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Interaction of Trypanosoma cruzi with Host Cells

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193370 Year: Pages: 97 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-337-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology --- Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2013-09-03 13:00:53
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Trypanosoma cruzi is a pathogenic protozoan of the Trypanosomatidade Family, which is the etiological agent of Chagas’ disease. Chagas’ disease stands out for being endemic among countries in Latin America, affecting about 15 million people. Recently, Chagas has become remarkable in European countries as well due to cases of transmission via infected blood transfusion. An important factor that has exacerbated the epidemiological picture in Brazil, Colombia and Venezuela is infection after the oral intake of contaminated foods such as sugar cane, açai and bacaba juices. Trypanosoma cruzi is an intracellular protozoan that exhibits a complex life cycle, involving multiple developmental stages found in both vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. In vertebrate hosts, the trypomastigote form invades a large variety of nucleated cells using multiple mechanisms. The invasion process involves several steps: (a) attraction of the protozoan to interact with the host cell surface; (b) parasite-host cell recognition; (c) adhesion of the parasite to the host cell surface; (d) cell signalling events that culminate in the internalization of the parasite through endocytic processes; (e) biogenesis of a large vacuole where the parasite is initially located, and is also known as parasitophorous vacuole (PV); (f) participation of endocytic pathway components in the internalization process; (g) participation of cytoskeleton components in the internalization process; (h) transformation of the trypomastigote into the amastigote form within the PV; (i) lysis of the membrane of the PV; (j) multiplication of amastigotes within the host cell in direct contact with cell structures and organelles; (k) transformation of amastigotes into trypomastigotes, and (l) rupture of the host cell releasing trypomastigotes into the extracellular space. The kinetics of the interaction process and even the fate of the parasite within the cell vary according to the nature of the host cell and its state of immunological activation.

The plant microbiome and its importance for plant and human health

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193783 Year: Pages: 189 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-378-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Botany --- Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-19 16:29:12
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The study of plant-microbe associations by new techniques has significantly improved our understanding of the structure and specificity of the plant microbiome. Yet, microbiome function and the importance of the plant’s microbiome in the context of human and plant health are largely unexplored. Comparable with our human microbiome, millions of microbes inhabit plants, forming complex ecological communities that influence plant growth and health through its collective metabolic activities and host interactions. Viewing the microbiota from an ecological perspective can provide insight into how to promote plant health and stress tolerance of their hosts or how to adapt to a changing climate by targeting this microbial community. Moreover, the plant microbiome has a substantial impact on human health by influencing our gut microbiome by eating raw plants such as lettuce and herbs but also by influencing the microbiome of our environment through airflow. This research topic comprising reviews, original and opinion articles highlights the current knowledge regarding plant microbiomes, their specificity, diversity and function as well as all aspects studying the management of plant microbiomes to enhance plant growth, health quality and stress tolerance.

The unfolded protein response in virus infections

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193974 Year: Pages: 129 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-397-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology --- Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-03 13:02:24
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Unfolded protein response (UPR) is a cellular adaptive response for restoring endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis in response to ER stress. Perturbation of the UPR and failure to restore ER homeostasis inevitably leads to diseases. It has now become evident that perturbation of the UPR is the cause of many important human diseases such as neurodegenerative diseases, cystic fibrosis, diabetes and cancer. It has recently emerged that virus infections can trigger the UPR but the relationship between virus infections and host UPR is intriguing. On one hand, UPR is harmful to the virus and virus has developed means to subvert the UPR. On the other hand, virus exploits the host UPR to assist in its own infection, gene expression, establishment of persistence, reactivation from latency and to evade the immune response. When this delicate balance of virus-host UPR interaction is broken down, it may cause diseases. This is particularly challenging for viruses that establish a chronic infection to maintain this balance. Each virus interacts with the host UPR in a different way to suit their life style and how the virus interacts with the host UPR can define the characteristic of a particular virus infection. Understanding how a particular virus interacts with the host UPR may pave the way to the design of a new class of anti-viral that targets this particular pathway to skew the response towards anti-virus. This knowledge can also be translated into the clinics to help re-design oncolytic virotherapy and gene therapy. In this research topic we aimed to compile a collection of focused review articles, original research articles, commentary, opinion, hypothesis and methods to highlight the current advances in this burgeoning area of research, in an attempt to provide an in-depth understanding of how viruses interact with the host UPR, which may be beneficial to the future combat of viral and human diseases.

