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Hallucinations: New Interventions Supporting People with Distressing Voices and/or Visions

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450077 Year: Pages: 106 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-007-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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Hallucinations can occur across the five sensory modalities (auditory, visual, olfactory, tactile, and gustatory). Whilst they have the potential to be benign or even highly valued, they can often be devastating experiences associated with distress, impaired social and occupational functioning, self-harm and suicide. Those who experience hallucinations in this latter manner may do so within the context of a wide range of psychiatric diagnoses, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, borderline personality disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder. The only routinely available interventions for people distressed by hallucinations are antipsychotic drugs, which date from the introduction of chlorpromazine in the 1950s, and manualized cognitive behavioral therapy, which originated in the 1990s. These interventions do not help all people distressed by hallucinations, and in the case of antipsychotic medication, come with notable side-effects. There has hence been great interest in new interventions to support people distressed by hallucinations. The goal of this Frontiers Research Topic is to present a collection of papers on new developments in clinical interventions for those distressed by hallucinations. In the psychiatric condition that remains most strongly associated with hallucinations, schizophrenia, the majority (~70%) of people will have experienced hallucinations in the auditory modality, approximately a third will have experienced visual hallucinations, and a smaller minority will have experienced hallucinations in other modalities. Consistent with this prevalence, this collection focusses on auditory and visual hallucinations. This is not to minimise the potential distress that can occur from hallucinations in other modalities. For example, tactile hallucinations, particularly when stemming from earlier experiences of sexual abuse, can be highly distressing, and improved ways to help sufferers of such experiences are also needed. In summary, this collection aims to result in an interdisciplinary collection of papers which will appeal to a wide readership, spanning all with an interest in this area.

An Islamic Modification of the Person-Centered Counseling Approach

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ISBN: 9789992195314 Year: Pages: 342 Language: English
Publisher: Bloomsbury Qatar Foundation Journals
Subject: Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2014-06-16 07:50:55
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"Carl Rogers established the Person-Centered Approach (PCA), which was first known as ‘non-directive therapy’ and then as ‘client-centered therapy.’ The approach which depends on direct psychological contact between the client and counselor is based on the three core conditions; congruence, positive regard, and empathy. In the PCA each individual is seen as having a strong tendency for self-actualization (to grow, develop and achieve his/her maximum potential).The terms ‘self-actualization’ and ‘self-awareness’ can be misunderstood in Islamic society where individuals’ needs and decisions are based on the needs of the whole society. Many who are attracted to the PCA would not consider applying it, or a modification of it, in an Arab and/or Islamic society. However, remarkable positive similarities were found when reviewing Rogers’, Arab and Islamic literature.The aim of this book is to explore the possibility of applying a modified person-centered counseling approach (PCA) as a nondirective way of helping and supporting Muslim clients in the state of Qatar. Non-directive counseling is considered a new method, not only in Qatar, but in the Middle East as a whole. This study examines the feasibility of applying a modification of the PCA in Qatar, and focuses on the similarities between Islamic counseling and the PCA in working with depressed clients.This book attempts to open doors for authors and researchers to widen their knowledge with regard to applying a modification of the person centered counseling in different cultures. It also attempts to encourage professionals to apply such a modification to meet client needs, as deemed appropriate. "

How to improve immune reconstitution in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation?

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194919 Year: Pages: 86 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-491-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Allergy and Immunology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-16 15:44:59
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Allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is widely used in the treatment of haematological malignancies as a form of immunotherapy acting through a graft-versus-leukemia (GvL) reaction. This curative allogeneic response can be associated with severe drawbacks, such as frequent and severe graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) and a long-lasting immunodeficiency, especially now with the development of innovative strategies such as umbilical cord blood transplantation or transplants from haplo-identical family donors (Haplo-HSCT). In the long-term follow-up of these patients, severe post-transplant infections, relapse or secondary malignancies may be directly related to persistent immune defects.Reconstitution of the different lymphocyte populations (B, T, NK, NKT) and antigen presenting cells of myeloid origin (monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells) should be considered not only quantitatively but especially qualitatively, in terms of functional subsets. Immune deficiency leading to an increased susceptibility to infections lasts for more than a year. Although infections that occur in the first month mostly result from a deficiency in both granulocytes and mononuclear cells (MNC), later post-engraftment infections are due to a deficiency in MNC subsets, primarily CD4 T-cells and B-cells. T-cell reconstitution has been extensively studied because of the central role of T-cells in mediating both GvHD, evidenced by the reduced incidence of this complication following T-Cell depletion, and a GvL effect as shown by DLI. In the recent years there has been renewed interest in the role of NK-cells, especially in the context of Haplo-HSCT, and in B-cell reconstitution.This Frontiers Research Topic will provide state of the art knowledge of the mechanisms of immune reconstitution in an allogeneic environment, in order to improve monitoring and therapeutic intervention in allo-HSCT patients.

