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Reelin-Related Neurological Disorders and Animal Models

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451111 Year: Pages: 179 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-111-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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The Reeler mutation was so named because of the alterations in gait that characterize homozygous mice. Several decades after the description of the Reeler phenotype, the mutated protein was discovered and named Reelin (Reln). Reln controls a number of fundamental steps in embryonic and postnatal brain development. A prominent embryonic function is the control of radial neuronal migration. As a consequence, homozygous Reeler mutants show disrupted cell layering in cortical brain structures. Reln also promotes postnatal neuronal maturation. Heterozygous mutants exhibit defects in dendrite extension and synapse formation, correlating with behavioral and cognitive deficits that are detectable at adult ages. The Reln-encoding gene is highly conserved between mice and humans. In humans, homozygous RELN mutations cause lissencephaly with cerebellar hypoplasia, a severe neuronal migration disorder that is reminiscent of the Reeler phenotype. In addition, RELN deficiency or dysfunction is also correlated with psychiatric and cognitive disorders, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and autism, as well as some forms of epilepsy and Alzheimer's disease. Despite the wealth of anatomical studies of the Reeler mouse brain, and the molecular dissection of Reln signaling mechanisms, the consequences of Reln deficiency on the development and function of the human brain are not yet completely understood. This Research Topic include reviews that summarize our current knowledge of the molecular aspects of Reln function, original articles that advance our understanding of its expression and function in different brain regions, and reviews that critically assess the potential role of Reln in human psychiatric and cognitive disorders.

Minding Glial Cells in the Novel Understandings of Mental Illness

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451579 Year: Pages: 275 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-157-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-28 14:01:09
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Traditionally, abnormalities of neurons and neuronal networks including synaptic abnormalities and disturbance of neurotransmitters have dominantly been believed to be the main causes of psychiatric disorders. Recent cellular neuroscience has revealed various unknown roles of glial cells such as astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and microglia. These glial cells have proved to continuously contact with neurons /synapses, and have been shown to play important roles in brain development, homeostasis and various brain functions. Beyond the classic neuronal doctrine, accumulating evidence has suggested that abnormalities and disturbances of neuron-glia crosstalk may induce psychiatric disorders, while these mechanisms have not been well understood. This Research Topic of the Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience will focus on the most recent developments and ideas in the study of glial cells (astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and microglia) focusing on psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, mood disorders and autism. Not only molecular, cellular and pharmacological approaches using in vitro / in vivo experimental methods but also translational research approaches are welcome. Novel translational research approaches, for example, using novel techniques such as induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, may lead to novel solutions. We believe that investigations to clarify the correlation between glial cells and psychiatric disorders contribute to a novel understanding of the pathophysiology of these disorders and the development of effective treatment strategies.

Embodying the Self: Neurophysiological Perspectives on the Psychopathology of Anomalous Bodily Experiences

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454563 Year: Pages: 174 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-456-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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Since the beginning of the 20th Century, phenomenology has developed a distinction between lived body (Leib) and physical body (Koerper), a distinction well known as body-subject vs. body-object (Hanna and Thompson 2007). The lived body is the body experienced from within - my own direct experience of my body lived in the first-person perspective, myself as a spatiotemporal embodied agent in the world. The physical body on the other hand, is the body thematically investigated from a third person perspective by natural sciences as anatomy and physiology. An active topic affecting the understanding of several psychopathological disorders is the relatively unknown dynamic existing between aspects related to the body-object (that comprises the neurobiological substrate of the disease) and the body-subject (the experiences reported by patients) (Nelson and Sass 2017). A clue testifying the need to better explore this dynamic in the psychopathological context is the marked gap that still exists between patients’ clinical reports (generally entailing disturbing experiences) and etiopathogenetic theories and therapeutic practices, that are mainly postulated at a bodily/brain level of description and analysis. The phenomenological exploration typically targets descriptions of persons’ lived experience. For instance, patients suffering from schizophrenia may describe their thoughts as alien (‘‘thoughts are intruding into my head’’) and the world surrounding them as fragmented (‘‘the world is a series of snapshots’’) (Stanghellini et al., 2015). The result is a rich and detailed collection of the patients’ qualitative self-descriptions (Stanghellini and Rossi, 2014), that reveal fundamental changes in the structure of experiencing and can be captured by using specific assessment tools (Parnas et al. 2005; Sass et al. 2017; Stanghellini et al., 2014).The practice of considering the objective and the subjective levels of analysis as separated in the research studies design has many unintended consequences. Primarily, it has the effect of limiting actionable neuroscientific progress within clinical practice. This holds true both in terms of availability of evidence-based treatments for the disorders, as well as for early diagnosis purposes. In response to this need, this collection of articles aims to promote an interdisciplinary endeavor to better connect the bodily, objective level of analysis with its experiential corollary. This is accomplished by focusing on the convergence between (neuro) physiological evidence and the phenomenological manifestations of anomalous bodily experiences present in different disorders.

