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Multiple Pregnancy - New Challenges

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ISBN: 9781789850796 9781789850802 Year: Pages: 232 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.73973 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Gynecology and Obstetrics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:52

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Multiple Pregnancy - New Challenges is a comprehensive book, written in an organized and concise format. The book offers an immersion into multiple pregnancy. Each chapter presents the reader with various important issues related to the subject matter. The book covers all spectrums of multiple pregnancy such as epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis, prenatal care, unique complications in monochorionic pregnancies, preterm birth and mode of delivery. Through its 10 chapters the book contemplates the most relevant aspects of multiple pregnancy. Authors from all over the world have contributed to this book, bringing the best from their research experiences. The book give the reader a state-of-the-art update of multiple pregnancy.

Selected Topics in Midwifery Care

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ISBN: 9781789855333 9781789855340 Year: Pages: 136 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.74444 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Gynecology and Obstetrics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:52

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Midwifery across the globe faces different issues. In some countries the autonomy of the profession is a tradition, while in some societies midwives struggle to practice autonomously the basic competencies. In one part of the world the medicalisation of childbirth is the main issue, preventing the natural processes of pregnancy and childbirth to flow at their own pace, while in other parts of the world midwives struggle with lack of resources to provide safe midwifery care. The authors of this book practice midwifery in different cultures and within different social contexts. They have to deal with different obstacles and seek solutions to diverse problems. With their contributions, they offer an insight into their thinking, their dilemmas, and the problems of midwifery practices in their countries. However, despite different backgrounds, they all have in common a uniform goal - a wish to offer women optimal midwifery care and to improve midwifery services.

Prediction of Maternal and Fetal Syndrome of Preeclampsia

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ISBN: 9781789847222 9781789847239 9781839622571 Year: Pages: 154 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.78845 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Gynecology and Obstetrics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:53

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The clinical syndrome of preeclampsia is due to vasospasm, endothelial dysfunction, and altered red cell zeta potential. It is a culmination of multiple etiologies and pathophysiologies modified by epigenetics and the human immune system. Since the etiology and pathogenesis of preeclampsia are segregated and multifactorial, there is no single clinical, biophysical, or biochemical marker that can predict all types of this condition. This book provides a set of tentative specific prediction markers that can be used to identify different subtypes of preeclampsia, classify pathogenesis, categorize treatment, and identify early signs of complications.

Brain Development and the Attention Spectrum

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194827 Year: Pages: 96 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-482-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-16 15:44:59
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Early-onset and enduring developmental deficits in attention, especially if combined with increased hyperactivity, and impulsivity, may result in constant impairments in multiple domains of personal life. The full spectrum of symptoms is characterized by a persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity, which is maladaptive and inconsistent with a comparable level of developmental age known as Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). ADHD is considered one of the most common neurobehavioral disorders and of childhood, and among the most prevalent chronic health conditions.Given the wide heterogeneity and complex manifestations of the disorder, there is an importance in a developmental perspective that views ADHD as a multi-factorial disorder with multiple, causal processes, and pathways. The symptoms of ADHD should be cast, not as static or fixed neurobehavioral deficits, but rather in terms of underlying developmental processes.Even experienced professional might minimize the prevalence of a disorder among certain groups of patients. Therefore, the existence of attention disorders might become ""transparent"" for both the patient and the professional. This might lead to a non-accurate diagnosis, harm the treatment aspects and has potential non beneficial prognostic aspects.The developmental approach can provide predictions as to how characteristics associated with attention develop over time and how multiple risk and protective factors transact to impact it's development, as well as the development of a broad range of associated co-morbid features.Among children with mental retardation, autistic spectrum disorders, children who were born premature, born with low birth weight, as well as among those who suffer from chronic disorders (such as epilepsy, diabetes, chronic kidney disease or asthma), as well as among otherwise healthy preschoolers - the assessment of attention performance might be very challenging. In this research topic, we explore the latest cutting edge research on the biological and neural pathways as well as on psychosocial and behavioral correlates of brain development and attention spectrum. In doing so we aim to highlight: what is currently known regarding this new conceptualization of attention as a spectrum; the mechanisms underlying this spectrum; and where this field is headed in terms of developing our understanding of the link between brain development and attention performance.