Mechanisms of antibiotic resistance

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195268 Year: Pages: 224 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-526-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:06
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Antibiotics represent one of the most successful forms of therapy in medicine. But the efficiency of antibiotics is compromised by the growing number of antibiotic-resistant pathogens. Antibiotic resistance, which is implicated in elevated morbidity and mortality rates as well as in the increased treatment costs, is considered to be one of the major global public health threats (www.who.int/drugresistance/en/) and the magnitude of the problem recently prompted a number of international and national bodies to take actions to protect the public (http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/health_consumer/docs/road-map-amr_en.pdf: http://www.who.int/drugresistance/amr_global_action_plan/en/; http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/docs/carb_national_strategy.pdf). Understanding the mechanisms by which bacteria successfully defend themselves against the antibiotic assault represent the main theme of this eBook published as a Research Topic in Frontiers in Microbiology, section of Antimicrobials, Resistance, and Chemotherapy. The articles in the eBook update the reader on various aspects and mechanisms of antibiotic resistance. A better understanding of these mechanisms should facilitate the development of means to potentiate the efficacy and increase the lifespan of antibiotics while minimizing the emergence of antibiotic resistance among pathogens.

Novel Molecular Approaches to Target Microbial Virulence

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ISBN: 9783110449501 9783110449617 Year: Pages: 87 DOI: 10.1515/9783110449501 Language: English
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: Biotechnology --- Microbiology --- Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-06 13:06:10
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Microbial infections still represent one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Irrational usage of antimicrobials has lead to increased resistance, causing clinical, social and economical disabilities. Therefore, one of the major challenges of scientists is to develop novel alternative methods to handle infections and reduce resistance and other side effects produced by the actual therapies. The aim of this book is to offer a perspective on novel approaches to handle infections by using naturally-derived products in order to modulate the virulence of pathogens, without the risk of developing resistance. We intend to highlight the utility of microbial, vegetal and animal–derived compounds with potential antimicrobial activity by exploiting their effect on microbial virulence. Furthermore, this book aims to reveal the potential to assimilate recent bio-technological findings, like the usage of nanotechnology as efficient shuttles for stabilizing, improved targeting and the controlled release of natural products in order to efficiently fight infections.

Interaction Between Hyaluronic Acid and Its Receptors (CD44, RHAMM) Regulates the Activity of Inflammation and Cancer

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199136 Year: Pages: 218 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-913-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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The biological outcome of Hyaluronan (also hyaluronic acid, abbreviated HA) interaction with its CD44 or RHAMM receptors recently attracted much attention within the scientific community owing to a Nature article by Tian X et al. (Nature 2013; 499:346-9). The article described a life span exceeding 30 years in naked mole rats, whereas the maximal lifespan of mice, to which the naked mole rat is related, is only 4 years. This observation is accompanied by the finding that the naked mole rat, in contrast to the mouse, does not develop spontaneous tumors during this exceptional longevity. The article provides evidence that interaction of long tissue HA (6000-12,000 kDa) of the naked mole rat with cell surface CD44, in contrast to the interaction of short tissue HA (less than 3000 kDa) with the mouse CD44, makes the difference. More specifically, this communication shows that the interaction of short HA with fibroblasts’ CD44 imposes on them susceptibility for malignant transformation, whereas the corresponding interaction with long HA imposes on the fibroblasts a resistance to malignant transformation. The article does not explain the mechanism that underlines these findings. However, the articles, that will be published in the proposed Research Topic in the Inflammation section of Frontiers in Immunology, can bridge not only this gap, but also may explain why interaction between short HA and cell surface CD44 (or RHAMM, an additional HA receptor) enhances the development of inflammatory and malignant diseases. Furthermore, the articles included in the proposed Frontiers Research Topic will show that cancer cells and inflammatory cells share several properties related to the interaction between short HA and cell surface CD44 and/or RHAMM. These shared properties include: 1. Support of cell migration, which allows tumor metastasis and accumulation of inflammatory cells at the inflammation site; 2. Delivery of intracellular signaling, which leads to cell survival of either cancer cells or inflammatory cells; 3. Delivery of intracellular signaling, which activates cell replication and population expansion of either cancer cells or inflammatory cells; and 4. Binding of growth factors to cell surface CD44 of cancer cells or inflammatory cells (i.e., the growth factors) and their presentation to cells with cognate receptors (endothelial cells, fibroblasts), leading to pro-malignant or pro-inflammatory activities. Going back to the naked mole rat story, we may conclude from the proposed articles of this Frontiers Research Topic that the long HA, which displays anti-malignant effect, interferes with the above described pro-malignant potential of the short HA (perhaps by competing on the same CD44 receptor). Extrapolating this concept to Inflammation, the same mechanism (competition?) may be valid for inflammatory (and autoimmune) activities. If this is the case, long HA may be used for therapy of both malignant and inflammatory diseases. Moreover, targeting the interaction between short HA and CD44 (e.g. by anti-CD44 blocking antibodies) may display also a therapeutic effect on both malignant and inflammatory diseases, an issue that encourages not only fruitful exchange of views, but also practical experimental collaboration.

