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Bernardino Baldi’s In mechanica Aristotelis problemata exercitationes

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Book Series: Sources 3: Max Planck Research Library for the History and Development of Knowledge ISBN: 9783869319612 Year: Pages: 376 Language: English
Publisher: Edition Open Access
Subject: History
Added to DOAB on : 2017-03-03 15:24:51
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"In mechanica Aristotelis problemata exercitationes" written by Bernardino Baldi is reprinted with an introduction and commentary as the third volume of the series "Sources of the Max Planck Research Library for the History and Development of Knowledge." The volume is also freely available in electronic form as an open-access publication on the Internet at www.edition-open-access.de.The "Exercitationes" were first published in 1621, four years after the death of the author. The work belongs to the long tradition of studies on the pseudo-Aristotelian "Mechanical Problems" developed during the Renaissance but, unlike most other works written during the sixteenth century, it takes a critical position against the theoretical approach of the pseudo-Aristotelian text. The "Exercitationes" display a systematic application of Archimedean principles to the explanation of the questions discussed in "Mechanical Problems" illustrating the patchwork character of preclassical mechanics. Moreover, Baldi's work presents lengthy digressions that considerably widen the boundaries of mechanics.

Catalysis for the Conversion of Biomass and Its Derivatives

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Book Series: Proceedings 2: Max Planck Research Library for the History and Development of Knowledge ISBN: 9783844242829 Year: Pages: 474 Language: English
Publisher: Edition Open Access
Subject: Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-03-03 15:52:33
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Biomass will play an important role in the future for the replacement of fossil sources for fuels and chemicals. Catalytic processes are required for the efficient conversion of biomass. The development of such processes and the understanding of the catalytic reactions of biomass molecules has recently attracted considerable and increasing attention. In this book, thirteen experts in different fields deliver their views on the state-of-the-art and future development of the use of biomass as a sustainable feedstock for the chemical industry. The book focuses on chemical aspects, such as catalyst development product analysis or reaction engineering, but also seeks a wider perspective and convers related issues like bioeconomics and plant growth.This book is aimed at students and scientists in the interdisciplinary field of catalysis for an introduction to the emerging field of biomass conversion and an overview on recent developments and challenges. The papers are based on lectures presented by the authors at a summer school organized by the Fritz-Haber-Institut and held in August 2010 at Kloster Seeon in Germany in the framework of the National Science Foundation-funded program Partnership in International Research and Education: Molecular Engineering for the Conversion of Biomass Derived Reactants to Fuels, Chemicals, and Materials.

The Equilibrium Controversy: Guidobaldo del Monte’s Critical Notes on the Mechanics of Jordanus and Benedetti and their Historical and Conceptual Backgrounds

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Book Series: Sources 2: Max Planck Research Library for the History and Development of Knowledge ISBN: 9783869319599 Year: Pages: 386 Language: English
Publisher: Edition Open Access
Subject: Mechanical Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2017-03-03 16:42:47
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This study, the second volume of the series "Sources" of the "Max Planck Research Library for the History and Development of Knowledge," reviews a historical discussion about the question of whether a balance in equilibrium, after having been deflected, returns to its original position. This question captured the attention of philosophers and scientists for almost two millennia, from Greek antiquity to the sixteenth century when the "equilibrium controversy" became a central question among scholars.Two new sources related to this controversy are presented: an annotated copy of Jordanus de Nemore's "Liber de ponderibus" edited by Petrus Apianus in 1533 and an annotated copy of Giovanni Battista Benedetti's "Diversarum speculationum mathematicarum et physicarum liber" from 1585. Both works contain handwritten marginal notes by Guidobaldo del Monte, author of the most influential early modern text on mechanics.A detailed analysis of these sources, their prehistory, and their contexts shows that the "equilibrium controversy" only scratched the surface of a much deeper conceptual crisis of early modern mechanics that was triggered by the introduction of the medieval concept of "positional heaviness" into early modern discussions. This crisis helped to establish fundamental insights on which Galileo eventually built his theory of mechanics as well as his theory of motion.

