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Biomass Chars: Elaboration, Characterization and Applications

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ISBN: 9783038426905 9783038426912 Year: Pages: 220 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-01-12 11:37:17
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Thermochemical conversion processes convert biomass into gaseous, liquid and solid products named, syngas, bio-oil and char, respectively. Syngas and bio-oil are considered as alternative biofuels to fossil fuels and wide investigations are implemented currently on their production, purification, modification, and applications. Biomass chars have receiving an increasing attention since they lead to carbon sequestration, reduction of the amount of carbon rejected into the atmosphere and represent an friendly carbon source for numerous applications. In particular, biomass chars could be an efficient materials for energy production, syngas production and upgrading, water and air pollutants removal, soil amendment, fuel cells and supercapacitors development, and gas storage. Improving the knowledge of biomass chars elaboration techniques such as pyrolysis, gasification and hydrothermal carbonization is essential to determine the optimal production strategies for their economic viability. Furthermore, the characterization of the physicochemical, textural, structural and surface chemistry properties of the derived chars guide the selection of the suitable recovery processes in order to maximize their utility and therefore the benefits for the environment as well as for industries and agriculture.

Rainwater Harvesting: Quantity, Quality, Economics and State Regulations_Book

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ISBN: 9783038427148 9783038427131 Year: Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-01-24 14:14:42
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Rainwater harvesting (RWH) is the most popular alternative water source in many urban, peri-urban, and rural areas. Although rainwater is fresh in nature, it gets polluted from atmospheric contaminants, roof catchments, and the RWH system itself. The research questions which are the most relevant to RWH system include the optimum rainwater tank size for a given location and set of users, water quality from a RWH system, financial viability of a RWH system, and state regulations on the use of water from a RWH system. You are invited to submit a technical paper to this Special Issue of Water on these aspects of a RWH system.

 Ocean Remote Sensing with Synthetic Aperture Radar

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783038427209 9783038427193 Year: Pages: 360 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Geography
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-08 13:19:39
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The ocean covers approximately 71% of the Earth’s surface, 90% of the biosphere and contains 97% of Earth’s water. The Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) can image the ocean surface in all weather conditions and day or night. SAR remote sensing on ocean and coastal monitoring has become a research hotspot in geoscience and remote sensing. This book—Progress in SAR Oceanography—provides an update of the current state of the science on ocean remote sensing with SAR. Overall, the book presents a variety of marine applications, such as, oceanic surface and internal waves, wind, bathymetry, oil spill, coastline and intertidal zone classification, ship and other man-made objects’ detection, as well as remotely sensed data assimilation. The book is aimed at a wide audience, ranging from graduate students, university teachers and working scientists to policy makers and managers. Efforts have been made to highlight general principles as well as the state-of-the-art technologies in the field of SAR Oceanography.

Sustainable Agriculture and Climate Change

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ISBN: 9783038427254 9783038427261 Year: Pages: 242 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Geography
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-16 09:48:07
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Sustainability covers environmental, social and economic dimensions, and requires a multi-disciplinary approach in order to examine, explore and critically engage with issues and advances in its related areas. As we are aware, climate change is a certainty and it affects many economic sectors, including agriculture, particularly production of crop and livestock enterprises. Vast regional differences in these impacts are expected for various parts of the world, culminating in changes in trade patterns, and perhaps eventually even threatening the food security in certain parts of the world. Agricultural sustainability may be especially threatened by climate extremes, such as heat waves, droughts, and floods. However, not all changes induced by climate change would be negative; some may even be positive. Undoubtedly, there would be winners and losers within a nation, as well as among countries. Achieving sustainability would require changes in the way we manage agriculture. Equally important in this discourse is to find solutions to achieve sustainability in the wake of climate change, one of the major threats to sustainability. This book is devoted to various aspect of sustainable agriculture and climate change and their interplay.

Water Soluble Polymers

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ISBN: 9783038426950 9783038426967 Year: Pages: 280 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-26 15:36:07
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This book on water soluble polymers (WSP) contains contributions that deal with this extremely popular area of scientific investigation in polymer science and engineering, both in academic and industrial environments. The book contents cover a wide variety of topics, starting from polymerization kinetics (emphasis on multicomponent systems), clarification of factor effects (for example, ionic strength, pH, monomer concentration, and how they influence important chain characteristics and properties), mathematical modelling, parameter estimation, and process design, and ending with applications (i.e., using the well characterized polymer molecules to deliver specific desirable properties for specific applications (hydrogels, cosmetics, drug release, flocculation, nanotechnology, enhanced oil recovery, polymer flooding, absorbents, crosslinking, and many others)). This book contains 17 very high quality contributions from author groups that span the globe and represent currently active researchers in the WSP area.

