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This in-between : How families talk about death in relation to severe brain injury and disorders of consciousness (Book chapter)

Book title: The Social Construction of Death

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ISBN: 9781137391902 9781137391926 9781137391919 Year: Pages: 296 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Grant: Wellcome Trust - 097829
Subject: Sociology --- Media and communication --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-22 11:01:04
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Thanatological research in the social sciences and the humanities acknowledges that death is culturally and socially embedded. The idea of the social construction of death has been taken on board, albeit slowly, by the social and cultural study of death, but explicit reflections on the underlying ontologies and epistemologies of this paradigm remain scarce. This edited volume aims to strengthen the paradigmatic reflections about the social construction of death in thanatology and contribute to a theoretical reinforcement of the field. It also puts death and dying more explicitly on the agenda of social constructionist and social constructivist research in general, arguing that the study of death is important for these approaches. The thirteen contributions gathered in this volume, written by well-established scholars from a variety of disciplines (including sociology, anthropology, media and cultural studies, and political sciences), theorise the social construction of death and dying, and deploy it to analyse a wide variety of meaning-making practices in societal fields such as ethics, politics, media, medicine and family.

Misery to Mirth

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ISBN: 9780198779025 9780198779025 Year: Pages: 288 DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780198779025.001.0001 Language: English
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-07-25 11:01:02
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The history of early modern medicine often makes for depressing reading. It implies that people fell ill, took ineffective remedies, and died. This book seeks to rebalance and brighten our overall picture of early modern health by focusing on the neglected subject of recovery from illness in England, c.1580–1720. Drawing on an array of archival and printed materials, Misery to Mirth shows that recovery did exist conceptually at this time, and that it was a widely reported phenomenon. The book takes three main perspectives: the first is physiological or medical, asking what doctors and laypeople meant by recovery, and how they thought it occurred. This includes a discussion of convalescent care, a special branch of medicine designed to restore strength to the patient’s fragile body after illness. Secondly, the book adopts the viewpoint of patients themselves: it investigates how they reacted to the escape from death, the abatement of pain and suffering, and the return to normal life and work. At the heart of getting better was contrast—from ‘paine to ease, sadnesse to mirth, prison to liberty, and death to life’. The third perspective concerns the patient’s loved ones; it shows that family and friends usually shared the feelings of patients, undergoing a dramatic transformation from anguish to elation. This mirroring of experiences, known as ‘fellow-feeling’, reveals the depth of love between many individuals. Through these discussions, the book opens a window onto some of the most profound, as well as the more prosaic, aspects of early modern existence, from attitudes to life and death, to details of what convalescents ate for supper and wore in bed.&#xD;

Keywords

recovery --- convalescence --- cure --- heal --- patient --- medicine --- disease --- death --- emotions --- joy

Sudden Death in Epilepsy: Basic and Translational Research

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455942 Year: Pages: 71 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-594-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Sudden Death in Epilepsy (SUDEP) is a major cause of death in people with epilepsy, accounting for up to 17% of all deaths. Research interest is exploding, focusing on epidemiology, basic mechanisms, identification of risk factors, and biomarkers. New wearable technologies are approved or in development. These incorporate accelerometers and advanced heart rate detection, which are linked to smart phones. The advent of FDA approved detection devices now allows immediate intervention by family and loved ones. The next frontier for SUDEP remains effective prevention strategies, which will likely include new devices and pharmacologic interventions. This volume is organized into three sections: Basic and Physiologic Mechanisms; Clinical Risk Factors and Inventories; and Very Early Research into Pharmacologic Interventions. It is our hope that this eBook will inform clinicians of key advances in the field, and to foster and stimulate basic and translational research with one purpose: To prevent SUDEP in those at risk.