MR Spectroscopy in Neuropsychiatry

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455249 Year: Pages: 90 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-524-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Psychiatry
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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Neuropsychiatric disorders, covering both psychotic and depressive disorders, but also autism and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), are characterized by abnormal behavior and brain structure. Accumulating evidence suggests that altered neurochemistry plays a role in these disorders and may have a causal relationship with the observed behavioral and structural abnormalities. To improve the understanding of neurochemical anomalies and (patho)physiological changes in psychiatric conditions, in vivo assessment of the affected tissue, the brain, is wanted and needed. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is a non-invasive technique which allows in vivo assessment of the molecular composition of brain tissues and identification of metabolites involved in physiological and pathological processes, which is otherwise virtually impossible. Only in the last decade with the development of high field MR methodologies, MRS has become sensitive enough for broader use in clinical studies. The implications are many, but proper guidance and elucidation of the pros and cons for the specific methods is needed to optimally exploit the potential.This Research Topic updates the reader on the possibilities and pitfalls of MRS today and highlights methodologies and applications for the future.

Neuroglia Molecular Mechanisms in Psychiatric Disorders

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456987 Year: Pages: 154 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-698-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Neuropsychiatric disorders have long been considered as specific dysfunctions of neuronal functions. Studies of the recent decade, however, have challenged this simplistic view, highlighting the important role played by neuroglial cells in the onset and/or progression of neuropsychiatric diseases. In the central nervous system (CNS) non-excitable neuroglia are represented by cells of ectodermal origin (astrocytes, mainly responsible for CNS homeostasis and oligodendrocytes that provide myelination and support for axons) and mesodermal origin (microglial cells that are scions of foetal macrophages entering the neural tube early in development; these cells provide for CNS defence and contribute to shaping neuronal networks). Pathological changes of neuroglia are complex; these changes are classified into reactive gliosis (astrogliosis, activation of microglia and hypertrophy of oligodendroglial precursors), gliodegeneration with loss of function and glial pathological remodelling. Combination of these processes defines the evolution of neurological diseases in general and neuropsychiatric disorders in particular.In this research topic we addressed the contribution of neuroglia to major neuropsychiatric pathologies including major depression, schizophrenia, and addictive disorders.

Entgrenzungen des Wahnsinns. Psychopathie und Psychopathologisierungen um 1900

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Book Series: Schriften des Historischen Kollegs ISSN: 2190-1392 ISBN: 9783110443493 Year: Volume: 93 Pages: 315,00 DOI: 10.1515/9783110443493 Language: German
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: History
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-27 13:08:38

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The rise of psychiatry in the second half of the 19th century was accompanied by a number of dislocations. Modern artistic tendencies, deviant sexual behavior, and other maladaptive social behavior patterns were psycho-pathologized, and the notion of insanity took on new connotations. The book discusses these diverse phenomena in an original and insightful way with reference to institutional, conceptual, and case examples.

