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Human Skin Cancer, Potential Biomarkers and Therapeutic Targets

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ISBN: 9789535127109 9789535127116 Year: Pages: 150 DOI: 10.5772/61922 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Oncology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:49

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Skin cancers, basal and squamous cell carcinomas, malignant melanomas, and Merkel cell carcinomas, constitute arguably the most common and increasingly prevalent human neoplasms. Here we discuss the epigenetic changes in DNA and chromatin, which are increasingly associated with melanoma. Several chapters focus on the posttranscriptional modification of the proteins at the melanocyte cell surface, their role in tumorigenesis, and their potential as therapeutic targets. Specifically, extracellular modifications of integrins, glycosylation of cell surface proteins, and changes of cadherins are presented. In a very interesting approach, a potential to target the mitochondria of melanoma cells is investigated. In conclusion, this volume presents various aspects of human skin cancers, components of the large worldwide effort to combat and eradicate this growing health concern.

Melanin

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ISBN: 9789535129790 9789535129806 Year: Pages: 114 DOI: 10.5772/63257 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:49

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The word melanin refers to dark natural pigments produced by the oxidative degradation of tyrosine, catalyzed by tyrosinase, and polymerized into insoluble granular substance. The main function of melanin is to protect from harmful agents, primarily UV radiation, but also from oxidation, heavy metals, etc. In this volume, chapters deal with production of melanin in human oral mucosa (Liviu et al.), the regulation of melanin action (Cecile et al.), production and potential technological application of fungal melanins (Pombiero-Sponchiado et al.) and an innovative method for measuring melanin in various samples (Zdybel et al.). In conclusion, this volume presents various biological and industrial aspects of melanin production, uses and analysis.

Human Skin Cancers - Pathways, Mechanisms, Targets and Treatments

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ISBN: 9781789230949 9781789230956 Year: Pages: 212 DOI: 10.5772/68061 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Oncology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:51

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Human skin cancers, the most common type of tumors, represent a significant health burden. The deadliest is unquestionably melanoma. Half of melanomas have an activating mutation in the BRAF gene, prompting development of novel drugs, vemurafenib and dabrafenib, specifically targeting mutated BRAF. Trametinib and cobimetinib, which block MEK, a BRAF effector protein, have been used in combination with BRAF inhibitors. A promising new melanoma treatment is immunotherapy, approach that boosts patient's own immune system to attack cancer. Pembrolizumab and nivolumab inhibit PD-1, whereas Ipilimumab targets CTLA-4, another immunity check point, to boost the immune response. Here we focus on pathways, mechanisms, targets and treatments of human skin cancers, with particular emphasis on the new developments in the research on melanomas.

Keratin

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Book Series: Biochemistry ISSN: 26320983 ISBN: 9781789848045 9781789848052 Year: Volume: 2 Pages: 180 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.73230 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Cytology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:52

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Keratin is the proteinaceous body covering layer produced by mammals, birds, fish, reptiles, and amphibians. Hair and wool, horns, claws, hooves, feathers, and scales are made of keratin. Keratin is insoluble in water and is resistant to proteolysis. Importantly, keratin is also the intracellular structural protein that protects living epithelial cells from mechanical damage or stress. The fundamental keratin functions are revealed in congenital human skin diseases caused by mutations in keratin genes, e.g., Epidermolysis bullosa simplex or Epidermolytic hyperkeratosis. Most keratin gene mutations have a dominant-negative effect disrupting the filamentous structure formation even from the natural allele, and leaving the cell with a deficient cytoskeleton. However, industrial scale meat production results in vast quantities of keratin byproduct. Processing this byproduct is, on the one hand a major challenge, and on the other hand, a potential for useful recycling and exploitation.

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