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Towards Elimination of Dog Mediated Human Rabies

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452996 Year: Pages: 148 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-299-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Public Health --- Animal Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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Rabies is an ancient zoonotic viral disease that still exerts a high impact on human and animal health. The disease is almost 100% fatal after clinical signs appear, and it kills tens of thousands of people per year worldwide, particularly in Africa and many parts of Asia. Although the disease in humans can be prevented by timely post-exposure prophylaxis, its access and affordability is limited in rabies endemic countries. With 99% of infections in humans caused by rabid domestic dog bites, controlling the infection in this reservoir population has been proven to be most effective to reduce and eliminate human rabies cases. In this context, this Research Topic invited contributions on the control and elimination of dog mediated human rabies. Publications on epidemiological, educational, policy-related and economic aspects of dog and human rabies surveillance, implementation of control in dogs and humans and scientific documentation of success stories were consolidated. We hope that these articles contribute to reaching the ambitious goal, set by key players in global health, of the elimination of dog mediated human rabies by 2030.

Kostensensible Leitlinien

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ISBN: 9783954664580 Year: Pages: 209 DOI: 10.32745/9783954664580-2 Language: German
Publisher: MWV Medizinisch Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft
Subject: Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2020-07-08 00:00:46
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"Medical innovations and demographic change will further exacerbate the financial situation in the German healthcare system in the coming years. The evidence-based allocation of the limited funds available will therefore become increasingly important. From an ethical perspective, allocation decisions should be based on clearly defined procedures and criteria. So far, however, there are no concrete approaches on how this explicit performance control can be implemented in practice. The book provides an overview of the results of the interdisciplinary research association ""Allocation"", which for the first time examined the possibilities and limits of explicit performance management in two selected practical areas (interventional cardiology and intensive care medicine). Two exemplary cost-sensitive guidelines have been developed that enable an evidence-based balance between efficiency and justice. The legal requirements for such an explicit benefit management in statutory health insurance were examined in detail. Healthcare professionals and patients were asked for their assessments of the strengths and weaknesses of the cost-sensitive guidelines."

Wound Care

ISBN: 9783038420446 9783038420453 Year: Volume: 1 Pages: 192 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2015-10-22 06:51:13
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Wounds and the many associated problems have challenged health care providers for centuries and today, despite the wealth of knowledge available, neither the incidence nor prevalence of wounds is reducing. Furthermore, in view of our changing demographic profile and the projected increase in the older population it is likely that wound management will become an ever increasing burden to the individual, health care services and society as a whole. The annual incidence of wounds in the EU-27 is approximately 4 million, and between 25% and 50% of acute hospital beds are occupied by patients with a wound, with up to 60% of these representing non-healing wounds (infected surgical wounds, pressure ulcers, leg/foot ulcers) The increasing prevalence and incidence of non-wounds healing is closely linked with quality of care and, as such, these rising figures reduce society’s confidence in the health service’s ability to deliver care that is timely, appropriate and effective. Thus, for those involved in this specialist area of clinical practice, the fundamental goal is to improve clinical outcomes, reduce the burden of wounds and improve health related quality of life.In this Special Issue “Wound Care” in Healthcare, we invited submission of manuscripts exploring contemporary issues in wound care. By devoting a special issue to wound care, we endeavoured to provide readers with a comprehensive reference source, outlining key areas of interest in this important aspect of clinical practice. The response to the call for manuscripts was fantastic and, as a result, we were able to include both original qualitative and quantitative research papers in addition to review papers, thereby providing readers with a wealth of valuable information pertinent to wound care.