Wegbegleitung, Trost und Hoffnung

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Book Series: Schriften der KatHo NRW ISBN: 9783847403357 9783938094679 Year: Pages: 328 DOI: 10.3224/93809467 Language: German
Publisher: Verlag Barbara Budrich
Subject: Religion
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-22 11:21:08
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What may be done when a person is dying? Accompany and thus give comfort - but how? The contributions of this interdisciplinary volume give professional or individual advice to people confronted with death on how to support dying people in their last days and hours. In this way they lead to a holistic palliative and terminal care.

Indian Sufism since the Seventeenth Century

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Book Series: Routledge Sufi Series ISBN: 9780203965368 9780415390408 9780415549882 9781134168255 9781134168248 9781134168200 Year: DOI: 10.4324/9780203965368 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Sociology --- Religion --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-08 11:21:22
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Sufism is often regarded as standing mystically aloof from its wider cultural settings. By turning this perspective on its head, Indian Sufism since the Seventeenth Century reveals the politics and poetry of Indian Sufism through the study of Islamic sainthood in the midst of a cosmopolitan Indian society comprising migrants, soldiers, litterateurs and princes. Placing the mystical traditions of Indian Islam within their cultural contexts, this interesting study focuses on the shrines of four Sufi saints in the neglected Deccan region and their changing roles under the rule of the Mughals, the Nizams of Haydarabad and, after 1948, the Indian nation. In particular Green studies the city of Awrangabad, examining the vibrant intellectual and cultural history of this city as part of the independent state of Haydarabad. He employs a combination of historical texts and anthropological fieldwork, which provide a fresh perspective on developments of devotional Islam in South Asia over the past three centuries, giving a fuller understanding of Sufism and Muslim saints in South Asia.

Annals of Bioethics: Regional Perspectives in Bioethics

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Book Series: Routledge Annals of Bioethics ISBN: 9780203971024 9789026519529 9781138002227 9781135302283 9781135302276 9781135302238 Year: DOI: 10.4324/9780203971024 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Philosophy
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-08 11:21:31
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Regional Perspectives in Bioethics" illustrates the ways in which the national and international political landscape encompasses persons from diverse and often fragmented moral communities with widely varying moral intuitions, premises, evaluations and commitments.

Infection and Inflammation: Potential Triggers of Sudden Infant Deaths

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450497 Year: Pages: 94 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-049-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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There is a growing body of evidence that infectious agents or their products contribute to events leading to unexpected infant deaths. This issue summarizes the current information on the interactions between genetic background of the infant, environmental and developmental risk factors, and the microbial flora of the infant that could trigger lethal responses to common infections.

Beyond Price: Essays on Birth and Death

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ISBN: 9781783741687 9781783741694 Year: Pages: 232 DOI: 10.11647/OBP.0061 Language: English
Publisher: Open Book Publishers
Subject: Philosophy --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-10-16 16:50:15
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In nine lively essays, bioethicist J. David Velleman challenges the prevailing consensus about assisted suicide and reproductive technology, articulating an original approach to the ethics of creating and ending human lives. He argues that assistance in dying is appropriate only at the point where talk of suicide is not, and he raises moral objections to anonymous donor conception. In their place, Velleman champions a morality of valuing personhood over happiness in making end-of-life decisions, and respecting the personhood of future children in making decisions about procreation. These controversial views are defended with philosophical rigor while remaining accessible to the general reader. Written over Velleman's 30 years of undergraduate teaching in bioethics, the essays have never before been collected and made available to a non-academic audience. They will open new lines of debate on issues of intense public interest.