The Social Nature of Emotions

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199099 Year: Pages: 220 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-909-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Emotion is a defining aspect of the human condition. Emotions pervade our social and professional lives, they affect our thinking and behavior, and they profoundly shape our relationships and social interactions. Emotions have traditionally been conceptualized and studied as individual phenomena, with research focusing on cognitive and expressive components and on physiological and neurological processes underlying emotional reactions. Over the last two decades, however, an increasing scholarly awareness has emerged that emotions are inherently social – that is, they tend to be elicited by other people, expressed at other people, and regulated to influence other people or to comply with social norms (Fischer & Manstead, 2008; Keltner & Haidt, 1999; Parkinson, 1996; Van Kleef, 2009). Despite this increasing awareness, the inclusion of the social dimension as a fundamental element in emotion research is still in its infancy (Fischer & Van Kleef, 2010). We therefore organized this special Research Topic on the social nature of emotions to review the state of the art in research and methodology and to stimulate theorizing and future research. The emerging field of research into the social nature of emotions has focused on three broad sets of questions. The first set of questions pertains to how social-contextual factors shape the experience, regulation, and expression of emotions. Studies have shown, for instance, that the social context influences the emotions people feel and express (Clark, Fitness, & Brissette, 2004; Doosje, Branscombe, Spears, & Manstead, 2004; Fischer & Evers, 2011). The second set of questions concerns social-contextual influences on the recognition and interpretation of emotional expressions. Studies have shown that facial expressions are interpreted quite differently depending on the social context (e.g., in terms of status, culture, or gender) in which they are expressed (Elfenbein & Ambady, 2002; Hess & Fischer, 2013; Mesquita & Markus, 2004; Tiedens, 2001). The third set of questions has to do with the ways in which people respond to the emotional expressions of others, and how such responses are shaped by the social context. Studies have shown that emotional expressions can influence the behavior of others, for instance in group settings (Barsade, 2002; Cheshin, Rafaeli & Bos, 2011; Heerdink, Van Kleef, Homan, & Fischer, 2013), negotiations (Sinaceur & Tiedens, 2006; Van Kleef, De Dreu, & Manstead, 2004), and leadership (Sy, Côté, & Saavedra, 2005; Van Kleef, Homan, Beersma, & Van Knippenberg, 2010). This Research Topic centers around these and related questions regarding the social nature of emotions, thereby highlighting new research opportunities and guiding future directions in the field. We bring together a collection of papers to provide an encyclopedic, open-access snapshot of the current state of the art of theorizing and research on the social nature of emotion. The state of the art work that is presented in this e-book helps advance the understanding of the social nature of emotions. It brings together the latest cutting-edge findings and thoughts on this central topic in emotion science, as it heads toward the next frontier.

Manipulation of the cellular microbicidal response and endocytic dynamic by pathogens membrane factors

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196098 Year: Pages: 81 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-609-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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Intracellular pathogens, such as bacteria and parasites, have evolved specialized mechanisms to survive and replicate in their host, leading to disorders and diseases. The principle of these mechanisms is to reprogram the microbicidal cell function in order to disable the host cells defence that aims to control and eliminate foreign invaders. Devoid of their defence, cells become permissive to pathogens invasion. The aim of this Research Topic is to highlight and cover recent understanding of mechanisms and molecules used by pathogens to interfere with the microbicidal function of cells. This Research Topic will focus on the reprogramming of the cellular dynamics, the immune response, the phagolysosome biogenesis and the signal transduction pathways bypathogens. Special attention will be made on non-proteic virulence factors, however this Research Topic is not restricted to non-proteic virulence factors.