Today’s Nutrition and Tomorrow’s Public Health: Challenges and Opportunities

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198184 Year: Pages: 83 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-818-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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At the dawn of the third millennium, we are confronted with a disturbing phenomenon: although global life expectancy still increases, this is not the case for healthy life expectancy! The explanation of this seemingly contradiction is mainly due to the rising prevalence of the new pandemia of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Even in low and middle income countries, the improvement in healthcare status and life expectancy is paralled by the increase of NCDs, as in all countries worldwide. Since the United Nations General Assembly held in New York in 2011, many publications have emphasized the close link between NCDs and nutrition. The NCDs epidemic forces us to reconsider the public health perspectives. Many governments, non-governmental organizations and other institutions are actively involved in educational nutrition programs and campaigns; however their efforts seldom obtain the results hoped for. It is extremely difficult to induce changes in lifestyle and behavior that have built up over a long period of time. However, it becomes urgent to adapt to our changing life-environment where traditional wisdom and intuitive choices are giving way to individual thinking and search for (often uncontrolled) information. This engenders a number of unprecedented challenges and it calls for a re-appraisal of the existing paradigms to achieve an adequate management of the upstream determinants of health instead of a (pre)dominant medical and hospital-centric approach. In the era of personalized healthcare, it is time to empower policy makers, professionals and citizens for achieving an evidence-based change in the health-disease interface and decision-making process for public health interventions. The scientific and professional society Health Technology Assessment International (HTAi) has recognized nutrition as a health technology by creating a Interest Group (IG) dedicated to research on methodologies and assessments of nutrition-related public health, while taking into account contextual factors (ethical, legal, social, organizational, economic, ...) in order to generate meaningful outcomes for establishing evidence-based health policies. This Research Topic aims to elaborate on some of the potential hurdles which have to be overcome for the sake of sustainable healthcare provisions anywhere in the world, such as shortcomings in methodological approaches, regulatory frameworks, gaps between evidence, its hierarchy and final recommendations for public health management.

Social cost-benefit analysis of air pollution control measures - Advancing environmental-economic assessment methods to evaluate industrial point emission sources

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ISBN: 9783731506973 Year: Pages: XXV, 230 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000072046 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:58
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This book enhances economic methods for social cost-benefit analysis of air pollution control measures at point emission sources. A new and highly resolved health damage cost assessment framework is developed and applied, notably in order to evaluate the influence of site-dependent and generic methodological choices. Several of these are shown to have a major impact on resulting health damage costs with important implications for decision-making.

Global Health Economics:Shaping Health Policy in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

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Book Series: World Scientific Series in Global Health Economics and Public Policy ISBN: 9789813272378 Year: Volume: 5 Pages: 376 DOI: 10.1142/11045 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Co. Grant: Centre for Health Economics, University of York
Subject: Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-08 17:00:36
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This book contains a collection of works showcasing the latest research into global health economics conducted by leading experts in the field from the Centre for Health Economics (CHE) at the University of York and other partner research institutions. Each chapter focuses upon an important topic in global health economics and a number of separate research projects. The discussion delves into health care policy evaluation; economic evaluation; econometric and other analytic methods; health equity and universal health coverage; consideration of cost-effectiveness thresholds and opportunity costs in the health sector; health system challenges and possible solutions; and others. Case study examples from a variety of low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) settings are also showcased in the final part of this volume.The research presented seeks to contribute toward increasing understanding on how health policy can be enhanced to improve the welfare of LMIC populations. It is strongly recommended for public health policymakers and analysts in low- and middle-income country settings and those affiliated to international health organizations and donor organizations.

Ocean-Atmosphere Interactions of Gases and Particles

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Book Series: Springer Earth System Sciences ISSN: 21979596 ISBN: 9783642256424 9783642256431 Year: Pages: 315 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-25643-1 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Business and Management --- General and Civil Engineering --- Materials --- Geography
Added to DOAB on : 2014-02-10 16:18:02
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The oceans and atmosphere interact through various processes, including the transfer of momentum, heat, gases and particles. In this book leading international experts come together to provide a state-of-the-art account of these exchanges and their role in the Earth-system, with particular focus on gases and particles. Chapters in the book cover: i) the ocean-atmosphere exchange of short-lived trace gases; ii) mechanisms and models of interfacial exchange (including transfer velocity parameterisations); iii) ocean-atmosphere exchange of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide; iv) ocean atmosphere exchange of particles and v) current and future data collection and synthesis efforts. The scope of the book extends to the biogeochemical responses to emitted / deposited material and interactions and feedbacks in the wider Earth-system context. This work constitutes a highly detailed synthesis and reference; of interest to higher-level university students (Masters, PhD) and researchers in ocean-atmosphere interactions and related fields (Earth-system science, marine / atmospheric biogeochemistry / climate). Production of this book was supported and funded by the EU COST Action 735 and coordinated by the International SOLAS (Surface Ocean- Lower Atmosphere Study) project office.