Psychomotor symptomatology in psychiatric illnesses

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197255 Year: Pages: 137 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-725-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychiatry --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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Psychomotor symptoms are those symptoms that are characterized by deficits in the initiation, execution and monitoring of movements, such as psychomotor slowing, catatonia, neurological soft signs (NSS), reduction in motor activity or extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS). These symptoms have not always received the attention they deserve although they can be observed in a wide range of psychiatric illnesses, including mood disorders, psychotic disorders, anxiety disorders, pervasive developmental disorders and personality disorders. Nevertheless, these symptoms seem to have prognostic value on clinical and functional outcome in several pathologies. In the late 19th century, the founding fathers of modern psychiatry (including Kahlbaum, Wernicke, Kraepelin and Bleuler) had a strong focus on psychomotor abnormalities in their description and definitions of psychiatric illnesses and systematically recognized these as core features of several psychiatric pathologies. Nevertheless, emphasis on these symptoms has reduced substantially since the emergence of psychopharmacology, given the association between antipsychotics or antidepressants and medication-induced motor deficits. This has resulted in the general idea that most if not all psychomotor deficits were merely side effects of their treatment rather than intrinsic features of the illness. Yet, the last two decades a renewed interest in these deficits can be observed and has yielded an exponential growth of research into these psychomotor symptoms in several psychiatric illnesses. This recent evolution is also reflected in the increased appreciation of these symptoms in the DSM-5. As a result of this increased focus, new insights into the clinical and demographical presentation, the etiology, the course, the prognostic value as well as treatment aspects of psychomotor symptomatology in different illnesses has emerged. Still, many new questions arise from these findings. This research topic is comprised of all types of contributions (original research, reviews, and opinion piece) with a focus on psychomotor symptomatology in a psychiatric illness, especially research focusing on one or more of the following topics: the clinical presentation of the psychomotor syndrome; the course through the illness; the diagnostical specificity of the syndrome; the underlying neurobiological or neuropsychological processes; new assessment techniques; pharmacological or non-pharmacological treatment strategies.

Computers and Games for Mental Health and Well-Being

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454969 Year: Pages: 311 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-496-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Psychiatry --- Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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Recent years have seen important developments in the computer and game industry, including the emergence of the concept of serious games. It is hypothesized that tools such as games, virtual reality, or applications for smartphones may foster learning, enhance motivation, promote behavioral change, support psychotherapy, favor empowerment, and improve some cognitive functions. Computers and games may create supports for training or help people with cognitive, emotional, or behavioral change. Games take various formats, from board games to informatics to games with interactive rules of play. Similarly, computer tools may vary widely in format, from self-help or assisted computerized training to virtual reality or applications for smartphones. Some tools that may be helpful for mental health were specifically designed for that goal, whereas others were not. Gamification of computer-related products and games with a numeric format tend to reduce the gap between games and computers tools and increase the conceptual synergy in such fields. Games and computer design share an opportunity for creativity and innovation to help create, specifically design, and assess preventive or therapeutic tools. Computers and games share a design conception that allows innovative approaches to overcome barriers of the real world by creating their own rules. Yet, despite the potential interest in such tools to improve treatment of mental disorders and to help prevent them, the field remains understudied and information is under-disseminated in clinical practice. Some studies have shown, however, that there is potential interest and acceptability of tools that support various vehicles, rationales, objectives, and formats. These tools include traditional games (e.g., chess games), popular electronic games, board games, computer-based interventions specifically designed for psychotherapy or cognitive training, virtual reality, apps for smartphones, and so forth. Computers and games may offer a true opportunity to develop, assess, and disseminate new prevention and treatment tools for mental health and well-being. Currently, there is a strong need for state-of-the-art information to answer questions such as the following: Why develop such tools for mental health and well-being? What are the potential additions to traditional treatments? What are the best strategies or formats to improve the possible impact of these tools? Are such tools useful as a first treatment step? What is the potential of a hybrid model of care that combines traditional approaches with games and/or computers as tools? What games and applications have already been designed and studied? What is the evidence from previous studies? How can such tools be successfully designed for mental health and well-being? What is rewarding or attractive for patients in using such treatments? What are the worldwide developments in the field? Are some protocols under development? What are the barriers and challenges related to such developments? How can these tools be assessed, and how can the way that they work, and for whom, be measured? Are the potential benefits of such products specific, or can these additions be attributed to nonspecific factors? What are the users’ views on such tools? What are the possible links between such tools and social networks? Is there a gap between evidence-based results and market development? Are there any quality challenges? What future developments and studies are needed in the field?

