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Integriertes Risikocontrolling fuer Industrieunternehmen

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Book Series: Controlling & Business Accounting ISBN: 9783631610312 Year: Pages: 488 DOI: 10.3726/b13704 Language: German
Publisher: Peter Lang International Academic Publishing Group
Subject: Business and Management --- Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:32:35
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Die jüngste Wirtschaftskrise hat vor Augen geführt, dass eine proaktive Vorausschau auf zukünttige Risiken und deren Berücksichtigung in den unternehmerischen Führungsprozessen von existenzieller Bedeutung ist. Für Industrieunternehmen gestaltet sich dies aufgrund des hohen Anteils nur schwer messbarer Risiken als besonders schwierig. Diese Arbeit liefert konkrete Hinweise, wie Informationen aus dem industriellen Risikomanagementprozess sinnvoll mit den Aktivitäten des Controllings verzahnt werden können. Als Basis dieser Handlungsempfehlungen dienen belastbare Aussagen zu den Erfolgsfaktoren und -wirkungen des Controllings, die im Rahmen einer sekundärdatenbasierten Analyse aus 142 Studien abgeleitet werden. Das Buch spricht damit nicht nur diejenigen Leser an, die sich mit Fragen des integrierten Risikocontrollings auseinandersetzen. Auch Wissenschaftler, Praktiker oder Studierende, die sich einen fundierten Überblick über empirische Erkenntnisse zur Gestaltung effektiver Controllerarbeit verschaffen wollen, finden hierin eine umfassende und detaillierte Zusammenstellung so genannter «Stylized Facts».

Der Management Approach

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Book Series: Controlling & Business Accounting ISBN: 9783631591970 Year: Pages: 518 DOI: 10.3726/b13701 Language: German
Publisher: Peter Lang International Academic Publishing Group
Subject: Sociology --- Business and Management --- Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:32:36
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Der Management Approach ist ein zentrales Rechnungslegungsprinzip innerhalb der IFRS. Zunächst in den 1990er-Jahren in der Diskussion um die Segmentberichterstattung nach SFAS 131 eingeführt und später in IAS 14 übernommen, wird der Begriff Management Approach heute in einem weiteren Verständnis verwendet. Nämlich immer dann, wenn Controllinginformationen einer Zweitverwendung in der (IFRS-)Bilanzierung zugeführt werden. Eine zentrale Annahme dieser Arbeit ist, daß im Controlling aussagekräftige Informationen über die wirtschaftliche Situation des Unternehmens vorliegen und diese Informationen auch für die Adressaten der Finanzberichterstattung von Interesse sind. Auf dieser Basis wird erörtert, welche Verwendungsmöglichkeiten für Controllinginformationen in der Finanzberichterstattung existieren. Weitergehend wird untersucht, welche Auswirkungen eine solche Umsetzung des Management Approach auf die Ausgestaltung des Controllings, wesentliche Qualitätsmerkmale der Finanzberichterstattung sowie auf das Verhältnis zwischen bilanzierenden Unternehmen und Abschlußprüfern haben kann.

Foerderprogramm-Controlling: Entwicklung einer betriebswirtschaftlichen Konzeption

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Book Series: Beitraege zum Controlling ISBN: 9783631640449 Year: Pages: 279 Language: German
Publisher: Peter Lang International Academic Publishing Group
Subject: Economics --- Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:32:58
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Staatliche Fördergeber sollten bei Förderprogrammen zur Legitimation des Mitteleinsatzes Beurteilungen vornehmen können, um den Erfolg von Förderprogrammen zu bewerten. Diese Analysen sind oftmals nicht möglich, da notwendige Gestaltungsvoraussetzungen nicht systematisch vorliegen. Vor diesem Hintergrund verfolgt der Autor in seiner Modellkonzeption das Ziel, entlang des Fördermanagementprozesses Förderprogramme zu analysieren, um Gestaltungspotentiale zur Optimierung eines Controllings abzuleiten. Durch eine prozessunabhängige Beziehungsanalyse von Fördergeber, -nehmer und Zielgruppe wird der individuelle Charakter berücksichtigt. Das Ergebnis dieser Analyse fließt als Komplexitätsgrad in die Gesamtbeurteilung ein. Die praktische Anwendbarkeit wird im Rahmen einer Fallstudie aufgezeigt.

