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Scaling of Differential Equations

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Book Series: Simula SpringerBriefs on Computing ISBN: 9783319327259 9783319327266 Year: Pages: 138 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2017-01-24 17:59:55
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The book serves both as a reference for various scaled models with corresponding dimensionless numbers, and as a resource for learning the art of scaling. A special feature of the book is the emphasis on how to create software for scaled models, based on existing software for unscaled models.Scaling (or non-dimensionalization) is a mathematical technique that greatly simplifies the setting of input parameters in numerical simulations. Moreover, scaling enhances the understanding of how different physical processes interact in a differential equation model. Compared to the existing literature, where the topic of scaling is frequently encountered, but very often in only a brief and shallow setting, the present book gives much more thorough explanations of how to reason about finding the right scales. This process is highly problem dependent, and therefore the book features a lot of worked examples, from very simple ODEs to systems of PDEs, especially from fluid mechanics.The text is easily accessible and example-driven. The first part on ODEs fits even a lower undergraduate level, while the most advanced multiphysics fluid mechanics examples target the graduate level. The scientific literature is full of scaled models, but in most of the cases, the scales are just stated without thorough mathematical reasoning. This book explains how the scales are found mathematically.This book will be a valuable read for anyone doing numerical simulations based on ordinary or partial differential equations.

Natural Computing and Beyond

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Book Series: Proceedings in Information and Communications Technology ISSN: 18672914 ISBN: 9784431543930 9784431543947 Year: Volume: 6 Pages: 155 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Manufactures --- Transportation --- Computer Science --- Biotechnology
Added to DOAB on : 2013-09-04 12:15:49
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This book contains the joint proceedings of the Winter School of Hakodate (WSH) 2011 held in Hakodate, Japan, March 15–16, 2011, and the 6th International Workshop on Natural Computing (6th IWNC) held in Tokyo, Japan, March 28–30, 2012, organized by the Special Interest Group of Natural Computing (SIG-NAC), the Japanese Society for Artificial Intelligence (JSAI). This volume compiles refereed contributions to various aspects of natural computing, ranging from computing with slime mold, artificial chemistry, eco-physics, and synthetic biology, to computational aesthetics.

Managing the Complexity of Critical Infrastructures: A Modelling and Simulation Approach

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Studies in Systems, Decision and Control ISSN: 2198-4182 ISBN: 9783319510422 9783319510439 Year: Volume: 90 Pages: 299 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Business and Management --- General and Civil Engineering --- Materials --- Pharmacy and materia medica --- Manufactures --- Computer Science --- Biotechnology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-03-14 12:45:46
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This book summarizes work being pursued in the context of the CIPRNet (Critical Infrastructure Preparedness and Resilience Research Network) research project, co-funded by the European Union under the Seventh Framework Programme (FP7). The project is intended to provide concrete and on-going support to the Critical Infrastructure Protection (CIP) research communities, enhancing their preparedness for CI-related emergencies, while also providing expertise and technologies for other stakeholders to promote their understanding and mitigation of the consequences of CI disruptions, leading to enhanced resilience. The book collects the tutorial material developed by the authors for several courses on the modelling, simulation and analysis of CIs, representing extensive and integrated CIP expertise. It will help CI stakeholders, CI operators and civil protection authorities understand the complex system of CIs, and help them adapt to these changes and threats in order to be as prepared as possible for mitigating emergencies and crises affecting or arising from CIs.