Immunoglobulin therapy in the 21st century: the dark side of the moon

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197033 Year: Pages: 124 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-703-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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In the early decades since the introduction in the early '80s of immunoglobulin therapy many studies tried to identify which clinical indications might benefit from the therapy, which treatment’s schedules are effective and safe. It is universally accepted that immunoglobulin therapy is a life-saving treatment in patients with PID. The rise of new indications for further different clinical conditions resulted in a steady increase in demand for immunoglobulins. Currently the consumption of immunoglobulin for PID represents a small fraction of the market. In the recent past we have been observing:1) An increase in the demand for plasma and in the consequent need to increase the number of donors;2) Changes in methods to improve IgG recovery and to increase productivity as a response to growing clinical demand;3) Introduction of immunoglobulin treatments with higher concentration;4) Changes in the timing of administration with an increase in the rate of infusion;5) Introduction of immunoglobulin treatment administered subcutaneously mainly confined initially to patients with PID and later extended to other clinical indications which often require higher volumes of infusion. Doctors following patients with PID were initially alarmed only to a possible risk of shortage. More relevant and less discussed appear the possible consequences of:1) the risk of an improper transfer of information on treatments from a clinical indication to another. In particular, the idea of a mere replacement function in patients with PID might possibly be borrowed from the model of other clinical conditions requiring a replacement such as haemophilia. In PID, immunoglobulin treatment instead is obviously replacing a missing feature. However, other immune alterations are responsible for the large number of PID-associated diseases including inflammatory manifestations and tumors, common causes of morbidity and mortality. The immunomodulatory effects of immunoglobulin administered at replacement dosages on multiple cells and immune system functions are still largely to be checked in in vitro studies and in vivo.2) the changes in the immunoglobulin production and schedules of administration. These should have been assessed in studies of drug surveillance, necessary in order to evaluate on large numbers of what it is initially reported on patients enrolled in the pivotal clinical trials, usually in the absence of most of the main disease-associated clinical conditions affecting pharmacokinetics, efficacy and tolerability. Severe side effects are now more frequently reported. This requires surveillance studies in order to verify the tolerability. Nowadays, personalized health research presents methodologic challenges, since emphasis is placed on the individual response rather than on the population. Even within a universally accepted indication, such as in PID, the identification of prognostic markers should guide the therapeutic intervention.3) the risk of a decrease in the surveillance and monitoring of PID-associated clinical conditions. In fact, self- administration of immunoglobulins administered subcutaneously increased the independence of a number of patients. On the other hand, it led to the reduction in the number of contacts between specialized centers and patients who often require a close monitoring of disease-associated conditions. A wide debate between experts is necessary to afford the new challenge on immunoglobulin usage.

