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Green Chemistry

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ISBN: 9789535138471 9789535138488 9789535140252 Year: Pages: 190 DOI: 10.5772/68007 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Organic Chemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:51

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To an increasing extent, ""green chemistry"" is a new chemical and engineering approach of chemistry and engineering, dedicated to make manufacturing processes and our world as a whole more sustainable world with a growing tendency. ""Green chemistry"" approaches are based on ecofriendly technologies, aiming to reduce or eliminate the use of solvents, or render them efficient and safer. Moreover, this scientific field is devoted to reduction or elimination of prevailing environmental and health threats, which typically accompany chemical products and traditional processes. The present book ""Green Chemistry"" contains 9 selected chapters, starting with a general introductory chapter on ""green chemistry,"" and covers many recent applications and developments based on the principles of ""green chemistry."" This book is considered the appropriate way to communicate the advances in green materials and their applications to the scientific community. Chemists, scientists and researchers from related areas, and undergraduates involved in environmental issues and interested in approaches to improve the quality of life could find an inspiring and effective guide by reading this book.

Characterizations of Some Composite Materials

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ISBN: 9781789849110 9781789849127 Year: Pages: 164 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.73357 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Materials
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:52

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Composite materials are materials made from two or more constituents with significantly different physical or chemical properties; when combined, a new material with characteristics different from the individual components is produced, while the individual components remain separate and distinct within the finished structure. The new composite material often displays many beneficial characteristics; in many cases, composites are stronger, of lower density, or less costly in comparison to established materials. Based on the classification of composites, we are already familiar with the fact that there exists a myriad of different types of these materials. It is a common saying that different types of composites differ in their performance. Yet, composites also have some characteristics in common. The proper material choice for an envisaged application is of outstanding importance and key in the development of a new product. Selecting the most suitable material determines the performance and characterization of the final product whether it will meet the designated function and performance requirements. The present book ""Characterizations of some composite materials"" contains eight selected chapters, starting with a general introductory chapter on composite materials, and covers different aspects in characterizing some composite materials. In this context, the present book is considered an appropriate way to communicate the advances in characterization of some composite materials to the scientific community. Chemists, scientists, and researchers from related areas, and undergraduates involved in materials issues and interested in approaches to improve the quality of life, as well as people from industry could find this book to be an inspiring and effective guide.

Heavy Metals

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9781789233605 9781789233612 Year: Pages: 412 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.71185 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Environmental Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:51

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Fundamental societal changes resulted from the necessity of people to get organized in mining, transporting, processing, and circulating the heavy metals and their follow-up products, which in consequence resulted in a differentiation of society into diversified professions and even societal strata. Heavy metals are highly demanded technological materials, which drive welfare and progress of the human society, and often play essential metabolic roles. However, their eminent toxicity challenges the field of chemistry, physics, engineering, cleaner production, electronics, metabolomics, botany, biotechnology, and microbiology in an interdisciplinary and cross-sectorial manner. Today, all these scientific disciplines are called to dedicate their efforts in a synergistic way to avoid exposure of heavy metals into the eco- and biosphere, to reliably monitor and quantify heavy metal contamination, and to foster the development of novel strategies to remediate damage caused by heavy metals.

Trace Elements - Human Health and Environment

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ISBN: 9781789236705 9781789236712 Year: Pages: 186 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.72339 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:52

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Over the last few years, we have witnessed increasing efforts dedicated to the scientific investigation and characteristics of trace elements. Especially in the field of human and animal nutrition, trace elements display a considerably attractive issue for research because they play an essential role in the nutrition of both animals and humans. Aquatic environments contaminated with trace elements are an emerging research area due to the toxicity, abundance, and environmental persistence of trace elements. Accumulation of heavy metals as a class of trace elements in various environments, and the subsequent transition of these elements into the food and feed chain, severely affects human health. The determination of type and concentration of trace elements is regarded as the first and most important step to follow the mechanisms controlling the dispersal and accumulation of trace elements. Element speciation in different media (water, soil, food, plants, coal, biological matter, food, and fodder) is pivotal to assess an element's toxicity, bioavailability, environmental mobility, and biogeochemical performance. Recently, new analytical techniques have been developed, which greatly simplified the quantitation of many trace elements and considerably extended their detection range. In this context, the development of reproducible and accurate techniques for trace element analysis in different media using spectroscopic instrumentation is continuously updated.

Principles and Applications in Nuclear Engineering - Radiation Effects, Thermal Hydraulics, Radionuclide Migration in the Environment

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9781789236163 9781789236170 Year: Pages: 172 DOI: 10.5772/65990 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:52

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Nuclear engineering could be viewed as the engineering field that ensures optimum and sustainable technological applications of natural and induced radioactive materials in different industrial sectors. This book presents some advanced applications in radiation effects, thermal hydraulics, and radionuclide migration in the environment. These scientific contributions from esteemed experts introduce some nuclear safety principals, current knowledge about radiation types, sources and applications, thermal properties of heat transfer media, and the role of sorption in retarding radionuclide migration in the environment. This book also covers the advances in identifying radiation effects in dense gas-metal systems, application of dense granular materials as high power targets in accelerator driven systems and irradiation facilities, evaluation of boiling heat transfer in narrow channels, and application of fluorescence quenching techniques to monitor uranium migration.

Cement Based Materials

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9781789841534 9781789841541 Year: Pages: 274 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.71134 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Materials
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:52

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Cement-based materials have been used by humans nearly since the dawn of civilization. The Egyptians used lime and gypsum cement to bind their aggregate materials, mud and straw, resulting in bricks that are used for building their famous Egyptian pyramids (between 3000 and 2500 BC). Hydrated cement is a cement material bonded together with water and used for building construction; it is characterized by acceptable chemical, physical, thermal, mechanical, and structural stability. It plays a main role in the creation of vessels for storage, roads to travel on, weather-resistant structure for protection, inert hard stabilizer for hazardous wastes, and so on. Due to the composition of these materials and their advantages, it has been practiced in different applications. Cement is an essential component of making concrete, the single most prevalent building material used worldwide for construction, skyscrapers, highways, tunnels, bridges, hydraulic dams, and railway ties. Besides their numerous desired properties, there are some undesirable features. To overcome these disadvantages, several studies were established to prepare, improve, and evaluate innovative cement-based materials. Despite its oldness and deep research, every year several methods and materials evolve and so do cement technology. This book intends to provide a comprehensive overview on recent advances in the evaluation of these materials.

Management of Hazardous Wastes

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9789535126164 9789535126171 9789535141693 Year: Pages: 186 DOI: 10.5772/61668 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Environmental Technology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 09:47:10

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Rapid trend of industry and high technological progress are the main sources of the accumulation of hazardous wastes. Recently, nuclear applications have been rapidly developed, and several nuclear power plants have been started to work throughout the world. The potential impact of released hazardous contaminants into the environment has received growing attention due to its serious problems to the biological systems. The book Management of Hazardous Wastes contains eight chapters covering two main topics of hazardous waste management and microbial bioremediation. This book will be useful to many scientists, researchers, and students in the scope of development in waste management program including sources of hazardous waste, government policies on waste generation, and treatment with particular emphasis on bioremediation technology.

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