The Globalization of Knowledge in History

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Book Series: Studies 1: Max Planck Research Library in the History and Development of Knowledge ISBN: 9783844222388 Year: Pages: 866 Language: English
Publisher: Edition Open Access
Subject: History
Added to DOAB on : 2017-03-03 16:56:00
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Today scientific, technological and cultural knowledge is shared worldwide. The extent to which globalized knowledge also existed in the past is an open question and, moreover, a question that is important for understanding present processes of globalization. This book, the first volume of the series "Studies" of the "Max Planck Research Library for the History and Development of Knowledge," the result of an interdisciplinary cooperation launched in 2007 by a Dahlem Conference, offers surprising answers to this question.Long-distance and intercontinental connections with an attendant spread of knowledge are as old as Homo sapiens themselves. Since its inception, the globalization of knowledge has been a process with its own dynamics, interfering significantly with other processes of intercultural transmission. The four parts of this volume address historical phases in which the production, transmission and transformation of knowledge were crucial for advancing these processes. Part 1 investigates a series of processes in the very early phases of globalization, from the transmission of practical knowledge to the emergence of science. Part 2 explores how knowledge was disseminated as a consequence of the spread of power and belief structures. Part 3 deals with the encounters between culturally specific knowledge and globalized knowledge. Part 4 is dedicated to the globalization of modern science and to the great challenges, such as energy supply and climate change, that humanity faces when dealing with knowledge todayThe 97th Dahlem Workshop:The present volume is based on the 97th Dahlem Workshop on Globalization of Knowledge and its Consequences, Berlin, 18–23 November 2007, coordinated by Katharina Ochse.Participants:Ian Baldwin, Angelo Baracca, Fabio Bevilacqua, Maria Emilia Beyer, Hans-Peter Blossfeld, Gianluca Bocchi, István M. Bodnár, Jens Erland Braarvig, Chiara Brambilla, Eva Cancik-Kirschbaum, Jacob Dahl, Peter Damerow, Hansjörg Dilger, Kostas Gavroglu, Matteo Gerlini, Denise Gimpel, Gerd Graßhoff, Hans Falk Hoffmann, Dirk Hofäcker, Jarita C. Holbrook, Malcolm D. Hyman, Birgit Krawietz, Manfred Krebernik, Joachim Kurtz, Manolis Patiniotis, Albert Presas I Puig, Daniel T. Potts, Dhruv Raina, Jürgen Renn, Richard Rottenburg, Dagmar Schäfer, Matthias Schemmel, Mark Schiefsky, Meredith Schuman, Gebhard J. Selz, Martina Siebert, Circe Mary Silva da Silva, Ana Simões, Tzveta Sofronieva, Saran Solongo, Karin Tybjerg, Hans Ulrich Vogel, Milena Wazeck, Gerhard Wolf, Harriet T. Zurndorfer

Guidobaldo del Monte (1545–1607)

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Book Series: Proceedings 4: Max Planck Research Library for the History and Development of Knowledge ISBN: 9783844242836 Year: Pages: 394 Language: English
Publisher: Edition Open Access
Added to DOAB on : 2017-03-07 10:44:51
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Guidobaldo Marquis dal Monte has long been identified as a key figure in the history of the mathematical disciplines in the Renaissance. The contributions brought together in this volume examine all the key aspects of the Marquis dal Monte’s activities, ranging from mechanics and the science of perspective to architecture and geometry. Some of the essays provide intellectual analyses of Guidobaldo’s works, including their significance and reception, others document his activities in the design of mathematical instruments, in civil and military architecture, and in his professional travels and contacts with Galileo. Many of the contributions rely on archival research shedding new light on his activities. As a result, Guidobaldo appears in a new light and as a key figure not only in the Duchy of Urbino, but also on an Italian and European stage.

Melammu: The Ancient World in an Age of Globalization

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Book Series: Proceedings 7: Max Planck Research Library for the History and Development of Knowledge ISBN: 9783945561003 Year: Pages: 397 Language: English
Publisher: Edition Open Access
Added to DOAB on : 2017-03-07 11:43:47
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Melammu volumes have broadened the horizons of studies of antiquity by encouraging the crossing of geographical and cultural boundaries between ancient civilizations of the Mediterranean and Near East. The present Melammu volume extends from Greece to India, with articles on Phrygia and Armenia, also viewing texts from ancient Israel, Egypt, and Mesopotamia. The globalization described in this volume extends over language barriers and literatures, showing how texts as well as goods can travel between societies and regions. This collection of papers offer new insights and perspectives into connections between the Mediterranean World, Mesopotamia, Anatolia, Persia and India.