Dialogues in Music Therapy and Music Neuroscience: Collaborative Understanding Driving Clinical Advances

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451371 Year: Pages: 179 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-137-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Music is a complex, dynamic stimulus with an un-paralleled ability to stimulate a global network of neural activity involved in attention, emotion, memory, communication, motor co-ordination and cognition. As such, it provides neuroscience with a highly effective tool to develop our understanding of brain function, connectivity and plasticity. Increasingly sophisticated neuroimaging technologies have enabled the expanding field of music neuroscience to reveal how musical experience, perception and cognition may support neuroplasticity, with important implications for the rehabilitation and assessment of those with acquired brain injuries and neurodegenerative conditions. Other studies have indicated the potential for music to support arousal, attention and emotional regulation, suggesting therapeutic applications for conditions including ADHD, PTSD, autism, learning disorders and mood disorders. In common with neuroscience, the music therapy profession has advanced significantly in the past 20 years. Various interventions designed to address functional deficits and health care needs have been developed, alongside standardised behavioural assessments. Historically, music therapy has drawn its evidence base from a number of contrasting theoretical frameworks. Clinicians are now turning to neuroscience, which offers a unifying knowledge base and frame of reference to understand and measure therapeutic interventions from a biomedical perspective. Conversely, neuroscience is becoming more enriched by learning about the neural effects of ‘real world’ clinical applications in music therapy. While neuroscientific imaging methods may provide biomarking evidence for the efficacy of music therapy interventions it also offers important tools to describe time-locked interactive therapy processes and feeds into the emerging field of social neuroscience. Music therapy is bound to the process of creating and experiencing music together in improvisation, listening and reflection. Thus the situated cognition and experience of music developing over time and in differing contexts is of interest in time series data. We encouraged researchers to submit papers illustrating the mutual benefits of dialogue between music therapy and other disciplines important to this field, particularly neuroscience, neurophysiology, and neuropsychology. The current eBook consists of the peer reviewed responses to our call for papers.

Soaking up the rays: Light therapy and visual culture in Britain, c. 1890–1940

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ISBN: 9781526115980 Year: Pages: 288 Language: English
Publisher: Manchester University Press Grant: Wellcome Trust - 098912
Subject: Medicine (General) --- History --- History of arts
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-10 11:01:42
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Soaking up the rays forges a new path for exploring Britain’s fickle love of the light by investigating the beginnings of light therapy in the country, from c.1890–1940. Despite rapidly becoming a leading treatment for tuberculosis, rickets and other infections and skin diseases, light therapy was a contentious medical practice. Bodily exposure to light, whether for therapeutic or aesthetic ends, persists as a contested subject to this day: recommended to counter psoriasis and other skin conditions as well as Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) and depression; closely linked to notions of beauty, happiness and well-being, fuelling tourism to sunny locales abroad and the tanning industry at home; and yet with repeated health warnings that it is a dangerous carcinogen. By analysing archival photographs, illustrated medical texts, advertisements, lamps, and goggles and their visual representation of how light acted upon the body, Woloshyn assesses their complicated contribution to the founding of light therapy. Soaking up the rays will appeal to those intrigued by medicine’s visual culture, especially academics and students of the histories of art and visual culture, material cultures, medicine, science and technology, and popular culture.

Natural Products for Cancer Prevention and Therapy

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ISBN: 9783038973102 9783038973119 Year: Pages: 260 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-311-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Oncology --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-07 10:17:54
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ca. 200 words; this text will present the book in all promotional forms (e.g. flyers). Please describe the book in straightforward and consumer-friendly terms.[This Special Issue book, “Natural Products for Cancer Prevention and Therapy”, is based on recent advances in natural products for cancer prevention and therapy. For this purpose, the authors of this book have been organizing a biennial international conference series. The first meeting (First International Conference on Natural Products for Cancer Prevention and Therapy) was held in Istanbul between 31 August and 2 September 2015, with the support and contribution of many valuable researchers in this field. The abstracts of the first conference were published in the Anticancer Drugs journal as a supplement. The second meeting, namely The Second International Conference on Natural Products for Cancer Prevention and Therapy, was held at Erciyes University, Kayseri, Turkey, between 8 and 11 November 2017. The abstracts of all of the presentations from the second meeting were published in the Special Issue of Proceedings by the MDPI publishing group. Furthermore, the conference report and the selected full-length papers based on the presentations at the meeting, as well as other papers based on natural products for cancer prevention and therapy, were published as a Special Issue of the Nutrients journal from MDPI. This Special Issue has contributions from various participants of the aforementioned conference, as well as other cancer and natural product researchers. These contributions include original research papers, authoritative and up-to-date reviews, and commentaries on the following topics and areas:•Natural products for the prevention and therapy of oncologic diseases•Mechanism of natural agents for anticancer and cancer preventive effects•In vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies related to natural agents and cancer•Combinatorial effects of phytochemicals and cancer chemotherapeutic drugs•Challenges and innovative approaches for anticancer drug development based on natural products•Emerging studies on anticancer phytochemicals]

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