Non-Ordinary Mental Expressions

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194858 Year: Pages: 135 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-485-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-16 15:44:59
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So-called altered states of consciousness (ASC) are an intriguing, still under-researched topic, with profound neuropsychological and epistemological implications. In the last few decades there has been increasing multidisciplinary interest in consciousness and ASC, a term encompassing a wide range of pathological and non-pathological conditions, including dreaming, near-death experiences (NDEs), hypnagogic states, hallucinogenic experiences, epileptic seizures, psychotic symptoms, coma, and minimally conscious states. There has also been considerable research on procedures that may affect ASC including hypnosis and various forms of meditation. Since the term altered implies for some abnormality or dysfunction, the concept of anomalous experiences (not necessarily implying pathology) is increasingly used and more general.The term non-ordinary mental expressions (NOME) encompasses both anomalous (at least for a particular culture at a particular time) experiences and related neuropsychological processes and induction procedures. Our use of non-ordinary: a) does not assume pathology; and b) is suitable for sophisticated and positive mental activities, including, creativity, intuition, and some forms of spirituality. We use the term mind to include both conscious and preconscious processes, and question the notion that, "ordinary", waking consciousness provides the only epistemologically valid stance with regard to the mind and its interactions with reality. Similarly, although genius and madness both imply something beyond normal, they differ importantly in their ontology and implications. In short, NOME refers to both experiences and procedures that seek to change short- or long-term psychological processes. Regarding the latter, meditation is an intentional activity, calling for training of attention and reflective awareness, and varying in specific procedures and outcomes. With regard to an absence of pathology, NDEs, which have several features in common with mystical experiences, may occur in the absence of any brain disorder and bring about positive changes. Reductionist interpretations of NDEs as pathophysiological do not explain nor encompass the whole range of their phenomenology. Instead, brain areas and neurotransmitters potentially involved in these experiences may provide a common terrain for both pathological and non-pathological mind expressions.We believe that a proper approach to NOME should adopt a neurophenomenological approach to the study of brain mechanisms and subjective experiences as a whole, integrating experiential and neuroscientific perspectives, without any a priori fixed hierarchy or ontology. The brain-mind relationship can be analyzed as a recursive loop, where brain activity gives rise to mental phenomena and mental processes, in turn, yield functional and plastic changes in the brain. This Research Topic will include international experts in NOME as well as young researchers within a multidisciplinary discussion, in which neuroscientists, psychologists, psychiatrists, philosophers, anthropologists, and other professionals will be asked to contribute. We aim to reappraise the importance of NOME and its implications for the mind-brain-world relationship. The editors will solicit original research contributions as well as theoretical papers, such as reviews, mini-reviews, and theoretical discussions.

Mitochondria: the cell powerhouse and nexus of stress

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889192830 Year: Pages: 121 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-283-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Biology --- Physiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:06
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Mitochondrion, a sub-cellular organelle originated from primary endosymbiosis, plays a vital role in energy metabolism of eukaryotic cells. The transfer of electrons through the electron transport chain (ETC) to molecular oxygen accompanied by the extrusion of protons from the matrix generate an electrochemical gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM) that is used for ATP synthesis by oxidative phosphorylation. Despite many aspects of ATP synthesis have been delineated, regulatory mechanisms responsible for energy synthesis and transfer still remain to be uncovered. In addition to energy function, mitochondria play a crucial role in cell metabolism under both physiological and pathological conditions through their participation in many intracellular signaling pathways. Studies over the last 30 years provide strong evidence that mitochondria are the nexus of various stresses which initiate cell death through apoptosis, oncosis, necrosis and autophagy depending on the severity of the stress and cellular energy status. The release of several pro-apoptotic proteins such as cytochrome c, Smac/DIABLO, AIF, endonuclease G from intermembrane space initiates both caspase-dependent and caspase-independent apoptosis. The formation of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore in the IMM promotes cell death mostly through necrosis whereas a mild stress activates autophagy. Due to their critical roles in both cell death and survival mitochondria have been widely considered as an important target for various pharmacological and conditional therapeutic approaches. Currently, a large number of mitochondria-targeted agents are suggested to prevent (in ischemia reperfusion injury, cardiovascular, neurodegenerative and other diseases) or stimulate (in various cancers) cell death. This Research Topic focuses on the role of mitochondria in the regulation of cell metabolism and signaling under physiological and pathological conditions. Studies performed on cultured cells and isolated organs/tissues using different animal and cellular models of various diseases are also included and discussed.

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