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River and Lake Ice Processes—Impacts of Freshwater Ice on Aquatic Ecosystems in a Changing Globe

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ISBN: 9783038973881 / 9783038973898 Year: Pages: 210 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-389-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-11 09:05:26
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Most freshwater aquatic ecosystems have focused on open-water conditions, during spring, summer, and autumn. Studies in winter during ice-covered conditions are sparse due to the logistic difficulties of sampling during freezing weather and the assumption that these ecosystems are biologically inactive during winter. There is growing evidence, however, that ice conditions can have strong impacts on the flora, fauna, and water quality of freshwater systems, dependent on the severity and duration of the winter season. The magnitude of winter conditions and the duration of the ice-covered period can also set the stage of the biological succession of flora, fauna and water-quality constituents in the subsequent spring and summer seasons (e.g., higher probability of early algal blooms with earlier ice-off dates). Climate change and changes in the type and degree of anthropogenic impacts will also influence the ice regime and hence the ecosystems of northern freshwater systems. This Special Issue provides a venue to report new findings in field-based and modelling research to highlight the importance of the ice regime and ice-induced hydraulic regime of rivers and lakes on their aquatic ecosystems.

Mountain, Water, Rock, God

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ISBN: 9780520970151 9780520298026 Year: Pages: 280 DOI: 10.1525/luminos.61 Language: English
Publisher: University of California Press
Subject: Environmental Sciences --- Religion --- History
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:33:11
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In Mountain, Water, Rock, God, Luke Whitmore situates the disastrous flooding that fell on the Hindu Himalayan shrine of Kedarnath in 2013 within its broader religious and ecological contexts. For centuries, the enmeshing of Shiva with the Himalayan environment has animated how Hindus conceptualize and experience Kedarnath. The floods publicly affirmed the fundamentally Himalayan and Shiva-oriented character of this place. At the same time, the floods made it clear that the patterns of commercialization, development, and regulation of recent decades in Uttarakhand, patterns that arose in response to new statehood and an influx of middle-class pilgrims and tourists, were starkly out of place. People connected to Kedarnath today therefore understand both the floods and the recent short-sighted development that multiplied the impact of the floods both as the natural consequence of human fault and as an indication of a growing disconnect with the Himalayan environment and its resident divine powers. Whitmore explores the longer story of this powerful realm of Shiva through a holistic theoretical perspective that integrates phenomenological and systems-based approaches to the study of religion, pilgrimage, place, and ecology by thinking about Kedarnath as a place that is experienced as an ecosocial system characterized by complexity. He argues that close attention to places of religious significance offers a portable theoretical model for thinking through connections between ritual, narrative, climate change, tourism, religion, development, and disaster, and shows how these critical components of human life in the twenty-first century intersect in the human experience of place. &#xD;

Keywords

place --- Kedarnath --- Shiva --- ecology --- development --- disaster --- complexity --- pilgrimage --- tourism --- Hindu --- phenomenology --- Himalaya

7 Urban ecosystem services and stakeholders (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9780815387213 9780815387213 9780815387220 9781351173643 Year: Pages: 20 Language: English
Publisher: Routledge
Subject: Geology --- Earth Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:26
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This chapter argues that the discussion of urban sustainability is in urgent need of&#xD;new understanding of how ecosystem services are generated in places where human&#xD;and non-human stakeholders interact within the urban landscape. More than half of&#xD;the world’s population currently lives in urban areas, and the rate of urbanisation is&#xD;estimated to increase rapidly in the next three decades ( United Nations, 2014 ). This&#xD;scale of urbanisation strains both urban and rural ecosystems, which are required&#xD;to provide nutrition, clean water, fresh air, recreational opportunities, wellbeing and&#xD;other life-supporting and life-enhancing opportunities to urban dwellers ( Chiesura&#xD;and de Groot, 2003 ; Fischer and Eastwood, 2016 ; Standish, Hobbs, and Miller, 2013 ).&#xD;Amidst such challenges as rapid urbanisation and abrupt climatic changes, ecosystem&#xD;services are needed to provide the material and non-material benefi ts required&#xD;to keep ever-growing cities liveable ( Alberti, 2016 ; Andersson et al., 2014 ; Finco and&#xD;Nijkamp, 2001 ; Rees and Wackernagel, 1996 ). However, the current understanding&#xD;of ecosystem services is inadequate, and the extant research has been criticised for&#xD;both its anthropocentric bias and its focus on instrumental and monetary valuations&#xD;of ecosystem services ( Pelenc and Ballet, 2015 ; Schröter et al., 2014 ). Moreover, the&#xD;lack of a detailed elaboration of the socio-ecological interface of ecosystem services&#xD;has resulted in the continued segregation of human and non-human processes in&#xD;ecosystem service generation ( Andersson, Barthel, and Ahrné, 2007 ; Fischer and&#xD;Eastwood, 2016 ; Maes et al., 2012 )

