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Regulation of Cell Fate Determination in Plants

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193240 Year: Pages: 84 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-324-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Botany --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:32
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Plants are made up of a large number of distinct cell types that originate from a single fertilized egg cell. How the diversity of cell types arise in appropriate places is one of the most fascinating and attractive research areas of plant biology. During the past several decades, due to the development of new molecular techniques and tools, advances in optical microscopy, and availability of whole genome information and mutants in the model plant Arabidopsis and other plants, great advances have been made in understanding the mechanisms involved in cell fate determination in plants. Multiple mechanisms are used to generate cellular diversity. Asymmetric cell division is one of the primary mechanisms. As an example, asymmetric cell division enables one stem cell to generate a stem cell daughter and a daughter with a distinct identity. Initially equivalent cells can also differentiate to generate different cell types. This mechanism has been clearly demonstrated in the formation of multiple cell types during epidermis development in the shoot and root. Cell fate determination is influenced by both intrinsic factors, i.e, developmental regulators, as well as extrinsic signals, i.e., environmental stimuli. By using model systems like stomata, trichome, root hair and shoot and root apical meristem cells, ligands, receptors and transcription factors have been found to regulate cell fate determination. However, the details of signaling cassettes responsible for cell fate determination remain largely unknown. Plants are made up of a large number of distinct cell types that originate from a single fertilized egg cell. How the diversity of cell types arise in appropriate places is one of the most fascinating and attractive research areas of plant biology. During the past several decades, due to the development of new molecular techniques and tools, advances in optical microscopy, and availability of whole genome information and mutants in the model plant Arabidopsis and other plants, great advances have been made in understanding the mechanisms involved in cell fate determination in plants. This research topic contains 12 collected articles, including 2 Opinion Articles, 5 Reviews, 4 Mini Reviews, and 1 Original Research Article. Hopefully, these articles will expand our understanding of the regulation of cell fate determination in plants.

Carbon Fibers and Their Composite Materials

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ISBN: 9783039211029 9783039211036 Year: Pages: 186 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-103-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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Carbon fiber is an oft-referenced material that serves as a means to remove mass from large transport infrastructure. Carbon fiber composites, typically plastics reinforced with the carbon fibers, are key materials in the 21st century and have already had a significant impact on reducing CO2 emissions. Though, as with any composite material, the interface where each component meets, in this case the fiber and plastic, is critical to the overall performance.

Nutrition and Celiac Disease

ISBN: 9783906980638 9783906980645 Year: Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2015-01-12 11:28:32
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During its 2.5 million years of evolution, the human species has evolved through major dramatic changes, mainly dictated by natural elements and, most importantly, by food availability. The diet of hunters and gatherers, hominids, was mainly based on fruit, vegetables, tubers, and occasionally meat and fish. Then, approximately 10,000 years ago, a drastic change in life style occurred, shifting from nomadic to settlers with domestication of animals and crops. A consequence of this change was the advent of wheat and other grains containing gluten-related proteins in human diet. This revolutionary transformation occurred at the Fertile Crescent, the modern-day Iraq, and spread from South to North and East to West at a speed of approximately 1 km/year. Ever since, the distribution of food goods became more and more uneven with wealthy countries getting more than necessary, while poor countries struggle with malnutrition and consequently this increased mortality. Unfortunately, the industrial revolution, rather than closing the gap, created even more inequalities that still exist today, leading to very different but equally worrisome pathologies, namely obesity in industrialized countries and famine in developing countries. [...]

Optical Methods in Sensing and Imaging for Medical and Biological Applications

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ISBN: 9783038973706 9783038973713 Year: Pages: 288 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-371-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-24 12:31:31
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The recent advances in optical sources and detectors have opened up new opportunities for sensing and imaging techniques which can be successfully used in biomedical and healthcare applications. This book, entitled ‘Optical Methods in Sensing and Imaging for Medical and Biological Applications’, focuses on various aspects of the research and development related to these areas. The book will be a valuable source of information presenting the recent advances in optical methods and novel techniques, as well as their applications in the fields of biomedicine and healthcare, to anyone interested in this subject.

Thermomechanical Mean-Field Modeling and Experimental Characterization of Long Fiber-Reinforced Sheet Molding Compound Composites

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Book Series: Schriftenreihe Kontinuumsmechanik im Maschinenbau / Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, Institut für Technische Mechanik - Bereich Kontinuumsmechanik ISSN: 2192693X ISBN: 9783731509240 Year: Volume: 15 Pages: IX, 178 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000093328 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:00
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A discontinuous fiber-reinforced thermoset material produced by the Sheet Molding Compound process is investigated. Due to the process-related fiber orientation distribution, a composite with an anisotropic microstructure is created which crucially affects the mechanical properties. The central objectives are the modeling of the thermoelastic behavior of the composite accounting for the underlying microstructure, and the experimental characterization of the pure resin and the composite material.