Harnessing Useful Rhizosphere Microorganisms for Pathogen and Pest Biocontrol

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450596 Year: Pages: 334 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-059-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Botany --- Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Growing demographic trends require sustainable technologies to improve quality and yield of future food productions. However, there is uncertainty about plant protection strategies in many agro-ecosystems. Pests, diseases, and weeds are overwhelmingly controlled by chemicals which pose health risks and cause other undesirable effects.Therefore, an increasing concern on control measures emerged in recent years. Many chemicals became questioned with regard to their sustainability and are (or will be) banned. Alternative management tools are studied, relying on biological, and low impact solutions. This ResearchTopic concerns microbial biocontrol agents, root-associated microbiomes, and rhizosphere networks. Understanding how they interact or respond to (a)biotic environmental cues is instrumental for an effective and sustainable impact. The rhizosphere is in this regard a fundamental object of study, because of its role in plant productivity. This e-book provides a polyhedral perspective on many issues in which beneficial microorganisms are involved. Data indeed demonstrate that they represent an as yet poorly-explored resource, whose exploitation may actively sustain plant protection and crop production. Given the huge number of microbial species present on the planet, the microorganisms studied represent just the tip of an iceberg. Data produced are, however, informative enough about their genetic and functional biodiversity, as well as about the ecosystem services they provide to underp in crop production. Challenges for future research work concern not only the biology of these species, but also the practices required to protect their biodiversity and to extend their application in the wide range of agricultural soils and systems present in the world. Agriculture cannot remain successfully and sustainable unless plant germplasm and useful microbial species are integrated, a goal for which new knowledge and information-based approaches are urgently needed.Growing demographic trends require sustainable technologies to improve quality and yield of future food productions. However, there is uncertainty about plant protection strategies in many agro-ecosystems. Pests, diseases, and weeds are overwhelmingly controlled by chemicals which pose health risks and cause other undesirable effects.Therefore, an increasing concern on control measures emerged in recent years. Many chemicals became questioned with regard to their sustainability and are (or will be) banned. Alternative management tools are studied, relying on biological, and low impact solutions. This ResearchTopic concerns microbial biocontrol agents, root-associated microbiomes, and rhizosphere networks. Understanding how they interact or respond to (a)biotic environmental cues is instrumental for an effective and sustainable impact. The rhizosphere is in this regard a fundamental object of study, because of its role in plant productivity. This e-book provides a polyhedral perspective on many issues in which beneficial microorganisms are involved. Data indeed demonstrate that they represent an as yet poorly-explored resource, whose exploitation may actively sustain plant protection and crop production. Given the huge number of microbial species present on the planet, the microorganisms studied represent just the tip of an iceberg. Data produced are, however, informative enough about their genetic and functional biodiversity, as well as about the ecosystem services they provide to underp in crop production. Challenges for future research work concern not only the biology of these species, but also the practices required to protect their biodiversity and to extend their application in the wide range of agricultural soils and systems present in the world. Agriculture cannot remain successfully and sustainable unless plant germplasm and useful microbial species are integrated, a goal for which new knowledge and information-based approaches are urgently needed.

Recent Advances in the Study of the Host-Fungus Interaction

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450626 Year: Pages: 148 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-062-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Fungal infections represent nowadays a significant burden on the healthcare system of most of the countries, and are among the infections with the highest mortality rates. This has fostered the study of the interaction of these organisms with the human host. The outer most layer of a fungal cell is the cell wall, and together with the secreted components into the extracellular compartment, are the first lines of contact with the host cells. This interaction is critical for tissue adhesion, colonization and damage. In addition, these fungal extracellular components will define the outcome of the interaction with the host immune cells, leading either to the establishment of a protective antifungal immune response or to an immune-evasive mechanism by the fungal cell. On the other hand, our immune system has effectively evolved to deal with fungal pathogens, developing strategies for cell eradication, burden control, or antigen presentation from the innate branch to the adaptive immune response. Here, we provide a series of comprehensive review papers dealing with both aspect of the interaction fungus-immune cells: the role of virulence factors and cell wall components during such interaction, and the recent advances in the study of cellular receptors in the establishment of a protective anti-fungal immune response.

