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11 Moral Neuroenhancement (Book chapter)

Book title: The Routledge handbook of neuroethics

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9781138898295 9781315708652 Year: Pages: 21 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Psychiatry
Added to DOAB on : 2018-03-01 11:01:59
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In recent years, philosophers, neuroethicists, and others have become preoccupied with “moral enhancement.” Very roughly, this refers to the deliberate moral improvement of an individual’s character, motives, or behavior. In one sense, such enhancement could be seen as “nothing new at all” (Wiseman, 2016, 4) or as something philosophically mundane: as G. Owen Schaefer (2015) has stated, “Moral enhancement is an ostensibly laudable project. . . .

Internationale Gerechtigkeit und institutionelle Verantwortung

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783110615876 Year: Pages: 438,00 DOI: 10.1515/9783110615876 Language: German / English
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: Philosophy
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-27 13:08:38
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What are the implications of globalization for moral behavior? What would global practices look like that were just for all in principle? Is it possible to generalize the basic principles of social justice as they prevail in democratic countries? Or instead, do other, possibly weaker levels of moral responsibility exist at the global level that promote global social justice based on different sets of principles?

Preserving and Exhibiting Media Art

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Framing Film ISBN: 9789048513833 9789089642912 Year: Pages: 448 Language: English
Publisher: Amsterdam University Press
Subject: Arts in general
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-23 11:21:12
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This vibrantly illustrated introduction to the emerging field of the preservation and presentation of media art brings together the contributions of authors from all over Europe and the United States. This volume can serve as a textbook for students in advanced degree programs in media art and museum studies, as well as an invaluable introduction for general readers. A potent combination of incisive scholarly articles and focused case studies, Preserving and Exhibiting Media Art offers a comprehensive overview of the history, theory, and practical skills of preserving media art.

Foundations for Moral Relativism : Second expanded edition

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ISBN: 9782821876101 Language: English
Publisher: Open Book Publishers
Subject: Philosophy
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-06 13:15:39
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In this new edition of Foundations for Moral Relativism, a distinguished moral philosopher tames a bugbear of current debate about cultural difference. J. David Velleman shows that different communities can indeed be subject to incompatible moralities, because their local mores are rationally binding. At the same time, he explains why the mores of different communities, even when incompatible, are still variations on the same moral themes. The book thus maps out a universe of many moral worlds without, as Velleman puts it, “moral black holes”. The six self-standing chapters discuss such diverse topics as online avatars and virtual worlds, lying in Russian and truth-telling in Quechua, the pleasure of solitude and the fear of absurdity. Accessibly written, Foundations for Moral Relativism presupposes no prior training in philosophy.

Agency: Moral Identity and Free Will

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ISBN: 9781783748754 9781783748778 Year: Pages: 210 DOI: 10.11647/OBP.0197 Language: English
Publisher: Open Book Publishers
Subject: Philosophy
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-02 16:09:36
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There is agency in all we do: thinking, doing, or making. We invent a tune, play, or use it to celebrate an occasion. Or we make a conceptual leap and ask more abstract questions about the conditions for agency. They include autonomy and self-appraisal, each contested by arguments immersing us in circumstances we don’t control. But can it be true we that have no personal responsibility for all we think and do? Agency: Moral Identity and Free Will proposes that deliberation, choice, and free will emerged within the evolutionary history of animals with a physical advantage: organisms having cell walls or exoskeletons had an internal space within which to protect themselves from external threats or encounters. This defense was both structural and active: such organisms could ignore intrusions or inhibit risky behavior. Their capacities evolved with time: inhibition became the power to deliberate and choose the manner of one’s responses. Hence the ability of humans and some other animals to determine their reactions to problematic situations or to information that alters values and choices. This is free will as a material power, not as the conclusion to a conceptual argument. Having it makes us morally responsible for much we do. It prefigures moral identity. Closely argued but plainly written, Agency: Moral Identity and Free Will speaks for autonomy and responsibility when both are eclipsed by ideas that embed us in history or tradition. Our sense of moral choice and freedom is accurate. We are not altogether the creatures of our circumstances.