Carbonates

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ISBN: 9783038977223 Year: Pages: 146 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-723-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Physics (General) --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 10:34:31
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This Special Issue is aimed at presenting the state of the art of the multidisciplinary science concerning all aspects of volcanic plumes, of relevance to the volcanology, climatology, atmospheric science, and remote sensing communities.

Emerging Advances in Petrophysics. Porous Media Characterization and Modeling of Multiphase Flow

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783038977940 9783038977957 Year: Pages: 258 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-795-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General) --- Geophysics and Geomagnetism
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
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Due to the influence of pore-throat size distribution, pore connectivity, and microscale fractures, the transport, distribution, and residual saturation of fluids in porous media are difficult to characterize. Petrophysical methods in natural porous media have attracted great attention in a variety of fields, especially in the oil and gas industry. A wide range of research studies have been conducted on the characterization of porous media covers and multiphase flow therein. Reliable approaches for characterizing microstructure and multiphase flow in porous media are crucial in many fields, including the characterization of residual water or oil in hydrocarbon reservoirs and the long-term storage of supercritical CO2 in geological formations. This book gathers together 15 recent works to emphasize fundamental innovations in the field and novel applications of petrophysics in unconventional reservoirs, including experimental studies, numerical modeling (fractal approach), and multiphase flow modeling/simulations. The relevant stakeholders of this book are authorities and service companies working in the petroleum, subsurface water resources, air and water pollution, environmental, and biomaterial sectors.

Keywords

Wilkins equation --- non-laminar flow --- turbulence modelling --- porous media --- oil tanker --- temperature drop --- oscillating motion --- numerical simulation --- soil-water characteristic curve --- initial void ratio --- air-entry value --- fractal dimension --- fractal model --- oil properties --- diffusion coefficient --- supercritical CO2 --- Peng-Robinson equation of state (PR EOS) --- CT --- digital rock --- microfractures --- Lattice Boltzmann method --- pore-scale simulations --- tight sandstone --- pore structure --- multifractal --- classification --- Ordos Basin --- loose media --- coal --- porosity --- true density --- bulk density --- overburden pressure --- particle size --- tight conglomerate --- fracture characterization and prediction --- fractal method --- salt rock --- creep --- damage --- fractional derivative --- acoustic emission --- marine gas hydrate --- submarine landslide --- greenhouse gas emission --- lifecycle management --- hazard prevention --- multilayer reservoir --- interlayer interference --- producing degree --- seepage resistance --- wellbore multiphase flow --- inclined angle --- liquid rate --- gas rate --- pressure drawdown model with new coefficients --- base-level cycle --- pore structure --- mouth bar sand body --- Huanghua Depression --- isotopic composition --- methane --- gas hydrate --- South China Sea --- Bakken Formation --- pore structure --- controlling factors --- low-temperature nitrogen adsorption --- petrophysics --- fractal porous media --- unconventional reservoirs --- multiphase flow

Sustainability of Fossil Fuels

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ISBN: 9783039212194 9783039212200 Year: Pages: 284 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-220-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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The energy and fuel industries represent an extensive field for the development and implementation of solutions aimed at improving the technological, environmental, and economic performance of technological cycles. In recent years, the issues of ecology and energy security have become especially important. Energy is firmly connected with all spheres of human economic life but, unfortunately, it also has an extremely negative (often fatal) effect on the environment and public health. Depletion of energy resources, the complexity of their extraction, and transportation are also problems of a global scale. Therefore, it is especially important nowadays to try to take care of nature and think about the resources that are necessary for future generations. For scientific teams in different countries, the development of sustainable and safe technologies for the use of fuels in the energy sector will be a challenge in the coming decades

