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Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Ageing and Diseases

ISBN: 9783038422518 9783038422525 Year: Pages: XXVI, 516 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 07:37:51
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The past decade has witnessed an explosion of knowledge regarding how mitochondrial dysfunction may translate into ageing and disease phenotypes, as well as how it is modulated by genetic and lifestyle factors. Impairment of the mitochondria may be caused by mutations or deletions in nuclear or mitochondrial DNA. Hallmarks of mitochondrial dysfunction include decreased ATP production, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, swollen mitochondria, damaged cristae, increased oxidative stress, and decreased mitochondrial DNA copy number. In addition to energy production, mitochondria play an important role in regulating apoptosis, buffering calcium release, retrograde signaling to the nuclear genome, producing reactive oxygen species (ROS), participating in steroid synthesis, signaling to the immune system, as well as controlling the cell cycle and cell growth. Dysfunctional mitochondria have been implicated in ageing and in several diseases, many of which are age-related, including mitochondrial diseases, cancers, metabolic diseases and diabetes, inflammatory conditions, neuropathy, and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and Huntington’s disease. Additionally, a possible link between mitochondrial metabolism and the ubiquitin-proteasome and autophagy-lysosome systems is emerging as a novel factor contributing to the progression of several human diseases. This special issue calls for original research, mini and full reviews, and perspectives that address the progress and current standing in the vast field of mitochondrial biology. These include, but are not limited to: ageingneurodegenerative diseasesmitochondrial diseasesmetabolic diseasesprotein homeostasiscell/retrograde signalingoxidative stresspaincancerimmune systemtherapies to counteract mitochondrial dysfunction

Structure-Based Drug Design for Diagnosis and Treatment of Neurological Diseases

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451234 Year: Pages: 204 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-123-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Therapeutics --- Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) supports the collaboration of nationally-funded science and technology research through the creation of networks. COST is the longest-running European framework enhancing cooperation among researchers, engineers and scholars across Europe. The COST Action CM1103 “Structure-based drug design for diagnosis and treatment of neurological diseases: dissecting and modulating complex function in the monoaminergic systems of the brain” is a good example of the advances possible through interdisciplinary collaboration on difficult problems. COST Action CM1103 brought together 28 research groups from 18 countries to collaborate for four years on multi-target drug design for complex neuropathologies. The interdisciplinary expertise of the members is spans the range from computational enzymology to human studies, providing outstanding opportunities for the interdisciplinary development of trainees, and is reflected in the articles in this e-book. This Research Topic covers progress in multi-target drug design for the complex neuropathologies of the monoamine system that are apparent, for example, in Alzheimer’s disease. After a mini-review to introduce the topic of multi-target drug design, the other articles review the Research topic from their own perspective, two from computational approaches, three from medicinal chemistry, two from molecular pharmacology, and two from studies in whole brain. This multi-faceted approach describes new compounds, new methodology, and advances in the basic science of understanding the brain. This Ebook is based upon work from COST Action (CM1103 “Structure-based drug design for diagnosis and treatment of neurological diseases: dissecting and modulating complex function in the monoaminergic systems of the brain"), supported by COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology). COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology) is a pan-European intergovernmental framework. Its mission is to enable break-through scientific and technological developments leading to new concepts and products and thereby contribute to strengthening Europe’s research and innovation capacities. It allows researchers, engineers and scholars to jointly develop their own ideas and take new initiatives across all fields of science and technology, while promoting multi- and interdisciplinary approaches. COST aims at fostering a better integration of less research intensive countries to the knowledge hubs of the European Research Area. The COST Association, an International not-for-profit Association under Belgian Law, integrates all management, governing and administrative functions necessary for the operation of the framework. The COST Association has currently 36 Member Countries. www.cost.eu

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