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H6 Biology and Ecology of the Globally Significant Kelp Ecklonia radiata (Book chapter)

Book title: Oceanography and Marine Biology

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Oceanography and Marine Biology : An Annual Review ISBN: 9780367134150 9780429026379 Year: Pages: 62 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-09-14 11:21:15
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Abstract

Ecklonia radiata is one of the most widespread kelps globally, dominating temperate reefs throughout much of Australasia and southeastern Africa. Throughout much of its range, it is the only laminarian kelp and hence plays a key role in facilitating biodiversity and driving food webs, and it underpins immense ecological and socioeconomic values. This review synthesises the growing literature on E. radiata from its phylogeny and distribution through to its biology, ecology and recent changes. It provides an assessment of the state of knowledge and identifies gaps in our understanding of this important species. Despite being tolerant of a wide range of abiotic conditions, recent environmental change has caused direct and indirect loss of E. radiata forests, with extensive areas transitioning to turf and urchin barrens. Ongoing climate change may require application of multifaceted and novel strategies to increase its resistance and resilience to future conditions. By integrating variation across space, time and environmental change, this review provides a description of the current status and possible future trajectories of E. radiata forests.

Keywords

biology --- ecology --- kelp

H4 Design Options, Implementation Issues and Evaluating Success of Ecologically Engineered Shorelines (Book chapter)

Book title: Oceanography and Marine Biology

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Oceanography and Marine Biology : An Annual Review ISBN: 9780367134150 9780429026379 Year: Pages: 62 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Geology --- Earth Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-09-14 11:21:15
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Human population growth and accelerating coastal development have been the drivers for unprecedented construction of artificial structures along shorelines globally. Construction has been recently amplified by societal responses to reduce flood and erosion risks from rising sea levels and more extreme storms resulting from climate change. Such structures, leading to highly modified shorelines, deliver societal benefits, but they also create significant socioeconomic and environmental challenges. The planning, design and deployment of these coastal structures should aim to provide multiple goals through the application of ecoengineering to shoreline development. Such developments should be designed and built with the overarching objective of reducing negative impacts on nature, using hard, soft and hybrid ecological engineering approaches. The design of ecologically sensitive shorelines should be context-dependent and combine engineering, environmental and socioeconomic considerations. The costs and benefits of ecoengineered shoreline design options should be considered across all three of these disciplinary domains when setting objectives, informing plans for their subsequent maintenance and management and ultimately monitoring and evaluating their success. To date, successful ecoengineered shoreline projects have engaged with multiple stakeholders (e.g. architects, engineers, ecologists, coastal/port managers and the general public) during their conception and construction, but few have evaluated engineering, ecological and socioeconomic outcomes in a comprehensive manner. Increasing global awareness of climate change impacts (increased frequency or magnitude of extreme weather events and sea level rise), coupled with future predictions for coastal development (due to population growth leading to urban development and renewal, land reclamation and establishment of renewable energy infrastructure in the sea) will increase the demand for adaptive techniques to protect coastlines. In this review, we present an overview of current ecoengineered shoreline design options, the drivers and constraints that influence implementation and factors to consider when evaluating the success of such ecologically engineered shorelines.

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2019 (2)