Keywords

coal --- slurry fuel --- combustion --- forest fuels --- biomass --- anthropogenic emission concentration --- municipal solid waste --- coal processing waste --- oil refining waste --- waste management --- composite fuel --- energy production --- fuel activation --- waste-derived fuel --- coal-water slurry --- laser pulse --- syngas --- aerosol --- two-component droplet --- heating --- evaporation --- explosive breakup --- disintegration --- droplet holder material --- hydraulic fracturing --- water retention in shale --- anionic surfactant --- shale gas --- supercritical CO2 --- tectonic coal --- pore structure --- methane desorption --- embedded discrete fracture model --- fractured reservoir simulation --- matrix-fracture transmissibility --- combustion --- methane hydrate --- hydrate dissociation --- PTV method --- transport of tracers --- linear drift effect --- convection–diffusion equation --- enhanced oil recovery --- closed-form analytical solution --- methane --- combustion mechanism --- mechanism reduction --- skeletal mechanism --- Bunsen burner --- covert fault zone --- genetic mechanism --- Qikou Sag --- structure evolution --- oil-controlling mode --- Riedel shear --- Mohr–Coulomb theory --- slurry fuel --- ignition --- combustion --- combustion chamber --- soaring of fuel droplets --- trajectories of fuel droplets --- decorated polyacrylamide --- physical properties --- displacement mechanism --- flow behavior --- enhanced recovery --- injection mode --- coal consumption forecasting --- support vector machine --- improved gravitational search algorithm --- grey relational analysis --- dual string completion --- gas lift --- gas lift rate --- split factor --- gas robbing --- gas lift optimization

Evolution, Composition and Regulation of Supernumerary B Chromosomes

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783038977865 9783038977872 Year: Pages: 254 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-787-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:28
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Supernumerary B chromosomes (Bs) are dispensable genetic elements found in thousands of species of plants and animals, and some fungi. Since their discovery more than a century ago, they have been a source of puzzlement, as they only occur in some members of a population and are absent from others. When they do occur, they are often harmful, and in the absence of “selfishness”, based on mechanisms of mitotic and meiotic drive, there appears to be no obvious reason for their existence. Cytogeneticists have long wrestled with questions about the biological existence of these enigmatic elements, including their lack of any adaptive properties, apparent absence of functional genes, their origin, sequence organization, and co-evolution as nuclear parasites. Emerging new technologies are now enabling researchers to step up a gear, to look enthusiastically beyond the previous limits of the horizon, and to uncover the secrets of these “silent” chromosomes. This book provides a comprehensive guide to theoretical advancements in the field of B chromosome research in both animal and plant systems.

Keywords

repetitive elements --- RNA-Seq --- genomics --- evolution --- cytogenetics --- supernumerary elements --- extra chromosomes --- B chromosomes --- transmission --- drive --- host/parasite interaction --- supernumerary chromosomes --- karyotype evolution --- genome instability --- supernumerary chromosomes --- heterochromatin --- parent-of-origin effects --- paternal X chromosome --- maternal X chromosome --- controlling element --- teleost --- population analysis --- whole genome resequencing --- DNA copy number variation --- ribosomal DNA --- B chromosomes --- FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridisation) --- GISH (genomic in situ hybridisation) --- Prospero autumnale complex --- supernumerary chromosomal segments (SCS) evolution --- tandem repeats --- Drosophila --- supernumerary --- satellite DNA --- sSMC --- B chromosomes --- dot-like (micro) Bs --- karyotypic characteristics --- ?s --- B morphotypes --- Apodemus peninsulae --- maize B chromosome --- centromere --- inactivation --- reactivation --- de novo centromere formation --- epigenetics --- supernumerary chromosomes --- additional chromosomes --- chromosome polymorphism --- evolution --- B chromosomes --- karyotypes --- genome evolution --- interphase nucleus --- mammals --- genes --- repetitive DNA --- transcription of heterochromatin --- B chromosomes --- grasshoppers --- DNA composition --- repeat clusters --- euchromatin degradation --- microdissected DNA probes --- B chromosome --- satellite DNA --- mobile element --- organelle DNA --- chromosome evolution --- fluorescent in situ hybridization --- Orthoptera --- satellite DNA --- supernumerary chromosome --- RepeatExplorer --- supernumerary chromosomes --- B chromosomes --- next-generation sequencing --- coverage ratio analysis --- n/a --- B chromosome --- transmission --- origin --- drive --- n/a

Intelligent Control in Energy Systems

Author:
ISBN: 9783039214150 9783039214167 Year: Pages: 508 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-416-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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The editors of this Special Issue titled “Intelligent Control in Energy Systems” have attempted to create a book containing original technical articles addressing various elements of intelligent control in energy systems. In response to our call for papers, we received 60 submissions. Of those submissions, 27 were published and 33 were rejected. In this book, we offer the 27 accepted technical articles as well as one editorial. Authors from 15 countries (China, Netherlands, Spain, Tunisia, United Sates of America, Korea, Brazil, Egypt, Denmark, Indonesia, Oman, Canada, Algeria, Mexico, and the Czech Republic) elaborate on several aspects of intelligent control in energy systems. The book covers a broad range of topics including fuzzy PID in automotive fuel cell and MPPT tracking, neural networks for fuel cell control and dynamic optimization of energy management, adaptive control on power systems, hierarchical Petri Nets in microgrid management, model predictive control for electric vehicle battery and frequency regulation in HVAC systems, deep learning for power consumption forecasting, decision trees for wind systems, risk analysis for demand side management, finite state automata for HVAC control, robust ?-synthesis for microgrids, and neuro-fuzzy systems in energy storage.