Design and Engineering of Microreactor and Smart-Scaled Flow Processes

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ISBN: 9783038420385 9783038420392 Year: Pages: 252 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-039-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2015-10-22 07:00:06
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Microreactors are small devices with sub-millimeter internals which have superb mass and heat transfer. Initially, they were used for reactions with very high demands on the latter, e.g. very exothermic reactions, gas-liquid reactions with interfacial transport issues, reactions with very fast kinetics which demands even faster mixing, and more. In this way, the processing window was opened widely and, also due to the minute volumes only present in the reaction zone, safe processing under otherwise hazardous conditions was enabled. This includes processing of reactions which are prone to thermal runaway and in the explosive regime. Scale-up of promising reactions and products which was hindered with conventional technology is now possible using the new equipment. This has widened the process development possibilities in chemical industry.In the last years, micro process technology was not only used for the very problematic synthetic issues which formerly had a dead-end position in industry’s process development. Rather, the scope of chemical reactions to be processed in microreactors was considerably widened by exploring new process conditions with regard to temperature, pressure, concentration, solvents, and more. This is commonly referred to as flow chemistry. This allowed to reduce the processing time-scale for many reactions to the minute range or even below which fits well to the residence times of microreactors. In addition, the process integration of several reactions in one flow to a multi-step synthesis has opened a new door in molecular diversity as well as system and process complexity. The same holds for the combination of reactions and separations in micro-flow. To achieve throughputs relevant for industrial production, smart scale-out to milli-flow units has established and supplemented the num­bering-up concept (parallelization of microchannels/-reactors operated under equal conditions).New innovations and enabling technologies need anyhow evaluation and benchmarking with conventional technology on the full-system level. Yet, microreactor technology has in the last years deepened so much into process intensification on a holistic scale that the focus increasingly is given towards the process dimension—to process design and automation, real-case applications, cost analysis, life-cycle assessment, and more. The impact on cost competitiveness and sustainability becomes well assessed.Facing this very recent scientific achievement, the special issue “Design and Engineering of Microreactor and Smart-Scaled Flow Processes” of the journal Processes aims to cover recent advances in the development of microreactor and smart-scaled flow processes towards the process level — in the sense as given above.

Role of Health Economic Data in Policy Making and Reimbursement of New Medical Technologies

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453207 Year: Pages: 202 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-320-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-22 11:34:28
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This Research Topic was focused on provision of novel medical technologies worldwide keeping in mind financial sustainability challenge. An exemplary area certainly are oncology pharmaceuticals where prices have increased 10-fold in recent years leading to concerns on affordability. The objective of this collection of studies was to reveal some of the hidden underlying causes of unequal access to the medicines. Another core issue is the growing proportion of out-of-pocket health spending in many world regions. In line with the joint efforts of the editors and authors we received an exceptionally high response worldwide. This E-Book attracted a total of 37 self-standing research submissions out of which 32 ultimately passed external peer review and got published. Base affiliations of the authors spread across academia, pharmaceutical and medical device industry, governmental authorities and clinical medicine. Their home institutions were situated in fifteen different countries inclusive of Japan, Israel, Russia, USA, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Austria, Spain, Malta, Serbia, Poland, Bulgaria, Hungary and Malaysia. We frankly believe that authors succeeded to cover important literature gaps referring to these world regions. We solicit global professional audience to put our efforts to the test and read this contribution to the health economics literature.

Civil and Military Airworthiness: Recent Developments and Challenges

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ISBN: 9783039289158 / 9783039289165 Year: Pages: 272 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-916-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Airworthiness, as a field, encompasses the technical and non-technical activities required to design, certify, produce, maintain, and safely operate an aircraft throughout its lifespan. The evolving technology, science, and engineering methods and, most importantly, aviation regulation, offer new opportunities and create, new challenges for the aviation industry. This book assembles review and research articles across a variety of topics in the field of airworthiness: aircraft maintenance, safety management, human factors, cost analysis, structures, risk assessment, unmanned aerial vehicles and regulations. This selection of papers informs the industry practitioners and researchers on important issues.

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