Salinity Tolerance in Plants: Mechanisms and Regulation of Ion Transport

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453696 Year: Pages: 243 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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Life presumably arose in the primeval oceans with similar or even greater salinity than the present ocean, so the ancient cells were designed to withstand salinity. However, the immediate ancestors of land plants most likely lived in fresh, or slightly brackish, water. The fresh/brackish water origins might explain why many land plants, including some cereals, can withstand moderate salinity, but only 1 – 2 % of all the higher plant species were able to re-discover their saline origins again and survive at increased salinities close to that of seawater. From a practical side, salinity is among the major threats to agriculture, having been one of the reasons for the demise of the ancient Mesopotamian Sumer civilisation and in the present time causing huge annual economic losses of over 10 billion USD. The effects of salinity on plants include osmotic stress, disruption of membrane ion transport, direct toxicity of high cytoplasmic concentrations of sodium and chloride on cellular processes and induced oxidative stress. Ion transport is the crucial starting point that determines salinity tolerance in plants. Transport via membranes is mediated mostly by the ion channels and transporters, which ensure selective passage of specific ions. The molecular and structural diversity of these ion channels and transporters is amazing. Obtaining the detailed descriptions of distinct ion channels and transporters present in halophytes, marine algae and salt-tolerant fungi and then progressing to the cellular and the whole organism mechanisms, is one of the logical ways to understand high salinity tolerance. Transfer of the genes from halophytes to agricultural crops is a means to increase salt tolerance of the crops. The theoretical scientific approaches involve protein chemistry, structure-function relations of membrane proteins, synthetic biology, systems biology and physiology of stress and ion homeostasis. At the time of compiling this e-book many aspects of ion transport under salinity stress are not yet well understood. The e-book has attracted researchers in ion transport and salinity tolerance. We have combined our efforts to achieve a wider, more detailed understanding of salt tolerance in plants mediated by ion transport, to understand present and future ways to modify and manipulate ion transport and salinity tolerance and also to find natural limits for the modifications.

Trace element supplementation as a management tool for anaerobic digester operation

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9781780409429 Year: Language: English
Publisher: IWA Publishing
Subject: Environmental Technology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-03-13 11:02:02
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" This guide is intended for use by industry stakeholders, decision-makers and digester operators in navigating the topic of trace element (TE) supplementation as a management tool for anaerobic digester operation.&#xD;The subject is the application of TE, and supplementation regimes in anaerobic waste-conversion biotechnologies, such as biogas digesters. TE is a term used to include a wide range of micronutrients essential for the microbial community underpinning AD. TE mostly includes elements from the metal groups (e.g. cobalt, nickel, zinc and tungsten) but also other elemental groups, such as metalloids (e.g. selenium). TE are dosed to anaerobic digesters to boost biological activity and to increase biogas production rates. Little is understood about the concentrations and dosing strategies best suited to sustained supplementation and stable performance in anaerobic biotechnologies.&#xD;A range of companies offer proprietary blends of trace elements for supplementation of anaerobic digesters. Very little joined-up information is available on the concentrations of individual TE best suited to improved digester performance. Moreover, typically no attention whatsoever is paid to the bioavailability of TE dosed to digesters i.e. despite high concentrations, TE may not be available for uptake by the microorganisms underpinning the digestion process.&#xD;Based on extensive engagement with a range of stakeholders throughout the course of the recent EU COST Action on ‘The ecological roles of trace metals in anaerobic biotechnologies’, and particularly on feedback from industrial partners, it is clear that such a guide is needed by industry stakeholders, decision-makers and operators of anaerobic digesters."

Photon-involving Purification of Water and Air

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ISBN: 9783038427001 9783038426998 Year: Pages: 324 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-03-16 13:30:04
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The broad field of photon-involving purification of water and air has given rise to numerous papers, typically dispersed across many journals. Consequently, from time to time, there is a need for a book providing information concerning the different facets of this field in a handy way. In fact, the present book includes both detailed reviews and suitable examples of most of the diverse aspects of the current research. It thus covers processes using sunlight or ultraviolet lamps, chemical oxidants and/or photosensitive semiconductors. The fundamentals, the mechanisms, the materials, and the modeling aspects are all considered throughout the book various sections. The contributions have been written by well-known authors forming an group that guarantees the quality and interest of the book.

Coastal Sea Levels, Impacts and Adaptation

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783038428473 9783038428480 Year: Pages: VI, 334 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-04-17 11:05:40
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Extreme sea levels can lead to hazardous events, such as coastal flooding, erosion, or salt water intrusion, with-wide ranging environmental, societal, and economic consequences. In combination with climate-driven sea-level rise, and, potentially, additional changes in storminess, dynamic wave contributions, and tidal dynamics, the adverse consequences of extreme oceanographic events are expected to escalate in many regions. Integrated coastal zone impact assessments can guide the decisions on the adaptive responses to these changes in the physical environment and for the socioeconomic development of the local communities.

Current State of Research on Pressurized Water Reactor Safety

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ISBN: 9782759821648 Year: Language: English
Publisher: EDP SCIENCES
Added to DOAB on : 2018-04-18 11:49:51
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For more than 40 years, IPSN then IRSN has conducted research and development on nuclear safety, specifically concerning pressurized water reactors, which are the reactor type used in France. This publication reports on the progress of this research and development in each area of study – loss-of-coolant accidents, core melt accidents, fires and external hazards, component aging, etc. –, the remaining uncertainties and, in some cases, new measures that should be developed to consolidate the safety of today’s reactors and also those of tomorrow. A chapter of this report is also devoted to research into human and organizational factors, and the human and social sciences more generally. All of the work is reviewed in the light of the safety issues raised by feedback from major accidents such as Chernobyl and Fukushima Daiichi, as well as the issues raised by assessments conducted, for example, as part of the ten-year reviews of safety at French nuclear reactors. Finally, through the subjects it discusses, this report illustrates the many partnerships and exchanges forged by IRSN with public, industrial and academic bodies both within Europe and internationally.

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