Keywords

lithium-ion battery pack --- soft internal short circuit --- model-based fault detection --- battery safety --- internal short circuit resistance --- load frequency control --- model uncertainty --- ?-synthesis --- differential evolution --- decision tree --- preventive control --- Fault Ride Through Capability --- doubly-fed induction generator --- ancillary service --- frequency regulation --- demand response --- commercial/residential buildings --- HVAC systems --- model predictive control --- rule-based control --- position control --- static friction --- exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) valve system --- automotive application --- hybrid electric vehicle --- compound structured permanent-magnet motor --- energy management strategy --- instantaneous optimization minimum power loss --- back propagation (BP) neural network --- power transformer winding --- vibration characteristics --- multiphysical field analysis --- short-circuit experiment --- winding-fault characteristics --- occupancy model --- occupancy-based control --- model predictive control --- energy efficiency --- building climate control --- solar monitoring system --- photovoltaic array --- energy management --- demand side management --- operation limit violations --- probabilistic power flow --- network sensitivity --- neural networks --- railway --- high-speed railway --- neutral section --- medium voltage --- thyristor --- AC static switch --- adaptive backstepping --- nonlinear power systems --- sliding mode control --- error compensation --- ?-class function --- energy internet --- multi-energy complementary --- integrated energy systems --- distribution network planning --- electric power consumption --- multi-step forecasting --- long short term memory --- convolutional neural network --- system identification --- parameter estimation --- system modelling --- model reduction --- polynomial expansion --- orthogonal least square --- industrial process --- electric vehicle --- battery packs --- active balance --- model predictive control --- hierarchical Petri nets --- urban microgrids --- phase-load balancing --- fuzzy logic controller --- MPPT: maximum power point tracking --- photovoltaic system --- step-up boost converter --- proton exchange membrane fuel cell --- four phases interleaved boost converter --- neural network controller --- AC-DC converters --- bridgeless SEPIC PFC converter --- repetitive controller --- current distortion --- current controller design --- stochastic power system operating point drift --- wind integrated power system --- power oscillations --- adaptive damping control --- continuous voltage control --- multiple-point control --- interaction minimization --- pilot point --- adjacent areas --- ANFIS --- artificial neural network --- fuzzy --- small scale compressed air energy storage (SS-CAES) --- voltage controlling --- electric meter --- error estimation --- line loss --- RLS --- double forgetting factors --- hybrid power plant --- control architecture --- coordination of reserves --- frequency support --- frequency control dead band --- fast frequency response --- frequency containment reserve --- line switching --- voltage violations --- three-stage --- fractional order fuzzy PID controller --- neural network algorithm --- PEM fuel cell --- MPPT operation --- sensitivity analysis --- intelligent control --- artificial intelligence --- energy management system --- smart micro-grid --- energy systems --- intelligent buildings --- forecasting --- multi-agent control --- optimization

Polymetallic Metallogenic System

Author:
ISBN: 9783039212934 9783039212941 Year: Pages: 538 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-294-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 16:10:12
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Within the last decade, the high and continuing demand for precious and base metals, as well as critical elements, has prompted a global rush on a scale never before seen. This eventually resulted in the demand for considerable innovation and improvement in mineral deposit genetic modelling and ore formation regimes for the many different types of gold deposits, now recognized, and paralleled by the wide employment of exploration techniques and a rapid expansion of geological databases. This Special Issue will show case studies of porphyry polymetal systems, orogenic gold formations, water–rock reaction, ore-forming structure evolution, mineralogy and petrology of ore deposit, ore formation regime, geochronology and geochemistry of ore deposit, ore-forming evolution, mineral exploration and cutting-edge technology in ore deposit study.