Sexuelle Identität und gesellschaftliche Norm

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Göttinger Schriften zum Medizinrecht ISBN: 9783941875722 Year: Pages: 125 DOI: 10.17875/gup2010-39 Language: German
Publisher: Universitätsverlag Göttingen
Subject: Law --- Psychology --- Philosophy
Added to DOAB on : 2011-11-04 00:00:00
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Die „sexuelle Identität“ des Menschen ist keineswegs nur biologisch, sondern in erheblichem Maße auch neurologisch, psychologisch sowie durch Umweltbedingungen determiniert und infolgedessen gradualisiert. Die Gesellschaft und ihr Recht ignorieren diese Variabilitäten jenseits der natürlichen Geschlechtlichkeit jedoch mit Blick auf Orientierungsbedürfnisse weitgehend: Familien- und personenstandsrechtliche Zuschreibungen müssen eindeutig sein, Veränderungen des biologischen Geschlechts kommen nur in seltenen Ausnahmefällen in Betracht, die gesellschaftlichen Vorstellungen über den Freiraum an „sexueller Selbstbestimmung“ werden an den Grenzen strafrechtlich abgesichert und jene, die sich nicht daran halten, gelten in der Rechtspraxis entweder als schuldfähig oder haben mit u.U. langjährigem Freiheitsentzug im Rahmen der Sicherungsverwahrung zu rechnen. Dieses Spannungsfeld zwischen individueller Disposition und gesellschaftlicher Erwartung war Gegenstand eines Workshops, der am 20. November 2009 gemeinsam vom Institut für Humangenetik der Universitätsmedizin Göttingen und dem Zentrum für Medizinrecht der Juristischen Fakultät veranstaltet wurde. Der vorliegende Band enthält die Resultate eines interdisziplinären Dialogs von Experten/Innen aus der Humangenetik, der Sexualforschung, der Soziologie, des Medizinrechts und der forensischen Psychiatrie.

Public Policy: Why ethics matters

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9781921666759 Year: Pages: 311 DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_459474 Language: English
Publisher: ANU Press
Subject: Philosophy
Added to DOAB on : 2012-06-14 11:46:24
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Ethics is a vigorously contested field. There are many competing moral frameworks, and different views about how normative considerations should inform the art and craft of governmental policy making. What is not in dispute, however, is that ethics matters. The ethical framework adopted by policy analysts and decision makers not only shapes how policy problems are defined, framed and analysed, but also influences which ethical principles and values are taken into account and their weighting. As a result, ethics can have a profound impact, both on the character of the policy process and the choices made by decision makers. Public Policy – Why Ethics Matters brings together original contributions from leading scholars and practitioners with expertise in various academic disciplines, including economics, philosophy, physics, political science, public policy and theology. The volume addresses three main issues: fist, the ethical considerations that should inform the conduct of public officials and the task of policy analysis; second, the ethics of climate change; and third, ethics and economic policy. While the contributors have varying views on these important issues, they share a common conviction that the ethical dimensions of public policy need to be better understood and given proper attention in the policy-making process.

Security and Privacy

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Practical Ethics and Public Policy Monograph ISBN: 9781921862588 Year: Pages: 291 DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_459519 Language: English
Publisher: ANU Press
Subject: Sociology --- Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2012-06-14 11:46:25
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This study is principally concerned with the ethical dimensions of identity management technology – electronic surveillance, the mining of personal data, and profiling – in the context of transnational crime and global terrorism. The ethical challenge at the heart of this study is to establish an acceptable and sustainable equilibrium between two central moral values in contemporary liberal democracies, namely, security and privacy. Both values are essential to individual liberty, but they come into conflict in times when civil order is threatened, as has been the case from late in the twentieth century, with the advent of global terrorism and trans-national crime. We seek to articulate legally sustainable, politically possible, and technologically feasible, global ethical standards for identity management technology and policies in liberal democracies in the contemporary global security context. Although the standards in question are to be understood as global ethical standards potentially to be adopted not only by the United States, but also by the European Union, India, Australasia, and other contemporary liberal democratic states, we take as our primary focus the tensions that have arisen between the United States and the European Union.

