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When (and How) Is Theory of Mind Useful? Evidence from Life-Span Research

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451012 Year: Pages: 182 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-101-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Theory of Mind (ToM) or mentalization is the ability to understand and foresee the behavior referring to one’s own and others’ mental states (Premack & Woodruff, 1978; Wimmer & Perner, 1983). This capacity, which is considered the most representative mechanism of social cognition, is a multifaceted set of competences liable to influence – and be influenced by – a manifold of psychosocial aspects. Studies on typical and atypical/clinical development during life showed that ToM is frequently delayed (e.g. in deafness) or impaired in many clinical conditions (e.g. Autism Spectrum Disorder, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Schizophrenia, Borderline Personality Disorder, Parkinson’s Disease, Alzheimer’s Disease) and, on the other hand, may not be unequivocally a positive experience. It is therefore possible to consider the existence of multiple kinds of Theory of Mind. In fact, ToM may vary along a quantitative and a qualitative continuum. As for the quantitative dimension, the continuum is constituted by the fluctuation between high and low levels of ToM ability in different clinical conditions. Along this continuum, impairment can mean “not enough” ToM (for example in Autism Spectrum Disorder) as well as “too much” ToM (for example in Schizophrenia and Borderline Personality Disorder). The qualitative dimension – highly interrelated with the quantitative one - regards the shift between adaptive (e.g. prosocial, nice ToM) vs. unadaptive (e.g. antisocial, nasty ToM) mental states content. The issue is discussed in light of recent evidence from outstanding researchers working on typical and atypical/clinical populations along the life-span. Findings from the fields of psychology, neuropsychology and neuroscience enrich the research topic argumentation.

Keywords

Theory of Mind --- typical --- clinical --- neural --- life-span

Application of Antigen Cross-Presentation Research into Patient Care

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451913 Year: Pages: 124 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-191-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Allergy and Immunology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-13 14:57:01
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The activation of adaptive immune responses requires the processing and presentation of protein antigens to lymphocytes. Especially dendritic cells are effective at display of antigen-derived peptides in the form of immunogenic peptide/MHC complexes to CD4 and CD8-positive T cells, and can stimulate even naive T cells to clonally expand. During the last 40 years, mechanisms that facilitate antigen processing and presentation were clarified, mostly from work in cell lines and mouse models. From mouse-based work, it is now clear that dendritic cells represent a collection of specialized cell subsets that are particularly well endowed to stimulate antigen transport to distinct tissue locations, to transfer antigens between cellular subsets or to trigger T cell responses. Dendritic cell subsets hold great promise for therapeutic application, for example as dendritic cell-based vaccines to bolster immune responses against viruses or malignant growths. Hurdles remain that preclude the efficient application of high quality pre-clinical research into standardized patient care. In this research topic, efforts in dendritic cell research and dendritic cell-based vaccines are discussed, from both pre-clinical and application points of view.

Mycoplasma pneumoniae Clinical Manifestations, Microbiology, and Immunology

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453627 Year: Pages: 175 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-362-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp) is a major human pathogen that causes both upper and lower respiratory infections, and is one of the leading causes of community acquired pneumonia (CAP), accounting for 11–15% of CAP throughout the world. Additionally it is known to induce an inflammatory process which depends on several mechanisms such as virulence of Mp (lipoproteins, community acquired respiratory distress syndrome (CARDS) toxin, oxidative products) and host defenses (cellular immunity and humoral immunity). Although it is a common pathogen, the pathogenesis for Mp infections is not yet fully understood. From the clinical point of view, since the pioneer studies in the 1960s and 1970s on the clinical presentation of Mp associated disease, the diagnostics approaches have changed dramatically leading to a better understanding of the clinical presentation and new issues have emerged - such as antibiotics resistance. The purpose of this Frontiers ebook is to thoroughly review and discuss the clinical presentation in view of the improved diagnostics, microbiological and immunological analysis of Mp infections, with focus on the history of Mp, clinical features of disease, bacterial structure of Mp and mechanism of gliding, clinical and laboratory diagnostics, the role of lipoproteins and Toll-like receptor, CARDS toxin, subtyping of Mp isolates and genome analysis, macrolide resistance and treatment.

Clinical Encounters in Sexuality: Psychoanalytic Practice and Queer Theory

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ISBN: 9780998531854 Year: Pages: 494 DOI: 10.21983/P3.0167.1.00 Language: English
Publisher: punctum books
Subject: Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-12 09:24:34
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Clinical Encounters in Sexuality makes an intervention into the fields of clinical psychoanalysis and sexuality studies, in an effort to think about a range of issues relating to sexuality from a clinical psychoanalytic perspective. This book concentrates on a number of concepts, namely identity, desire, pleasure, perversion, ethics and discourse. The editors, Noreen Giffney and Eve Watson, have chosen queer theory, a sub-field of sexuality studies, as an interlocutor for the clinical contributors, because it is at the forefront of theoretical considerations of sexuality, as well as being both reliant upon and suspicious of psychoanalysis as a clinical practice and discourse. The book brings together a number of psychoanalytic schools of thought and clinical approaches, which are sometimes at odds with one another and thus tend not to engage in dialogue about divisive theoretical concepts and matters of clinical technique. Traditions represented here include: Freudian, Kleinian, Independent, Lacanian, Jungian, and Relational. The volume also stages, for the first time, a sustained clinical psychoanalytic engagement with queer theory. By virtue of its editorial design, this book aims to foster a self-reflective attitude in clinical readers about sexuality which historically has tended toward reification