Keywords

W–Sn skarn --- whole-rock geochemistry --- Huangshaping --- Shizhuyuan --- Xianghualing --- Rare-Earth Elements --- C–O isotopes --- hydrothermal calcite --- ore-forming processes --- Phapon gold deposit --- oxidation state --- hydrous melts --- constraints on mineralization --- Beiya Au deposit --- SW China --- zircon geochronology --- magmatic oxygen fugacity --- petrogenesis --- Zaozigou deposit --- West Qinling --- archean basement --- quartz vein --- hydrothermal alteration halo --- Pinglidian gold deposit --- Jiaodong --- geochemistry --- U–Pb zircon age --- Sr–Nd isotopes --- Haoyaoerhudong gabbro --- Inner Mongolia --- geochronology --- Hf isotopes --- petrogenesis --- paleo-Tethyan ocean closure --- Zaorendao gold deposit --- West Qinling --- syenite --- post-collisional --- niobium mineralization --- Saima deposit --- Liaoning Province --- invisible gold --- visible gold --- LA-ICP-MS --- Yangshan gold belt --- West Qinling --- zircon U-Pb dating --- molybdenite Re-Os dating --- zircon Hf isotopes --- Weilasituo Sn-polymetallic deposit --- Inner Mongolia --- orogenic-gold deposit --- mineral geo-thermometry --- physicochemical condition of mineralization --- Zhengchong gold deposit --- Jiangnan orogenic belt --- lithospheric architecture --- metallogenesis --- Hf-Nd isotopic mapping --- Liaodong Peninsula --- North China Craton --- zircon U–Pb geochronology --- Sr–Nd–Pb–Hf isotopes --- low Sr and high Yb A2-type granite --- Xianghualing --- South China --- fluid inclusion --- stable isotopes --- gold deposition --- Sanshandao gold deposit --- Jiaodong --- fluid inclusions --- H–O isotope --- immiscibility --- water–rock interaction --- Sizhuang gold deposit --- Jiaodong Peninsula --- China --- Pulang porphyry Cu (–Mo–Au) deposit --- LA-ICP-MS zircon U–Pb dating --- molybdenite Re–Os dating --- high-silica adakitic rocks (HSA) --- Northwestern Yunnan Province --- C–H–O isotopes --- fluid inclusion --- Koka deposit --- orogenic gold deposit --- ore shoots --- structural control --- geostatistics --- Sizhuang gold deposit --- Jiaodong Peninsula --- skarn mineralogy --- high fugacity --- garnet Sm–Nd dating --- Late Cretaceous --- Hongshan skarn deposit --- mantle branch --- metallogenesis --- ore-controlling structures --- metallogenic rule --- ore prospecting target --- Jiaodong area --- zircon U–Pb dating --- Re–Os dating --- middle–late Jurassic --- Mo-polymetallic deposit --- Great Xing’an Range --- Dongbulage --- A-type granite --- tin mineralization --- Tiantangshan tin polymetallic deposit --- SE China --- Chishan alkaline complex --- rock geochemistry --- zircon U–Pb dating --- Lu–Hf isotopes --- Hegenshan-Heihe suture zone --- Cu-Au hydrothermal mineralization --- Hongyan deposit --- Permian A-type granite --- granite petrogenesis --- magmatic oxygen fugacity --- post-collisional slab break-off --- quartz --- trace element --- precipitation mechanism --- in situ study --- sericite --- acidity --- formation temperature --- n/a

Advances in Quantitative Remote Sensing in China – In Memory of Prof. Xiaowen Li

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783038972709 Year: Volume: 1 Pages: 404 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-271-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Geography
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-08 11:42:05
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Quantitative land remote sensing has recently advanced dramatically, particularly in China. It has been largely driven by vast governmental investment, the availability of a huge amount of Chinese satellite data, geospatial information requirements for addressing pressing environmental issues and other societal benefits. Many individuals have also fostered and made great contributions to its development, and Prof. Xiaowen Li was one of these leading figures. This book is published in memory of Prof. Li. The papers collected in this book cover topics from surface reflectance simulation, inversion algorithm and estimation of variables, to applications in optical, thermal, Lidar and microwave remote sensing. The wide range of variables include directional reflectance, chlorophyll fluorescence, aerosol optical depth, incident solar radiation, albedo, surface temperature, upward longwave radiation, leaf area index, fractional vegetation cover, forest biomass, precipitation, evapotranspiration, freeze/thaw snow cover, vegetation productivity, phenology and biodiversity indicators. They clearly reflect the current level of research in this area. This book constitutes an excellent reference suitable for upper-level undergraduate students, graduate students and professionals in remote sensing.