Keywords

ADHD --- Attention --- Brain --- autism --- Child --- Delay --- development --- fetal --- maturation --- spectrum --- visual

Experimental models of early exposure to alcohol: a way to unravel the neurobiology of mental retardation

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194728 Year: Pages: 104 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-472-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Pediatrics --- Psychiatry --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:33
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Excessive alcohol drinking represents a major social and public health problem for several countries. Alcohol abuse during pregnancy leads to a complex syndrome referred to as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), chiefly characterized by mental retardation. The effects of early exposure to ethanol can be reproduced in laboratory animals and this helped to answer several key questions concerning the human pathology. The interest of experimental models of FASD is twofold. First, they increase our knowledge about the dose and modality of alcohol consumption able to induce damaging effects on the developing brain. Second, experimental models of FASD can provide useful hints to elucidate the basic mechanisms leading to the intellectual disability. In fact, experimental exposure to alcohol can be carried out during discrete, often very restricted, time windows. As a consequence, FASD models, though depending on the multifaceted interference of alcohol with several molecular pathways, can provide valuable information about which specific developmental periods and brain areas are critically involved in the genesis of mental retardation. Putting together data obtained through several experimental paradigms of alcohol exposure and those deriving from other genetic and non-genetic models, one can figure out to what extent different types of mental retardation share common pathogenetic mechanisms. The present Research Topic is aimed at establishing the state of the art of the current research on experimental FASD, focusing on differences and homologies with other types of intellectual disability. The ultimate goal is to find out a common roadmap in view of future therapeutical approaches.

Neuroanatomy of Human Brain Development

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451203 Year: Pages: 221 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-120-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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The human brain is extraordinary complex and yet its origin is a simple tubular structure. Rapid and dramatic structural growth takes place during the fetal and perinatal period. By the time of birth, a repertoire of major cortical, subcortical and white matter structures resembling the adult pattern has emerged, however there are continued maturational changes of the gray matter and white matter throughout childhood and adolescence and into adulthood. The maturation of neuronal structures provides the neuroanatomical basis for the acquisition and refinement of cognitive functions during postnatal development. Histological imaging has been traditionally dominant in understanding neuroanatomy of early brain development and still plays an unparalleled role in this field. Modern magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques including diffusion MRI, as noninvasive tools readily applied to in vivo brains, have become an important complementary approach in revealing the detailed brain anatomy, including the structural connectivity between brain regions. In this research topic, we presented the most recent investigations on understanding the neuroanatomy and connectivity of human brain development using both histology and MRI. Modern advances in mapping normal developmental brain anatomy and connectivity should elucidate many neurodevelopmental disorders, ranging from rare congenital malformations to common disorders such as autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which is a prerequisite for better diagnosis and treatment of these currently poorly understood diseases.

The biology of the first 1000 days

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Oxidative stress and disease ISBN: 9781498756792 Year: Pages: 518 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-17 11:45:55
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The first 1,000 days, from conception to 2 years of age, is a critical window of growth and development. Exposures to dietary, environmental, hormonal, and other stressors during this period have been associated with an increased risk of adverse health outcomes. Researchers using cell culture, animal models, and humans have identified this time as a period of rapid physiological change and plasticity with significant potential for lasting effects. As such, interventions during the first 1,000 days will have the greatest impact on outcomes, particularly in low- and middle-income countries where the need is greatest. To date, there is no single resource that compiles our knowledge of the biology of the first 1,000 days. Our knowledge and understanding of the biology behind the first 1,000 days is still limited. This greater understanding is helping us inform effective nutrition policy and programming. The strength of this book lies in its cross- disciplinary nature that encompasses the full range of human biology, providing a more holistic perspective during this critical time frame. Moreover, we have broadened the scope and included important periods before and after the 1,000 days. We have designed this book as a comprehensive resource for those involved in global health and nutrition policy, strategy, programming, or research. This book will also be a resource for students learning about nutrition and health across the 1,000 days. The book includes an exceptional group of contributors who are experts in their given fields. As biology underlies the core of each discussion, it allows the readers to answer the what and why, and, we hope, the how for new discovery research and more effective interventions. Each chapter in this volume provides insight into a specific life stage, disease state, nutrient, and stressor in the first 1,000 days. As such, each chapter can be read independently, providing a comprehensive overview of that subject. However, there is continuity between chapters allowing this collection of chapters to be read cover to cover. The first chapters set the stage, providing a succinct resource to understand the well-established biological mechanisms that underlie growth regulation and nutrient recommendations throughout the first 1,000 days. The next chapters move on to the evidence behind nutrition-specific and nutrition-sensitive interventions to combat adverse outcomes and disease states in the first 1,000 days. This book also features emerging research areas, such as the gut microbiome, environmental enteric dysfunction, and the role of epigenetics in health and development. The final chapter pushes the boundaries of discovery research, exploring novel areas such as proteomics and metabolomics, and how insults such as environmental enteric dysfunction affect metabolism in the first 1,000 days. We approached this book with the ambition to shed more light on the biology during 1,000 days, but there was also a need to put the biology into a broader context of nutrition and health. There are still many gaps in our understanding of the biology of the first 1,000 days. It is only by bridging this knowledge gap through research that we can inform effective interventions to improve outcomes during the first 1,000 days.

