deliciosus --- chemical composition --- antioxidant --- antihyperglycemic --- ?13C-IRMS --- fatty acids composition --- 1H-NMR --- walnut varieties --- poultry eggs --- thiamphenicol --- florfenicol --- florfenicol amine --- ASE --- UPLC-FLD --- Sojae semen praeparatum (SSP) --- fermentation --- conversion --- ultra-fast liquid chromatography (UFLC)–TripleTOF MS --- principal component analysis (PCA) --- microalgae --- Scenedesmus --- supercritical fluid extraction --- carotenoids --- fat-soluble vitamins --- antioxidants --- fruit juice --- blends --- adulteration --- 1H NMR --- PLS --- chemometrics --- natural mature honey --- immature honey --- chemometric analysis --- multi-physicochemical parameters --- food quality --- IMS --- food composition --- food process control --- food authentication --- food adulteration --- food safety --- antibiotics --- liquid chromatography mass spectrometry --- milk --- muscle --- validation

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