The Role of the Clinical Cardiac Electrophysiologist in the Management of Congestive Heart Failure

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ISBN: 9789535129479 9789535129486 Year: Pages: 168 DOI: 10.5772/63292 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Cardiovascular
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:49

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The world of clinical cardiac electrophysiology continues to evolve with newer and more advanced technologies to better serve our patients. In this book, titled The Role of the Clinical Cardiac Electrophysiologist in the Management of Congestive Heart Failure, authors from around the world have contributed their thoughts. Various chapters describing the use of biventricular pacing devices (CRT) in the management of patients suffering from systolic heart failure are included, with a chapter dedicated to management of CRT. A chapter describing the role of CRT in patients with Chagas disease is included. Authors describe the newer pharmaceuticals in the management of this disease and the role of catheter ablation in the management of atrial fibrillation and other arrhythmias. These topics are of great interest to clinicians at the various levels of training, and I believe this textbook gives a flavor of the expanding role of the electrophysiologist in the management of an ever-expanding patient population.

Clinical Physical Therapy

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ISBN: 9789535131113 9789535131120 Year: Pages: 232 DOI: 10.5772/65235 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Physiology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:50

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Physical therapy services may be provided alongside or in conjunction with other medical services. They are performed by physical therapists (known as physiotherapists in many countries) with the help of other medical professionals. This book consists of 11 chapters written by several professionals from different parts of the world. It includes different kinds of chapters for clinical physical therapy with precious points for physical therapy, physical therapy for cancer, chronic venous disease, mental health, and other topics. We hope that the information provided in this book will instruct global physical therapists and related professionals.

Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs

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ISBN: 9789535134435 9789535134442 Year: Pages: 162 DOI: 10.5772/65816 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:50

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This book intends to provide the reader with a comprehensive overview about the state of the art regarding the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in physical and rehabilitation medicine and the study of the pharmacodynamics of existing and newly introduced NSAIDs in the management of pain and inflammation. It will also elaborate and refine already known knowledge on the mechanism(s) of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents. This book may provide additional knowledge about the design and development of new drug delivery systems loaded with NSAIDs potentially useful in the treatment of chronic inflammatory-based diseases following circadian cycle, uses of NSAIDs as a source of medicinal plants, and the adverse effects and drug interactions of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

Systemic Sclerosis

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ISBN: 9789535135470 9789535135487 Year: Pages: 216 DOI: 10.5772/63286 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:50

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Systemic sclerosis is a rare autoimmune disease characterized by immunological alterations, small vessel vasculopathy, and skin and other organ fibrosis. Despite progress in the knowledge of pathogenic steps and therapeutic options, when compared with other rheumatic conditions, it shows the lowest life expectancy rate. Early diagnosis is important as early treatment could lead to better outcomes. Great progress has been made in the treatment of specific symptoms; however, there are still no disease-modifying drugs that are able to control the overall disease activity satisfactorily. This book covers the latest knowledge in systemic sclerosis from pathophysiology to clinical presentation and management. Hopefully, this book will be a useful resource to students, residents, rheumatologists, dermatologist, and anyone interested in this fascinating disease.

Allergen

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ISBN: 9789535135678 9789535135685 Year: Pages: 160 DOI: 10.5772/65229 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:50

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Allergy is a main problem of public health in the world. Many people in all countries are suffering from this problem. Some diseases (i.e. allergic rhinitis, allergic asthma, food allergy, urticaria, eczema, etc.) have allergic reaction pathophysiology, and with control of allergic mechanisms, these diseases can be controlled and cured. The current book entitled Allergen has focused on allergy, mechanism, diagnosis, treatment, and other related problems. Chapters of the book have good data on allergy-based medical sciences and would be a benefit for all researchers in immunology, allergy, and asthma fields. Current discussions would be useful for prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of atopic patients. We hope these chapters could be a new approach in immunotherapy of allergic diseases and help in the progress of healthy system.

Physiology and Pathology of Immunology

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ISBN: 9789535136910 9789535136927 9789535140108 Year: Pages: 264 DOI: 10.5772/66541 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:50

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Having authored and published many successful and important textbooks in primary immunodeficiencies and cancer immunology, the editor of Physiology and Pathology of Immunology has ensured the high standard of writing and authenticity of the contents in this publication. The current book covers a spectrum of high-impact knowledge on the complex interplay between the environment, genes, and immunity that culminates in a generation of notorious processes of immune-related disorders. From evolution of regulatory T-cell function, gigantic cytokine networks within the human body to host-pathogen interactions of Chagas disease and Parkinson's disease, the Physiology and Pathology of Immunology goes further to decipher new codes from the immunity enigma, making it essential for experienced and new learners who wish to join the galaxy of modern immunology.

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