Commemorative Issue in Honor of Professor Emeritus Calvin H. Bartholomew in Anticipation of His 75th Birthday

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ISBN: 9783038975311 / 9783038975328 Year: Pages: 148 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-532-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemistry (General) --- Chemical Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-16 11:01:15
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This book recognizes the career of Professor Emeritus Calvin H. Bartholomew, who celebrated his 75th birthday in 2018, and his contributions to the science and engineering of heterogeneous catalysis, a field which improves daily life in countless, but often unrecognized ways. Dr. Bartholomew is an eminent researcher, an outstanding educator, mentor, and friend. The nine chapters comprising the book were written by former students, collaborators, colleagues, and respected peers. Chapters cover supported iron Fischer–-Tropsch catalysts, a spectroscopic study of iron-based water gas shift catalysts, nickel catalysts both for (dry) methane reforming with associated carbon deactivation and carbon dioxide methanation, a methanol steam reforming catalyst, cobalt oxide on niobia catalysts for environmental applications, palladium catalysts supported on titania for hydrogen peroxide synthesis, methane combustion catalyst stability, and chiral catalyst deactivation. In summary, this book covers much of the breadth and points to the depth of Professor Bartholomew’s illustrious career. We thank him for his kind example and honor him for his lasting contributions.

Advancements in Biomass Recalcitrance: The Use of Lignin for the Production of Fuels and Chemicals

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889457069 Year: Pages: 103 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-706-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Biotechnology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Lignocellulosic biomass has great potentials as an alternative feedstock for fuels and chemicals. For effective utilization of biomass, biomass recalcitrance, which is inherent resistance of plant cell walls to biological deconstruction, needs to be reduced. Among many factors in biomass, lignin is significantly related to biomass recalcitrance. Lignin, a complex aromatic polymer, is the largest non-carbohydrate component (15-40% dry weight) in most terrestrial plants. In nature, it provides a structural integrity, facilitates water and nutrient transport, and protects plants from microbial attack. From a different angle, lignin significantly contributes to biomass recalcitrance, so it is necessary to reduce and/or modify the lignin for effective conversion of biomass. Genetic modifications of the lignin biosynthetic pathway and lignin-targeting pretreatments have been developed to minimize the lignin-induced biomass recalcitrance. High carbon content of lignin also renders it an attractive feedstock for many applications. About 100,000 to 200,000 tons of lignin can be generated per year as a byproduct from cellulosic ethanol production, so valorization of these lignins could be one of keys for achieving economic biorefinery. However, investigations of lignin conversion have not been accomplished as the utilization of carbohydrates in biomass. Depolymerization of lignin is still challenging because of its broad distribution of bond strengths, recondensation of low-molecular species, and poor product selectivity. Diverse biological and thermochemical depolymerization methods have been investigated to overcome these barriers. In this Research Topic, recent advancements in biomass recalcitrance by effective utilization of lignin are introduced.

Acoustical Impact of Ships and Harbours: Airborne and Underwater N&V Pollution

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889457106 Year: Pages: 57 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-710-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Oceanography
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Noise and vibrations generated by ships affect a wide range of receivers: crew and passengers inside the vessel, inhabitants of the coastal areas and marine fauna outside it. Recent studies suggest that a large percentage of people living in urban areas close to harbors and a number of marine species, at different evolutionary levels (in particular mammals and cephalopods), suffer from ship N&V emissions in air and in water. The present degree of knowledge of the phenomena involved in the noise emissions inside and outside ships is quite different, as a result also of the time elapsed since the negative effects were realized and therefore studied. The development of the normative framework in the various areas reflects these differences, but there are expectations for improvements on all fronts that need to be supported by the scientific community presenting the latest research results in this particular field of acoustics.

