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A Conversation about Healthy Eating

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ISBN: 9781911576754 Year: Pages: 248 DOI: 10.14324/111.9781911576754 Language: English
Publisher: UCL Press Grant: European Research Council (ERC) - 2011-AdG-295486
Subject: Biology --- Public Health
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-21 11:02:05
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What constitutes a healthy diet? Mainstream media and advertisers would like you to think that the answer to this question is complicated and controversial. But science, fortunately, tells us otherwise. A Conversation about Healthy Eating brings together all the relevant science about healthy eating in one place, and it’s exactly that – a conversation; an informal discussion between a scientist and a friend about their eating habits, keeping the science firmly rooted in everyday life. The conversation moves from topics such as metabolism and digestion to gut bacteria, hormones, neuroscience and the immune system. All of these concepts are explained in accessible terms to help you understand the roles they play in maintaining a healthy diet. The conversation leads to the conclusion that staying lean and healthy simply requires avoiding the overconsumption of processed foods. While this is, of course, easier said than done, science also provides clear recommendations for how you can adapt your environment and lifestyle to make it possible. Rather than simply presenting you with the principles of healthy eating, this book will help you to develop a comprehensive understanding of the science behind the principles, including the evolutionary facts that affect the way we eat today. This understanding will allow you to ignore the noise in the media and to move forward with a healthy lifestyle that work for you.

Keywords

diet --- neuroscience --- food --- eating

37 Neuroscientific Threaths to Free Will (Book chapter)

Book title: The Routledge Companion to Free Will

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9781138795815 9781315758206 Year: Pages: 12 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Philosophy --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-05-26 11:01:52
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In this chapter, I review recent work on neuroscientifi c threats to free will. What is it for something to threaten free will? Consider, fi rst, an apparent threat. You are walking&#xD;in the dark, and a shadow looms in the distance. It certainly appears threatening, but&#xD;you are not sure. What do you do? You consider the source of the threat (the thing&#xD;casting the shadow, and you attempt to discover whether the threat is actual (an&#xD;attacker) or merely apparent (a tree). And if the threat is actual, you attempt to discern&#xD;what epistemic and behavioral changes are required of you.

Keywords

free will --- threats --- neuroscience

The Theoretical Foundation of Dendritic Function

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Computational Neuroscience Series ISBN: 9780262193566 9780262515467 Year: Pages: 468 Language: English
Publisher: The MIT Press
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-17 11:41:34
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This collection of fifteen previously published papers, some of them not widely available, have been carefully chosen and annotated by Rall's colleagues and other leading neuroscientists.Wilfrid Rall was a pioneer in establishing the integrative functions of neuronal dendrites that have provided a foundation for neurobiology in general and computational neuroscience in particular. This collection of fifteen previously published papers, some of them not widely available, have been carefully chosen and annotated by Rall's colleagues and other leading neuroscientists. It brings together Rall's work over more than forty years, including his first papers extending cable theory to complex dendritic trees, his ground-breaking paper introducing compartmental analysis to computational neuroscience, and his studies of synaptic integration in motoneurons, dendrodendritic interactions, plasticity of dendritic spines, and active dendritic properties. Today it is well known that the brain's synaptic information is processed mostly in the dendrites where many of the plastic changes underlying learning and memory take place. It is particularly timely to look again at the work of a major creator of the field, to appreciate where things started and where they have led, and to correct any misinterpretations of Rall's work. The editors' introduction highlights the major insights that were gained from Rall's studies as well as from those of his collaborators and followers. It asks the questions that Rall proposed during his scientific career and briefly summarizes the answers.The papers include commentaries by Milton Brightman, Robert E. Burke, William R. Holmes, Donald R. Humphrey, Julian J. B. Jack, John Miller, Stephen Redman, John Rinzel, Idan Segev, Gordon M. Shepherd, and Charles Wilson.

Astrocyte - Physiology and Pathology

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9789535138853 9789535138860 9789535140771 Year: Pages: 242 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.69076 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:51

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A team of authors from prestigious academic schools contributed to draw up a project that would give a detailed account of astrocyte's morphology and physiology, examining thoroughly all the astrocyte's types; giving an accurate description of their morphology, location, function in the brain; and illustrating their physiology and pathology in terms of dealing with neurons through ""gliotransmitters,"" ionic channels, and membrane receptors expression. This book gives an overview of the crucial role of astrocytes in the physiology of the CNS and in the pathogenesis of several CNS disorders suggesting that the shift from a neurocentric view to one that incorporates astrocytes in disease models for drug discovery is a critical step in renewing drug development strategies to treat neurodegenerative diseases.