Von der philosophisch-moralischen Erzählung zur modernen Novelle

Author:
ISBN: 3465032284 Year: Pages: 404 DOI: 10.26530/oapen_574822 Language: German
Publisher: Vittorio Klostermann GmbH Grant: Austrian Science Fund - D 3592
Subject: Languages and Literatures
Added to DOAB on : 2015-09-08 11:01:36
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The treatise deals with the pre-history of the modern French novella, which has constituted a new paradigm of genre history within the field of short narrations since 1829. Contrary to claims that Mérimée's, Stendhal's, and Balzac's novellas have nothing in common with the narrative of the 18th and early 19th century, it is intended to demonstrate that the latter provides an arsenal for the renewal of the genre around 1830. A relatively stable consciousness concerning the genre, clearly differentiating between conte and nouvelle until the mid-1760, functions as starting point. This duality, however, starts slackening when the successful conte moral transcends into the field of the nouvelle - an event which robs the terms conte and nouvelle of their distinctiveness. Both of the two most popular themes of the conte moral, namely marital development and education, are realized in a couple of textual strategies which are - despite a change in social conditions - continuing up to the first two decades of the 19th century. This continuum usually involves distortion, parody, and afunctionality. Simultaneous to the transformations maintaining this system, the observer also traces transformations breaking those rules as seen in the works of Diderot, Mme de Staël, Sade, and Balzac, which makes it impossible to integrate their narrations into the harmonized ideology of the conte moral. The nouvelle receives further impulse from the "true story", which can be settled somewhere between journalistic information and literary fiction. It is a heterogeneous field of narrations sharing the reference to the reality external of literary fiction and the themes of the unexpected, the inexplicable, and the violation of the rules. The techniques, methods and themes developed by the narrative of the 18th century are endowed with new meaning by the French Revolution. Characteristic bundles of the modern novella are elaborated by the cooperation of several concepts - "the exotic and distance", "antithesis and paroxysm", "denouement and temporality, as well as "ambiguity and the secret" - creating a new synergy. The novella meets the growing need for texts mainly concerned with the creation of suspense by its accentuated temporality and its mode of reception aiming at fast consumption. The fantastic novella may be understood as an extreme variation of the modern novella based on the typical antithetical structure. The historical increase in the usage of supernatural elements in the field of short narratives indicates that dealing with the irrational evokes a development of frame stories displaying a more complex structure which equips the novelistic event itself with an amplified aesthetic component.

Normatividades e instituciones eclesiásticas en la Nueva España, siglos XVI–XIX

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Global Perspectives on Legal History ISBN: 9783944773049 9783944773148 Year: Pages: 316 DOI: 10.12946/gplh5 Language: Spanish
Publisher: Max Planck Institute for European Legal History
Subject: Law --- History
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-17 11:21:03
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"Ecclesiastical institutions and actors were essential for the formation of normative orders in early modern Ibero-America. However, both legal historiography, due to its strong legalistic, state-centred imprint, and general historiography on colonial times, more inclined towards secular law, have only rarely discussed the contribution of ecclesiastical normativity to the formation of that normative texture which, in the historiographical tradition, has been called ‘derecho indiano’. In light of this situation, the Max Planck Institute for European Legal History has organised a series of seminars in different Latin American cities in order to offer an interdisciplinary forum dedicated to the research of ‘ecclesiastical normativities and institutions in Ibero-America’ between the 16th and 19th centuries. The present volume is the first in a series of publications that document the results of this cycle of seminars celebrated in Mexico City, Lima, Bogotá and São Paulo. The book, focusing on New Spain, is divided into five thematic parts. The first section presents investigations on canon law and moral theology that deal with characteristic aspects of multinormativity and the teaching of those disciplines in early modern times. The second section examines diocesan governance and ecclesiastical power in Mexico City and Puebla via statutes of the cathedral chapter, members of the ‘curia arzobispal’ and pertinent legal opinions. In the third section, the contributors reflect on the normativity and administration of sacraments, drawing on conciliar norms, treatises, pragmatic literature but as well on registers of baptisms and confessions. The fourth section deals with ethnic groups in courts of justice, both civil and ecclesiastic ones: indigenous people accused of ‘hechicería’ in a tribunal of Tlaxcala and Afro-Mexicans who started litigation in the archiepiscopal court of Mexico. The articles of the fifth section cover the topics of beatification, devotion and cultural expressions (music, images) from a normative perspective and extend the period of investigation to the 19th century. The articles on ecclesiastical institutions and normativities in New Spain collected in this volume propose new research fields for legal history and the history of the Church, which at the same time are relevant for social and cultural history. The editors’ purpose has been to present approaches that explore the relationship between different types of normativities, their local adaptations, the ties with global debates, the forms of solving conflicts, as well as the role of jurists, theologians and other actors. The topics discussed by the authors represented in this volume – who cultivate the disciplines of history, legal history, church history, ethnohistory, art history and the history of music – contribute to a better understanding of the normative religious universe in Spanish America."

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