Radiation-induced and oxidative DNA damages

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196609 Year: Pages: 93 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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DNA stores and passes the genetic information of almost all living organisms. Its molecular structure and their intramolecular interactions are particularly suitable to maximize stability against oxidative stress and UV-light absorption. Yet the protection and repair strategies are still error-prone: DNA lesions are produced, including the most complex and highly mutagenic ones. An important threat to DNA stability comes from photosensitization, i.e. from the dramatic multiplication of radiation-induced defects mediated by the presence of organic or organometallic dyes compared to the direct exposure to UVA radiation. Moreover, the photo-induced production of singlet oxygen generates an extremely high oxidative stress on DNA that, in vivo, normally results in extended cellular apoptosis. Elucidating the processes leading to DNA damages, from the production of a simple radical entity to deleterious lesions, as well as the opportunities of repair by devoted enzymes, is a cornerstone towards the development of more efficient protection strategies. Sensitization and selective production of DNA lesions can also be exploited to induce the selective apoptosis of cancer cells upon exposition to radiation or to oxidative stress, for instance in the field of photodynamic therapy. The importance and relevance of the field is witnessed by the impressive amount of high-level papers dealing with this complex subject, and notably tackling the structural elucidation of DNA and DNA-drug adducts, the mechanisms of formation of DNA lesions (including the precise detection of the final lesion products), as well as the influence of the lesions on the DNA stability and dynamics and the consequences on the ease of repair. Due to the complexity of the field lying at the frontiers between chemistry, physics and biology, multidisciplinary strategies allying modeling and experience are needed. This topic aims at giving an extended overview of the current research in the domain, with fundamental contribution from the leading groups in the field of DNA reactivity, structural characterization, photo-chemistry and photo-physics, as well as repair mechanism. It will therefore be a fundamental guide for scientists wanting to address the field of DNA lesion and repair, but also more generally for researchers working in rational drug design or in the development of biomarkers and medical imaging techniques.

Anti-fragile ICT Systems

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Book Series: Simula SpringerBriefs on Computing ISBN: 9783319300689 9783319300702 Year: Volume: 1 Pages: 151 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Grant: Simula Research Laboratory
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Electrical and Nuclear Engineering --- Computer Science --- Media and communication --- Transportation --- Manufactures
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-25 16:55:27
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This book introduces a novel approach to the design and operation of large ICT systems. It views the technical solutions and their stakeholders as complex adaptive systems and argues that traditional risk analyses cannot predict all future incidents with major impacts. To avoid unacceptable events, it is necessary to establish and operate anti-fragile ICT systems that limit the impact of all incidents, and which learn from small-impact incidents how to function increasingly well in changing environments.The book applies four design principles and one operational principle to achieve anti-fragility for different classes of incidents. It discusses how systems can achieve high availability, prevent malware epidemics, and detect anomalies. Analyses of Netflix’s media streaming solution, Norwegian telecom infrastructures, e-government platforms, and Numenta’s anomaly detection software show that cloud computing is essential to achieving anti-fragility for classes of events with negative impacts.

Piezoelectric MEMS

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038970057/9783038970064 Year: Pages: VIII, 168 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Electrical and Nuclear Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2018-07-10 12:55:10
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Electromechanical transducers based on piezoelectric layers and thin films are continuously finding their way into micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS). Piezoelectric transducers feature a linear voltage response, no snap-in behavior and can provide both attractive and repulsive forces. This removes inherent physical limitations present in the commonly used electrostatic transducer approach, while maintaining beneficial properties such as low-power operation. In order to exploit the full potential of piezoelectric MEMS, interdisciplinary research efforts range from investigations of advanced piezoelectric materials over the design of novel piezoelectric MEMS sensor and actuator devices, to the integration of PiezoMEMS devices into full low-power systems. In this Special Issue, the current status of this exciting research field will be presented, covering a wide range of topics including, but not limited to:• Experimental and theoretical research on piezoelectric materials such as AlN, ScAlN, ZnO or PZT, PVDF with a strong focus on the application of MEMS devices.• Deposition and synthesis techniques for piezoelectric materials enabling integration of those materials into MEMS fabrication processes.• Modelling and simulation of piezoelectric MEMS devices and systems.• Piezoelectric MEMS resonators for measuring physical quantities such as mass, acceleration, yaw rate, pressure and viscosity or density of liquids.• Optical MEMS devices, such as scanning micro mirror devices and optical switches, based on piezoelectric MEMS.• Acoustic devices, such as SAW, BAW or FBARs and acoustic transducers, based on piezoelectric MEMS, such as microphones or loudspeakers.• Piezoelectric energy harvesting devices.• Specific packaging aspects of piezoelectric devices and systems.• Low and zero power systems, featuring low-power sensors combined with energy harvesting devices, at least one of which is based on piezoelectric MEMS.

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