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Unconventional reservoirs are usually complex and highly heterogeneous, such as shale, coal, and tight sandstone reservoirs. The strong physical and chemical interactions between fluids and pore surfaces lead to the inapplicability of conventional approaches for characterizing fluid flow in these lowporosity and ultralowpermeability reservoir systems. Therefore, new theories and techniques are urgently needed to characterize petrophysical properties, fluid transport, and their relationships at multiple scales for improving production efficiency from unconventional reservoirs. This book presents fundamental innovations gathered from 21 recent works on novel applications of new techniques and theories in unconventional reservoirs, covering the fields of petrophysical characterization, hydraulic fracturing, fluid transport physics, enhanced oil recovery, and geothermal energy. Clearly, the research covered in this book is helpful to understand and master the latest techniques and theories for unconventional reservoirs, which have important practical significance for the economic and effective development of unconventional oil and gas resources.
fracturing fluid  rheology  chelating agent  viscosity  polymer  fluidsolid interaction  velocity profile  the average flow velocity  flow resistance  pore network model  shale gas  volume fracturing  finite volume method  production simulation  multiscale flow  multiscale fracture  shale gas reservoir  fractured well transient productivity  succession pseudosteady state (SPSS) method  complex fracture network  multiscale flow  analysis of influencing factors  tight sandstones  spontaneous imbibition  remaining oil distributions  imbibition front  imbibition recovery  NMR  slip length  large density ratio  contact angle  pseudopotential model  lattice Boltzmann method  microfracture  dissolved gas  experimental evaluation  reservoir depletion  recovery factor  tight oil  Lucaogou Formation  tight oil  pore structure  prediction by NMR logs  tight oil reservoir  SRVfractured horizontal well  multiporosity and multiscale  flow regimes  productivity contribution degree of multimedium  equilibrium permeability  nonequilibrium permeability  matrix–fracture interaction  effective stress  coal deformation  porous media  nonlinear flow  conformable derivative  fractal  hydraulic fracturing  tight reservoirs  fracture diversion  extended finite element method  fracture network  gas adsorption capacity  shale reservoirs  influential factors  integrated methods  sulfonate gemini surfactant  thickener  temperatureresistance  clean fracturing fluid  lowsalinity water flooding  clay mineral composition  enhanced oil recovery  wetting angle  pH of formation water  fractional diffusion  fractal geometry  analytical model  shale gas reservoir  carbonate reservoir  petrophysical characterization  pore types  pore structure  permeability  fractal dimension  reservoir classifications  deep circulation groundwater  groundwater flow  geothermal water  faults  isotopes  shale permeability  local effect  global effect  matrixfracture interactions  nanopore  pore structure  shale  tight sandstone  mudstone  nitrogen adsorption  fractal  enhanced geothermal system  wellplacement optimization  fracture continuum method  01 programming  unconventional reservoirs  petrophysical characterization  fluid transport physics
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Some of the most beautiful studies in Mathematics are related to Symmetry and Geometry. For this reason, we select here some contributions about such aspects and Discrete Geometry. As we know, Symmetry in a system means invariance of its elements under conditions of transformations. When we consider network structures, symmetry means invariance of adjacency of nodes under the permutations of node set. The graph isomorphism is an equivalence relation on the set of graphs. Therefore, it partitions the class of all graphs into equivalence classes. The underlying idea of isomorphism is that some objects have the same structure if we omit the individual character of their components. A set of graphs isomorphic to each other is denominated as an isomorphism class of graphs. The automorphism of a graph will be an isomorphism from G onto itself. The family of all automorphisms of a graph G is a permutation group.
strongly regular graph  automorphism group  orbit matrix  binary polyhedral group  icosahedron  dodecahedron  600cell  Electric multiple unit trains  highlevel maintenance planning  time window  0–1 programming model  particle swarm algorithm  fixed point  splitquaternion  quadratic polynomial  splitoctonion  neutrosophic set  neutrosophic rough set  pessimistic (optimistic) multigranulation neutrosophic approximation operators  complete lattice  rough set  matroid  operator  attribute reduction  graded rough sets  rough intuitionistic fuzzy sets  dominance relation  logical conjunction operation  logical disjunction operation  multigranulation  planar point set  convex polygon  disjoint holes  fuzzy logic  pseudoBCI algebra  quasimaximal element  KGunion  quasialternating BCKalgebra  quality function deployment  engineering characteristics  group decision making  2tuple  metro station  emergency routes  graph partitioning  graph clustering  invariant measures  partition comparison  finite automorphism groups  graph automorphisms  Fuzzy sets  ring  normed space  fuzzy normed ring  fuzzy normed ideal  fuzzy implication  quantum Balgebra  qfilter  quotient algebra  basic implication algebra  Detour–Harary index  maximum  unicyclic  bicyclic  cacti  threeway decisions  intuitionistic fuzzy sets  multigranulation rough intuitionistic fuzzy sets  granularity importance degree  complexity  Chebyshev polynomials  gear graph  pyramid graphs  edge detection  Laplacian operation  regularization  parameter selection  performance evaluation  aggregation operator  triangular norm  ?convex set  atombond connectivity index  geometric arithmetic index  line graph  generalized bridge molecular graph  graceful labeling  edge graceful labeling  edge even graceful labeling  polar grid graph  graph  good drawing  crossing number  join product  cyclic permutation  nonlinear  synchronized  linear discrete  chaotic system  algorithm  generalized permanental polynomial  coefficient  copermanental  isoperimetric number  random graph  intersection graph  social network  Abel–Grassmann’s groupoid (AGgroupoid)  Abel–Grassmann’s group (AGgroup)  involution AGgroup  commutative group  filter  graceful labeling  edge even graceful labeling  cylinder grid graph  selective maintenance  multistate system  human reliability  optimization  genetic algorithm  hypernearring  multitransformation  embedding  distance matrix (spectrum)  distance signlees Laplacian matrix (spectrum)  (generalized) distance matrix  spectral radius  transmission regular graph  graph  good drawing  crossing number  join product  cyclic permutation  cyclic associative groupoid (CAgroupoid)  cancellative  variant CAgroupoids  decomposition theorem  construction methods
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