Feature Papers for Celebrating the Fifth Anniversary of the Founding of Processes

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ISBN: 9783038975250 / 9783038975267 Year: Pages: 372 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-526-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemical Engineering --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-24 12:02:18
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Processes” is a commonly used term to describe engineered systems such as oil refineries, polymer production plants, and pharmaceutical manufacturing processes that serve a commercial and societal purpose. However, the term can also capture the underlying processes that drive the behavior of complex natural systems such as communities of different organisms in the environment and networked collections of neurons in the human brain. This book provides a representative overview of current challenges and recent advances in the broadly-defined “processes” field. Contributions from leading researchers in the field are conveniently ordered according to five applications domains: chemical systems, biological systems, materials processes, computational methods, and other related topics. The 19 contributions demonstrate the broad range of application domains within the process field, including fluid flow systems, fuel gases, chemical production, polymer manufacturing, food processing, protein synthesis and separation, pharmaceutical production, and water systems. This collection shows that “processes” remain a vibrant area of research, and continued advances in the field can be expected to have a positive impact on our economy, environment, and quality of life.

Selected Papers from SDEWES 2017: The 12th Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9783038973966 / 9783038973973 Year: Pages: 346 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-397-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Mechanical Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-02-04 12:23:05
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EU energy policy is more and more promoting a resilient, efficient and sustainable energy system. Several agreements have been signed in the last few months that set ambitious goals in terms of energy efficiency and emission reductions and to reduce the energy consumption in buildings. These actions are expected to fulfill the goals negotiated at the Paris Agreement in 2015. The successful development of this ambitious energy policy needs to be supported by scientific knowledge: a huge effort must be made in order to develop more efficient energy conversion technologies based both on renewables and fossil fuels. Similarly, researchers are also expected to work on the integration of conventional and novel systems, also taking into account the needs for the management of the novel energy systems in terms of energy storage and devices management. Therefore, a multi-disciplinary approach is required in order to achieve these goals. To ensure that the scientists belonging to the different disciplines are aware of the scientific progress in the other research areas, specific Conferences are periodically organized. One of the most popular conferences in this area is the Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems (SDEWES) Series Conference. The 12th Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems Conference was recently held in Dubrovnik, Croatia. The present Special Issue of Energies, specifically dedicated to the 12th SDEWES Conference, is focused on five main fields: energy policy and energy efficiency in smart energy systems, polygeneration and district heating, advanced combustion techniques and fuels, biomass and building efficiency.

Recreational Water Illnesses

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ISBN: 9783038975786 / 9783038975793 Year: Pages: 212 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-579-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Sciences --- Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-02-05 10:46:25
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The safety of recreational waters is affected by numerous variables such as the microbiological and chemical quality of water, the number and health conditions of the users, and the correct functioning of all technological installations used for water treatment. By evaluating the various health risks related to exposure to swimming pools, spas, and surface waters, this Special Issue seeks to address the proper management of waters used for recreational purposes, both in natural and built environments.This Issue contains 12 scientific papers. The first four, three of which are literature reviews, illustrate the epidemiological picture of infections related to recreational waters, by describing cases and outbreaks caused by both traditional and emerging microorganisms. The following four papers concern the microbiological monitoring of swimming pools, gardens, estuarine areas, and therapeutic spas. Two of these also analyse the distribution of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and the associated transmission risks. The relationship between microbial indicators and pathogens in recreational water is analysed by the following two papers, one of which is an experimental study on the survival of Salmonella and Escherichia coli in estuarine bank sediments and the other of which is an exhaustive literature review. The last two papers are focused on the development of risk control approaches, including the validation of questionnaire methods to quantify recreational water ingestion and the application of traditional and innovative technologies in water treatment.

Homogeneous Catalysis and Mechanisms in Water and Biphasic Media

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ISBN: 9783038975847 / 9783038975854 Year: Pages: 158 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-585-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemistry (General) --- Chemical Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-02-15 11:22:55
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In recent years, water phase chemistry and catalysis has witnessed a renewed interest, also in view of increasing environmental and economical concerns. Novel approaches, materials, and catalysts have been designed, for example, to convey the properties of known transition metal catalysts to their water-soluble analogs, reaching high activities and selectivities. This was possible thanks to new synthetic pathways to molecular catalysts, new mechanistic insights into the role of water as a non-innocent solvent, the use of theoretical methods and advanced engineering techniques, and the application of novel concepts for phase transfer agents in biphasic catalysis.The book contains three review articles and six research articles, addressing topics related to water phase chemistry and catalysis, ranging from the use of cyclodextrins as mass transfer agents in biphasic catalysis, to water-soluble catalyst design for targeted chemical transformation, to the application of ultrasonic monitoring of biocatalysis in water, covering aspects such as chemical synthesis, various aspects of catalysis, and engineering solutions. The range of topics addressed in this book will stimulate the reader’s interest and provide a valuable source of information for researchers in academia and industry.

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