Reward Processing in Motivational and Affective Disorders

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199860 Year: Pages: 117 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-986-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Preferential reward processing is the hallmark of addiction, where salient cues become overvalued and trigger compulsion. In depression, rewards appear to lose their incentive properties or become devalued. In the context of schizophrenia, aberrations in neural reward signalling are thought to contribute to the overvaluation of irrelevant stimuli on the one hand and the onset of negative symptoms on the other. Accordingly, reward processing has emerged as a key variable in contemporary, evidence based, diagnostic frameworks, such as the Research Domain Criteria launched by the United States National Institute of Mental Health. Delineation of the underlying mechanisms of aberrant or blunted reward processing can be of trans-diagnostic importance across several neuropsychiatric disorders. Reward processing can become automatic thus raising the question of cognitive control, a core theme of this Topic, which aims at justifying the necessity of reward processing as a potential therapeutic target in clinical settings. Empirical and theoretical contributions on the following themes were expected to: *Explore new avenues of research by investigating the processing of rewards at the cognitive, behavioral, motivational, neural systems and individual difference levels. A developmental focus is promising in this regard, probing the core processes that shape reward processing and thus subsequent liability to motivational and affective disorders. *Develop and refine conceptual models of reward processing from computational neuroscience. *Promote greater understanding and development of emergent therapeutic approaches such as cognitive bias modification and behavioural approach or avoidance training. A key question is the feasibility of reversing or modifying maladaptive patterns of reward processing to therapeutic ends. *Refine and augment the evidential database for tried and tested therapies such as Contingency Management and Behavioral Activation by focusing on core cognitive processes mediating rewards. *Provide a potential dimensional approach for reward processing deficits that can be of trans-diagnostic importance in clinically relevant disorders, including depression and addiction * Investigate the subjective experience of pleasure- the hedonic aspect of reward seeking and consumption – and how this can be distinguished from the motivational, sometimes compulsive, component of reward pursuit. This promises more nuanced and effective interventions. Depression, for instance, could be seen as the restricted pursuit of pleasure rather than blunted pleasure experience; addiction can be viewed as accentuated drug seeking despite diminished consummatory pleasure. This aims to place motivation centre stage in both scenarios, emphasising the transdiagnostic theme of the Topic. *Temporal discounting of future rewards, whereby smaller, more immediate rewards are chosen even when significantly more valuable deferred rewards are available, is another trans-diagnostic phenomenon of interest in the in the present context. Factors that influence this, such as discounting of future reward are thought to reflect compulsion in the addictive context and hopelessness on the part of people experiencing depression. The executive cognitive processes that regulate this decision making are of both scientific and clinical significance. Empirical findings, theoretical contributions or commentaries bearing on cognitive or executive control were therefore welcome.

Understanding the Role of Time-Dimension in the Brain Information Processing

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451494 Year: Pages: 135 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-149-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-28 14:01:09
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Optimized interaction of the brain with environment requires the four-dimensional representation of space-time in the neuronal circuits. Information processing is an important part of this interaction, which is critically dependent on time-dimension. Information processing has played an important role in the evolution of mammals, and has reached a level of critical importance in the lives of primates, particularly the humans. The entanglement of time-dimension with information processing in the brain is not clearly understood at present. Time-dimension in physical world – the environment of an organism – can be represented by the interval of a pendulum swing (the cover page depicts temporal unit with the help of a swinging pendulum). Temporal units in neural processes are represented by regular activities of pacemaker neurons, tonic regular activities of proprioceptors and periodic fluctuations in the excitability of neurons underlying brain oscillations. Moreover, temporal units may be representationally associated with time-bins containing bits of information (see the Editorial), which may be studied to understand the entanglement of time-dimension with neural information processing. The optimized interaction of the brain with environment requires the calibration of neural temporal units. Neural temporal units are calibrated as a result of feedback processes occurring during the interaction of an organism with environment. Understanding the role of time-dimension in the brain information processing requires a multidisciplinary approach, which would include psychophysics, single cell studies and brain recordings. Although this Special Issue has helped us move forward on some fronts, including theoretical understanding of calibration of time-information in neural circuits, and the role of brain oscillations in timing functions and integration of asynchronous sensory information, further advancements are needed by developing correct computational tools to resolve the relationship between dynamic, hierarchical neural oscillatory structures that form during the brain’s interaction with environment.

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