Genetics and epigenetics of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195732 Year: Pages: 114 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-573-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Biology --- Science (General) --- Genetics
Added to DOAB on : 2016-02-05 17:24:33
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Women drinking during pregnancy can result in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD), which may feature variable neurodevelopmental deficits, facial dysmorphology, growth retardation, and learning disabilities. Research suggests the human brain is precisely formed through an intrinsic, genetic-cellular expression that is carefully orchestrated by an epigenetic program. This program can be influenced by environmental inputs such as alcohol. Current research suggests the genetic and epigenetic elements of FASD are heavily intertwined and highly dependent on one another. As such, now is the time for investigators to combine genetic, genomic and epigenetic components of alcohol research into a centralized, accessible platform for discussion. Genetic analyses inform gene sets which may be vulnerable to alcohol exposure during early neurulation. Prenatal alcohol exposure indeed alters expression of gene subsets, including genes involved in neural specification, hematopoiesis, methylation, chromatin remodeling, histone variants, eye and heart development. Recently, quantitative genomic mapping has revealed loci (QTLs) that mediate alcohol-induced phenotypes identified between two alcohol-drinking mouse strains. One question to consider is (besides the role of dose and stage of alcohol exposure) why only 5% of drinking women deliver newborns diagnosed with FAS (Fetal Alcohol Syndrome)? Studies are ongoing to answer this question by characterizing genome-wide expression, allele-specific expression (ASE), gene polymorphisms (SNPs) and maternal genetic factors that influence alcohol vulnerability. Alcohol exposure during pregnancy, which can lead to FASD, has been used as a model to resolve the epigenetic pathway between environment and phenotype. Epigenetic mechanisms modify genetic outputs through alteration of 3D chromatin structure and accessibility of transcriptional machinery. Several laboratories have reported altered epigenetics, including DNA methylation and histone modification, in multiple models of FASD. During development DNA methylation is dynamic yet orchestrated in a precise spatiotemporal manner during neurulation and coincidental with neural differentiation. Alcohol can directly influence epigenetics through alterations of the methionine pathway and subsequent DNA or histone methylation/acetylation. Alcohol also alters noncoding RNA including miRNA and transposable elements (TEs). Evidence suggests that miRNA expression may mediate ethanol teratology, and TEs may be affected by alcohol through the alteration of DNA methylation at its regulatory region. In this manner, the epigenetic and genetic components of FASD are revealing themselves to be mechanistically intertwined. Can alcohol-induced epigenomic alterations be passed across generations? Early epidemiological studies have revealed infants with FASD-like features in the absence of maternal alcohol, where the fathers were alcoholics. Novel mechanisms for alcohol-induced phenotypes include altered sperm DNA methylation, hypomethylated paternal allele and heritable epimutations. These studies predict the heritability of alcohol-induced epigenetic abnormalities and gene functionality across generations. We opened a forum to researchers and investigators the field of FASD to discuss their insights, hypotheses, fresh data, past research, and future research themes embedded in this rising field of the genetics and epigenetics of FASD. This eBook is a product of the collective sharing and debate among researchers who have contributed or reviewed each subject.

Promiscuous functions of the prion protein gene family

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196050 Year: Pages: 113 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-605-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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The cellular prion protein PrPC is a ubiquitous GPI-anchored protein. While PrPC has been the focus of intense research for its involvement in a group of neurodegenerative disorders known as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE), much less attention has been devoted to its physiological function. This notably relates to the lack of obvious abnormalities of mice, goat or cattle lacking PrPC. This apparently normal phenotype in these PrPC-deficient animals however contrasts with the very high degree of conservation of the prion protein gene (Prnp) in mammalian species (over 80%), and the presence of genes with similarities to Prnp in birds, reptiles, amphibians and fish. This high conservation together with its ubiquitous expression, - albeit at highest levels in the brain-, suggest that PrPC has major physiological functions. Dissecting PrPC function is further complicated by the occurrence, in mammals, of two potentially partially redundant homologues, Doppel, and Shadoo. The biological overlaps between members of the prion protein family are still under investigation and much debated. Similarly, although in vitro analyses have suggested various functions for PrPC, notably in cell death and survival processes, some have yielded conflicting results and/or discrepancies with in vivo studies. This Research Topic brings together the accumulated knowledge regarding the biological roles of the prion protein family, from the animal to the molecular scale.

Handbook of Life Course Health Development

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783319471419 9783319471433 Year: Pages: 664 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-47143-3 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-03-29 11:35:41
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This handbook synthesizes and analyzes the growing knowledge base on life course health development (LCHD) from the prenatal period through emerging adulthood, with implications for clinical practice and public health. It presents LCHD as an innovative field with a sound theoretical framework for understanding wellness and disease from a lifespan perspective, replacing previous medical, biopsychosocial, and early genomic models of health. Interdisciplinary chapters discuss major health concerns (diabetes, obesity), important less-studied conditions (hearing, kidney health), and large-scale issues (nutrition, adversity) from a lifespan viewpoint. In addition, chapters address methodological approaches and challenges by analyzing existing measures, studies, and surveys. The book concludes with the editors’ research agenda that proposes priorities for future LCHD research and its application to health care practice and health policy.

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