Keywords

evapotranspiration --- Northeast China --- MS–PT algorithm --- spatial-temporal variations --- controlling factors --- potential evapotranspiration --- vegetation remote sensing --- reflectance model --- spectra --- leaf --- copper --- PROSPECT --- leaf area density --- terrestrial LiDAR --- tree canopy --- vertical structure --- voxel --- spatial representativeness --- heterogeneity --- validation --- land-surface temperature products (LSTs) --- observations --- HiWATER --- remote sensing --- spatiotemporal representative --- cost-efficient, sampling design --- heterogeneity --- validation --- FY-3C/MERSI --- GLASS --- Land surface temperature --- Land surface emissivity --- GPP --- SIF --- MuSyQ-GPP algorithm --- BEPS --- vegetation phenology --- Tibetan Plateau --- MODIS --- NDVI --- start of growing season (SOS) --- end of growing season (EOS) --- GLASS LAI time series --- forest disturbance --- disturbance index --- latent heat --- machine learning algorithms --- plant functional type --- high-resolution freeze/thaw --- AMSR2 --- MODIS --- LAI --- ZY-3 MUX --- GF-1 WFV --- HJ-1 CCD --- maize --- PROSPECT-5B+SAILH (PROSAIL) model --- spatial heterogeneity --- variability --- evapotranspiration --- land surface variables --- probability density function --- HiWATER --- spectral --- albedometer --- interference filter --- photoelectric detector --- validation --- land surface albedo --- multi-scale validation --- rugged terrain --- MRT-based model --- MCD43A3 C6 --- precipitation --- statistics methods --- China --- Tibetan Plateau --- South China’s --- drought --- SPI --- TMI data --- crop-growing regions --- downward shortwave radiation --- machine learning --- gradient boosting regression tree --- AVHRR --- CMA --- BRDF --- aerosol --- MODIS --- sunphotometer --- arid/semiarid --- solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence --- fluorescence quantum efficiency in dark-adapted conditions (FQE) --- SCOPE --- Fraunhofer Line Discrimination (FLD) --- gross primary productivity (GPP) --- longwave upwelling radiation (LWUP) --- Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) --- surface radiation budget --- hybrid method --- remote sensing --- leaf age --- leaf spectral properties --- leaf area index --- Cunninghamia --- Chinese fir --- canopy reflectance --- NIR --- EVI2 --- geometric optical radiative transfer (GORT) model --- land surface albedo --- snow-free albedo --- rugged terrain --- topographic effects --- black-sky albedo (BSA) --- GPP --- NPP --- MODIS --- validation --- phenology --- RADARSAT-2 --- rice --- Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) --- decision tree --- forest canopy height --- aboveground biomass --- ICESat GLAS --- Landsat --- random forest model --- anisotropic reflectance --- BRDF --- rugged terrain --- solo slope --- composite slope --- surface solar irradiance --- geostationary satellite --- polar orbiting satellite --- LUT method --- SURFRAD --- downward shortwave radiation --- daily average value --- Antarctica --- sinusoidal method --- cloud fraction --- interpolation --- boreal forest --- GPP --- spatiotemporal distribution and variation --- meteorological factors --- phenological parameters --- multisource data fusion --- aerosol retrieval --- urban scale --- vegetation dust-retention --- multiple ecological factors --- geographical detector model --- snow cover --- passive microwave --- FY-3C/MWRI --- algorithmic assessment --- China --- land surface temperature --- satellite observations --- flux measurements --- latitudinal pattern --- land cover change --- fractional vegetation cover (FVC) --- multi-data set --- northern China --- spatio-temporal --- inter-annual variation --- uncertainty --- standard error of the mean --- downscaling --- GPP --- spatial heterogeneity --- remote sensing --- subpixel information --- LiDAR --- point cloud --- leaf --- gap fraction --- 3D reconstruction --- biodiversity --- remote sensing --- species richness --- metric comparison --- metric integration --- leaf area index --- MODIS products --- Landsat --- high resolution --- homogeneous and pure pixel filter --- pixel unmixing --- vertical vegetation stratification --- gross primary production (GPP) --- light use efficiency --- dense forest --- MODIS --- VPM --- temperature profiles --- humidity profiles --- n/a --- geometric-optical model --- thermal radiation directionality --- quantitative remote sensing inversion --- scale effects --- comprehensive field experiment

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