Werkstoffanalytische Betrachtung der Eigenschaften von mittels neuartiger RTM-Fertigungsprozesse hergestellten glasfaserverstärkten Polymerverbunden

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Book Series: Schriftenreihe des Instituts für Angewandte Materialien, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie ISSN: 21929963 ISBN: 9783731503378 Year: Volume: 48 Pages: XIV, 260 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000045461 Language: GERMAN
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:01
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In this work fiber reinforced polymers were characterized. The composites were manufactured with optimized resin transfer molding (RTM) production strategies to make the standard RTM process more efficient. To determine where the potential of the new production techniques is the quasi static mechanical properties were measured and also calculated with an analytical modulation. On this database the different processes were compared to each other.

Beitrag zur Vorbemessung der Biegeverstärkung von Stahlbetonbauteilen mit Rechteckquerschnitt mittels aufgeklebten CFK-Lamellen

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ISBN: 9783966270021 9783966270038 9783966270007 9783966270014 Year: Pages: 252 DOI: 10.33968/9783966270021-00 Language: German
Publisher: HTWK Leipzig - OA-Hochschulverlag
Subject: Agriculture (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-02-12 11:21:04
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"Since 2012, the subsequent reinforcement of reinforced concrete components with bonded reinforcement has been regulated in a separate guideline. This includes the dimensioning of the adhesively bonded strips made of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP), which, in addition to the complex iterative bending design, have a very complex bonding behavior. For this purpose, the German Committee for Structural Concrete developed a model for the verification based on experimental evaluations, in which the occurring tensile forces are partly transferred into the component via intermediate elements (partial distances between flexural cracks). Simultaneously, simplified but more inaccurate verification formats were made available to reduce the complexity of the verification. For an early assessment of the use of bonded CFRP strips, different tools have been developed in this paper for reinforced concrete components with a rectangular cross-section depending on the different verification formats. For this purpose, the design parameters were considered separately for pure bending strength and bonding behavior. For a simple calculation, tables for the design with dimensionless coefficients were obtained by analogy with the reinforced concrete construction, with which the required cross-section area for the CFRP strips can be determined by means of a limited stretching from the simplified verification of the flexural load bearing capacity. For a more economical solution, the more precise verification of the force transmission on the intermediate elements was configured in an Excel workbook, because this results in an extraordinary iterative calculation effort."

Smart Coatings on Fibers and Textiles

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ISBN: 9783039284627 9783039284634 Year: Pages: 190 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-463-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Materials
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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Smart textiles are the textiles that are sensitive to any environmental conditions and can respond accordingly. Using passive and active coatings to generate high sensitivity to textiles is among the most recent research trends by engineers around the World. This has resulted in expansion in the application of smart textiles in various industrial fields including medicals, electronics and protective clothing. The aim of this special issue is to introduce the most state-of-the-art research and review articles by distinguished researchers in the field of smart coatings on textiles. The guest editor hopes that content will be useful for researchers, students and companies for continuation of research and development with the concept of smart textiles.

Liquid Crystal Optical Device

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039280568 9783039280575 Year: Pages: 98 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-057-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Physics (General) --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-30 16:39:46
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The Special Issue “Liquid Crystal Optical Devices” discusses recent developments in the rapidly advancing subject of liquid crystals (LCs).

Natural Fiber-Reinforced Hybrid Composites

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ISBN: 9783039281541 9783039281558 Year: Pages: 104 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-155-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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In the last few decades, natural fibers have received growing attention as an alternative to the synthetic fibers used in the reinforcement of polymeric composites, thanks to their specific properties, low price, health advantages, renewability, and recyclability. Furthermore, natural fibers have a CO2-neutral life cycle, in contrast to their synthetic counterparts. As is widely known, natural fibers also possess some drawbacks, e.g., a hydrophilic nature, low and variable mechanical properties, poor adhesion to polymeric matrices, high susceptibility to moisture absorption, low aging resistance, etc. This implies that their applications are limited to non-structural interior products. To overcome this problem, the hybridization of natural fibers with synthetic ones (i.e., glass, carbon, and basalt) or different natural fibers can be a solution. For this reason, extensive research concerning natural–synthetic and natural–natural hybrid composites has been done in the last years. In this context, this book aims to collect some interesting papers concerning the use of natural fibers together with synthetic ones with the aim of obtaining hybrid structures with good compromise between high properties (e.g., mechanical performances, thermal behavior, aging tolerance in humid or aggressive environments, and so on) and environment care.

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