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Electronic Signatures in Law

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Book Series: OBserving Law ISBN: 9781911507017 Year: Pages: 476 DOI: 10.14296/1116.9781911507017 Language: eng
Publisher: University of London Press
Subject: Law
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-17 12:43:36
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This fourth edition of the well-established practitioner text sets out what constitutes an electronic signature, the form an electronic signature can take, and discusses the issues relating to evidence - illustrated by analysis of relevant case law and legislation from a wide range of common law and civil law jurisdictions. Stephen Mason is a leading authority on electronic signatures and electronic evidence, having advised global corporations and governments on these topics. He is also the editor of Electronic Evidence and International Electronic Evidence, and he founded the international open-source journal Digital Evidence and Electronic Signature Law Review in 2004. This book is also available online at http://ials.sas.ac.uk/digital/humanities-digital-library/observing-law-ials-open-book-service-law.

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jurisdiction --- intent --- case law --- scan --- digital --- data protection --- GDPR

Electronic Evidence

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Book Series: OBserving Law ISBN: 9781911507079 Year: Pages: 422 DOI: 10.14296/517.9781911507079 Language: eng
Publisher: University of London Press
Subject: Law
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-17 12:43:36
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In this updated edition of the well-established practitioner text, Stephen Mason and Daniel Seng have brought together a team of experts in the field to provide an exhaustive treatment of electronic evidence. This fourth edition continues to follow the tradition in English evidence text books by basing the text on the law of England and Wales, with appropriate citations of relevant case law and legislation from other jurisdictions. Stephen Mason (of the Middle Temple, Barrister) is a leading authority on electronic evidence and electronic signatures, having advised global corporations and governments on these topics. He is also the author of Electronic Signatures in Law and editor of International Electronic Evidence, founding the innovative international open access journal Digital Evidence and Electronic Signatures Law Review in 2004. Stephen is an IALS Associate Research Fellow and Visiting Lecturer at the School of Law, University of Tartu, Estonia. Daniel Seng (Associate Professor, National University of Singapore) teaches and researches on information technology law, infocommunications law, evidence and procedure, artificial intelligence, machine learning and legal reasoning. His research interests also include empirical legal studies and quantitative research and data analytics on big data sets. Between 2001 and 2003, he was concurrently the Director of Research, Technology Law Development Group at the Singapore Academy of Law. Daniel is also a special consultant to the World Intellectual Property Organization, where he has researched, delivered papers and published monographs on copyright exceptions for academic institutions, music copyright in the Asia Pacific and the liability of Internet intermediaries. He is also a non-residential fellow with the Centre for Legal Informatics (CodeX), Stanford University. This book is also available online at http://ials.sas.ac.uk/digital/humanities-digital-library/observing-law-ials-open-book-service-law.

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Genetics and epigenetics of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195732 Year: Pages: 114 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-573-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Biology --- Science (General) --- Genetics
Added to DOAB on : 2016-02-05 17:24:33
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Women drinking during pregnancy can result in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD), which may feature variable neurodevelopmental deficits, facial dysmorphology, growth retardation, and learning disabilities. Research suggests the human brain is precisely formed through an intrinsic, genetic-cellular expression that is carefully orchestrated by an epigenetic program. This program can be influenced by environmental inputs such as alcohol. Current research suggests the genetic and epigenetic elements of FASD are heavily intertwined and highly dependent on one another. As such, now is the time for investigators to combine genetic, genomic and epigenetic components of alcohol research into a centralized, accessible platform for discussion. Genetic analyses inform gene sets which may be vulnerable to alcohol exposure during early neurulation. Prenatal alcohol exposure indeed alters expression of gene subsets, including genes involved in neural specification, hematopoiesis, methylation, chromatin remodeling, histone variants, eye and heart development. Recently, quantitative genomic mapping has revealed loci (QTLs) that mediate alcohol-induced phenotypes identified between two alcohol-drinking mouse strains. One question to consider is (besides the role of dose and stage of alcohol exposure) why only 5% of drinking women deliver newborns diagnosed with FAS (Fetal Alcohol Syndrome)? Studies are ongoing to answer this question by characterizing genome-wide expression, allele-specific expression (ASE), gene polymorphisms (SNPs) and maternal genetic factors that influence alcohol vulnerability. Alcohol exposure during pregnancy, which can lead to FASD, has been used as a model to resolve the epigenetic pathway between environment and phenotype. Epigenetic mechanisms modify genetic outputs through alteration of 3D chromatin structure and accessibility of transcriptional machinery. Several laboratories have reported altered epigenetics, including DNA methylation and histone modification, in multiple models of FASD. During development DNA methylation is dynamic yet orchestrated in a precise spatiotemporal manner during neurulation and coincidental with neural differentiation. Alcohol can directly influence epigenetics through alterations of the methionine pathway and subsequent DNA or histone methylation/acetylation. Alcohol also alters noncoding RNA including miRNA and transposable elements (TEs). Evidence suggests that miRNA expression may mediate ethanol teratology, and TEs may be affected by alcohol through the alteration of DNA methylation at its regulatory region. In this manner, the epigenetic and genetic components of FASD are revealing themselves to be mechanistically intertwined. Can alcohol-induced epigenomic alterations be passed across generations? Early epidemiological studies have revealed infants with FASD-like features in the absence of maternal alcohol, where the fathers were alcoholics. Novel mechanisms for alcohol-induced phenotypes include altered sperm DNA methylation, hypomethylated paternal allele and heritable epimutations. These studies predict the heritability of alcohol-induced epigenetic abnormalities and gene functionality across generations. We opened a forum to researchers and investigators the field of FASD to discuss their insights, hypotheses, fresh data, past research, and future research themes embedded in this rising field of the genetics and epigenetics of FASD. This eBook is a product of the collective sharing and debate among researchers who have contributed or reviewed each subject.

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