Metallurgy, Ballistics and Epistemic Instruments: The Nova scientia of Nicolò Tartaglia – A New Edition

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Book Series: Sources 6: Max Planck Research Library for the History and Development of Knowledge ISBN: 9783844252583 Year: Pages: 360 Language: English
Publisher: Edition Open Access
Added to DOAB on : 2017-03-07 12:09:23
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In 1537, Nicolò Tartaglia (1500–1557), a mathematician from Brescia, published "Nova scientia." It was this work that led to the foundation of the modern science of ballistics. Tartaglia’s intention was to create a purely mathematical science based on axioms, which was fundamental to the entire subject of mechanics, starting with a limited number of principles and arriving at a series of propositions through a rigid procedure of deduction.Nevertheless, as Tartaglia himself states, his motive was fundamentally practical and connected to the activities of the sixteenth-century bombardier. A new edition of Nicolò Tartaglia’s "Nova scientia," based on the 1558 print run of the second enlarged edition (1550), shows how the emergence of theoretical ballistics was a consequence of the technological innovations that took place in the frame of the practice of iron casting at the turn from the fifteenth to the sixteenth century.

New Vistas on Old Problems: Recent Approaches to the Foundations of Quantum Mechanics

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Book Series: Proceedings 3: Max Planck Research Library for the History and Development of Knowledge ISBN: 9783844242843 Year: Pages: 188 Language: English
Publisher: Edition Open Access
Added to DOAB on : 2017-03-07 12:14:48
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Quantum theory has been a subject of interpretational debates ever since its inception. The Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox, the empirical violation of Bell’s inequalities, and recent activities to exploit quantum entanglement for technological innovation only exacerbate a long-standing philosophical debate. Despite no-signaling theorems and theories of decoherence, deep-rooted conflicts between special relativistic principles and observed quantum correlations as well as between definite measurement outcomes and quantum theoretical superpositions persist.This collection of papers, first presented at an international symposium at the University of Bern in 2011, highlights some recent approaches to the old problems of a philosophy of quantum mechanics. The authors address the issues from a variety of perspectives, ranging from variations of causal theory and system theoretic interpretations of the observer to an empirical test of whether entanglement itself can be entangled. The essays demonstrate that the discussion about the foundations of quantum mechanics is as lively and interesting as ever.

Non-Isothermal Kinetic Methods: Workbook and Laboratory Manual

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Book Series: Textbooks 1: Max Planck Research Library for the History and Development of Knowledge ISBN: 9783844246933 Year: Pages: 73 Language: English
Publisher: Edition Open Access
Added to DOAB on : 2017-03-07 12:28:46
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In the modern world of ever-advancing technologies, actual tests of products and processes are more and more often preceded, if not replaced, by computer modeling. This saves the time and resources required for actual tests, and enables a better understanding of processes that occur in the course of tests. Preliminary computer modeling favors prudent planning of experiments. Calculations in thermal analysis are used everywhere, for example, in estimating the efficiency of thermal insulation of pipelines and in estimating the critical overheating conditions for some chemical substances under which their decomposition, self-heating, explosion, and so forth, occurs. This methodical manual focuses on a small aspect of calculations in thermal analysis dealing with constructing kinetic models from thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry experimental data.

The Role of Gravitation in Physics: Report from the 1957 Chapel Hill Conference

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Book Series: Sources 5: Max Planck Research Library for the History and Development of Knowledge ISBN: 9783869319636 Year: Pages: 298 Language: English
Publisher: Edition Open Access
Added to DOAB on : 2017-03-07 12:49:35
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In January 1957, a group of physicists from several countries met at the University of North Carolina to discuss the role of gravitation in physics. The program was divided into two broad sections: unquantized and quantized general relativity. The first section included a review of classical relativity, its experimental tests, the initial value problem, gravitational radiation, equations of motion, and unified field theory. The second section included a discussion of the motivation for quantization, the problem of measurement, and the actual techniques for quantization. In both sections the relationship of general relativity to fundamental particles was discussed. In addition there was a session devoted to cosmological questions. A large part of the discussions is reproduced in the present report in an abridged form, followed by a conference summary statement by P. G. Bergmann.The Chapel Hill conference also marked the establishment of the Institute of Field Physics, directed by Bryce and Cécile DeWitt. The conference was the inaugural conference of this institute.

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