Mapping Psychopathology with fMRI and Effective Connectivity Analysis

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452071 Year: Pages: 140 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-207-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-13 14:57:01
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There is a growing appreciation that many psychiatric (and neurological) conditions can be understood as functional disconnection syndromes – as reflected in aberrant functional integration and synaptic connectivity. This Research Topic considers recent advances in understanding psychopathology in terms of aberrant effective connectivity – as measured noninvasively using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).Recently, there has been increasing interest in inferring directed connectivity (effective connectivity) from fMRI data. Effective connectivity refers to the influence that one neural system exerts over another and quantifies the directed coupling among brain regions – and how they change with pathophysiology. Compared to functional connectivity, effective connectivity allows one to understand how brain regions interact with each other in terms of context sensitive changes and directed coupling – and therefore may provide mechanistic insights into the neural basis of psychopathology.Established models of effective connectivity include psychophysiological interaction (PPI), structural equation modeling (SEM) and dynamic causal modelling (DCM). DCM is unique because it explicitly models the interaction among brain regions in terms of latent neuronal activity. Moreover, recent advances in DCM such as stochastic and spectral DCM, make it possible to characterize the interaction between different brain regions both at rest and during a cognitive task.

Perspectives for the Next Generation of Virus Research: Spearheading the Use of Innovative Technologies and Methodologies

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452156 Year: Pages: 191 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-215-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-13 14:57:01
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Infectious diseases are associated with approximately 20% of global mortality, with viral diseases causing about one third of these deaths. Besides newly emerging and re-emerging viral infections will continue to pose a threat to human survival globally. In this case scientific advances have greatly been increased to defend against those pathogens. For example, rapid genomic sequencing, proteomics, epigenomics, nanotechnology, and other advanced tools are being applied to detect viruses at the point of care and to track their spread within human populations as well as to understand virus-host interaction and virus induced pathogenesis. From rapid identification of new viruses to prevention with vaccination and treatment with effective therapeutics, biomedical research has continuously provided tools to meet the constant threat of emerging viral pathogens. Despite these advances, each new disease brings unique challenges to scientists every year. So we must stay at the cutting edge of scientific discovery, working energetically to develop new tools to combat the ever-changing threats they pose. Our research topic highlights such advanced and new technology based virus research which definitely bolsters the researcher's ability to tackle emerging, re-emerging and stable viral pathogens. We are credulous that the papers including in the e-books will be beneficial to the experts in the field to understand the molecular, immunological, ecological and clinical aspects of the next generation researches for the prevention and control of infectious diseases caused by viruses.

Emerging Tools for Emerging Symbioses - Using Genomics Applications to Studying Endophytes

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452194 Year: Pages: 157 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-219-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-13 14:57:01
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Plants are typically colonized by numerous endophyte species symbiotically without any noticeable disease symptoms. These microbes are abundant, diverse and play critical ecological roles across natural and agricultural ecosystems. Endophytes have attracted the attention of researchers due to their various beneficial effects on plants, especially in agricultural crop species. Genomic tools will enhance our understanding on the growth and nutrition requirements of this host-symbiont relationship. Recent advances in DNA sequencing technologies and bioinformatic pipelines have allowed analyzing the plant microbiome and host-endophyte interaction more effectively with limited bias. Furthermore, various studies have employed and utilized transcriptomic and genomic tools to understand the role of endophytes and their interaction with plant hosts. This electronic book covers various research articles highlighting the important developments on endophytes using transcriptomics, next generation sequencing and genomic tools.

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