Sex Hormones in Neurodegenerative Processes and Diseases

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ISBN: 9781789230147 9781789230154 Year: Pages: 358 DOI: 10.5772/66585 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:51

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The book provides chapters on sex hormones and their modulation in neurodegenerative processes and pathologies, from basic molecular mechanisms, physiology, gender differences, to neuroprotection and clinical aspects for potential novel pharmacotherapy approaches. The book contains 14 chapters written by authors from various biomedical professions, from basic researchers in biology and physiology to medicine and veterinary medicine, pharmacologists, psychiatrist, etc. Chapters sum up the past and current knowledge on sex hormones, representing original new insights into their role in brain functioning, mental disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. The book is written for a broad range of audience, from biomedical students to highly profiled medical specialists and biomedical researchers, helping them to expand their knowledge on sex hormones in neurodegenerative processes and opening new questions for further investigation.

Circadian Rhythm - Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms

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ISBN: 9781789233384 9781789233391 Year: Pages: 166 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.71707 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:51

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Circadian clocks are endogenous and temperature-compensating timekeepers that provide temporal organization of biological processes in living organisms. Circadian rhythms allow living organisms to adapt to the daily light cycles associated with Earth's rotation and to anticipate and prepare for precise and regular environmental changes. This book discusses the fundamental advances of how the circadian clock regulates critical biological functions as well as the cellular and molecular mechanisms controlling circadian rhythm in living organisms. It also provides new insights into and sheds new light on the current research trends and future research directions related to circadian rhythm. This book provokes interest in many readers, researchers and scientists, who can find this information useful for the advancement of their research works towards a better understanding of circadian rhythm regulatory mechanisms.

Sensory Nervous System

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ISBN: 9781789233582 9781789233599 Year: Pages: 170 DOI: 10.5772/68128 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:51

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The sensory nervous system is of critical importance in our daily lives and contributes to our personal well-being and safety as well as communication with others. However, it is only when disease or injury impair its function that we fully appreciate the relevance of our sensory modalities. During the past decades, research of our senses has seen an ever-growing interest in this exciting field of study. This book provides the reader with an overview of the current state-of-the-art of research of our senses and focuses on the most important evidence-based developments in this area. This book addresses both the physiology and pathophysiology of our sensory nervous system ranging from molecular, cellular, and systems to cognitive and behavioral topics. Individual chapters focus on recent advances in specific areas of sensory systems in different model organisms and humans. All chapters represent recent contributions to the rapidly developing field of sensory science.

Autonomic Nervous System

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ISBN: 9781789841923 9781789841916 Year: Pages: 142 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.73119 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:52

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The autonomic nervous system is one of the most important involuntary control mechanisms that primarily controls and modulates the functions of the visceral organs. The book discusses some of the specificities of the autonomic nervous system in terms of dendritic development in the sympathetic compartment, as well as a detailed description of noradrenergic groups and their key role in the modulation of all antinociceptive and autonomic responses elicited by painful or threatening situations. In the book, only those cases are mentioned that are closely related to disorders or changes of function of the autonomic nervous system. This book can evoke interest in many researchers who want to use the information for the advancement of their research towards a better understanding of the autonomic regulatory mechanisms.

Hypothalamus in Health and Diseases

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9781789844443 9781789844450 Year: Pages: 142 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.69694 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:52

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The human hypothalamus, a small structure at the base of the brain, has strategic importance for the harmonic function of the human body. It controls the autonomic nervous system, neuroendocrine function, circadian and circannual rhythms, somatic activities, and behavior, and is situated at the borders between the brain and the body and the brain and the soul, meeting points for mind and body. The hypothalamus is involved in a wide range of higher mental functions, including attention, learning and reinforcement of mnemonic processes, emotional control, mood stability, and cognitive-emotional interactions. It also has a role to play in behavioral disorders, panic reactions, cluster headache, gelastic epilepsy, mental deficiency, periodic disorders, depression, autism, and schizophrenia, and in a substantial number of neurodegenerative diseases. It enlarges greatly the dimensions of the hypothalamic contribution in controlling psychosomatic equilibrium and retaining internal unity of the human existence.

Optic Nerve

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ISBN: 9781789849660 9781789849677 Year: Pages: 166 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.72958 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:52

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The optic nerve is a primary reference for those ophthalmologists and researchers interested in its anatomy and physiology, in the most recent diagnostic techniques, as well as in the clinical management of optic nerve disorders. The book provides a detailed description of the structure and functioning of the optic nerve and attempts at clarifying how anomalies in its development are related with tumor development. The book surveys the most recent diagnostic techniques, such as spectral domain optical coherence tomography, and highlights how these techniques can be employed to evaluate optic nerve layers as well as lesions compressing the visual pathway. Practical references to optic nerve drusen and the changes in the optic nerve due to diabetic retinopathy are also presented. The book is written in a concise fashion and aims at being a major reference to a broad audience, including students, ophthalmologist consultants, neurologists, researchers, and surgeons concerned with optic nerve diseases.

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