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Neuroimaging and Neuropsychology of Meditation States

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451784 Year: Pages: 145 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-178-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-28 14:01:09
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Neurophysiological and psychological modifications induced by meditation practice have been consistently addressed by neuroscience. Training meditation practice induced plasticity (Barinaga, 2003; Knight, 2004), and as a consequence several benefit for mental and physical health (Davidson & McEwen, 2012), and cognitive performance. One goal of meditation is to achieve the light of consciousness observing with equanimity (the right distance) clouds of the mind wandering. This Frontiers Research Topic brings together studies from groups of authors whose research focus on neuropsychological systems involved in meditation demonstrating how meditation activates and can modify brain areas, cognitive mechanisms and well-being.

Macrocognition: The Science and Engineering of Sociotechnical Work Systems

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454181 Year: Pages: 152 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-418-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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The increasing complexity of work systems and changes in the nature of workplace technology over the past century have resulted in an exponential shift in the nature of work activities, from physical labor to cognitive work. Modern work systems have many characteristics that make them cognitively complex: They can be highly interactive; comprised of multiple agents and artifacts; information may be limited and distributed across space and time; task goals are frequently ill-defined, conflicting, dynamic and emergent; planning may only be possible at general levels of abstraction or require adaptive solutions; some degree of proficiency or expertise is required; the stakes are often high; and uncertainty, time-constraints and stress are seldom absent. To complicate matters further, cognition in complex work settings is typically constrained by broader professional, organizational, and institutional practice and policy. These features of cognitive work present significant challenges to scientific methodology and theory, and subsequent design of reliable interventions. Historically, philosophers and scientists have attempted to understand the mental activities experienced during cognitive work at multiple levels of analysis using divergent methods. Some have examined cognition at an associative, contextual, functional or holistic level, relying on naturalistic methods to understand the higher mental processes as they work in harmony during goal-directed behavior. Others have embraced experimental methods and favored internal over external validity, often reducing cognition to a psychology of fundamental acts, such as short-term memory access with millisecond shifts in attention. More recently, Macrocognition has evolved as a complementary paradigm. Macrocognitive researchers have studied the cognitive functions and processes associated with skilled, adaptive, collaborative, and resilient cognitive work in the context of the aforementioned complexities of psychotechnical and sociotechnical work systems. Typically, this research has been carried out using cognitive task analytic techniques that draw on both naturalistic and (quasi-)experimental methods. The primary goals of research in Macrocognition are to better understand cognitive adaptations to complexity, to increase our theoretical understanding of the organism-environment relations by studying the mapping between cognitive work and real-world demands, and to promote use-inspired research capable of improving system performance.

Sur la scène du crime : Pratique pénale, enquête et expertises judiciaires

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ISBN: 9791036503771 Year: DOI: 10.4000/books.pum.20856 Language: French
Publisher: Presses de l’Université de Montréal
Subject: Law
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-06 13:15:44
License: OpenEdition Licence for Books

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Comment peut-on passer d'une justice arbitraire à une justice rationnelle ? Voilà une des questions que se sont posées, au xviiie siècle, ceux que l'on appelle aujourd'hui les Philosophes. Leur volonté générale de réforme de la société et de ses institutions s'accompagnait d'une réflexion sur le crime et sa gestion. La ville de Genève a été un des laboratoires de cette réflexion. Michel Porret montre que ce projet de réforme judiciaire suppose une chose essentielle : pour qu'une justice plus rationnelle soit possible, il faut « qualifier » le crime, en établir les « circonstances », atténuantes ou aggravantes. Ce sera à l'expert de le faire. À partir du siècle des Lumières, on le convoquera sans cesse sur la scène du crime. Qu'il s'agisse de tromperie, de commerce du livre dangereux, de viol, de suicide ou de mort violente, l'expert est partout. Mais comment saisir son rôle ? Les archives judiciaires genevoises regorgent de récits par lesquels on assiste à la transformation de la façon de rendre la justice à la fin de l'Ancien Régime. Elles révèlent aussi la détresse des petites gens devant les drames dont ils sont victimes. Mêlées à celle des experts et des théoriciens du droit, c'est leurs voix que Michel Porret fait enfin entendre.

Keywords

enquête --- crime --- Genève --- Suisse --- expertise --- justice

Les objets dans l’action : De la maison au laboratoire

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9782713230820 Year: DOI: 10.4000/books.editionsehess.9831 Language: French
Publisher: Éditions de l’École des hautes études en sciences sociales
Subject: Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-09-09 12:19:29
License: OpenEdition Licence for Books

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En quoi les objets méritent-ils la sollicitude dont ils bénéficient aujourd'hui de la part des sciences sociales et des sciences cognitives ? Longtemps, l'analyse sociale et l'analyse psychologique ont été peu disposées à leur concéder les titres qu'elles conféraient à des entités plus distinguées – les personnes, l'esprit, les systèmes symboliques, les structures sociales, la culture, etc. Elles les ont traités sous les catégories de l'instrumentalité, de la contrainte naturelle ou de la symbolisation, sous-estimant ainsi leur potentiel cognitif et pratique. Ces dernières années, la situation s'est modifiée. Le renouvellement des approches de l'action, le développement de la recherche sur la « cognition située », l'application, par l'anthropologie des sciences, d'un principe de symétrie dans l'étude des associations entre humains et non-humains, l'esquisse d'une pragmatique du jugement… toutes ces démarches contribuent à faire découvrir l'importance du rôle médiateur des objets et invitent à renouveler les catégories de leur analyse. C'est de cette évolution que les auteurs de ce volume ont cherché à rendre compte.

Keywords

référence --- expertise --- objet --- habileté --- artefacts --- preuve

Abstract Mathematical Cognition

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198160 Year: Pages: 111 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-816-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Despite the importance of mathematics in our educational systems little is known about how abstract mathematical thinking emerges. Under the uniting thread of mathematical development, we hope to connect researchers from various backgrounds to provide an integrated view of abstract mathematical cognition. Much progress has been made in the last 20 years on how numeracy is acquired. Experimental psychology has brought to light the fact that numerical cognition stems from spatial cognition. The findings from neuroimaging and single cell recording experiments converge to show that numerical representations take place in the intraparietal sulcus. Further research has demonstrated that supplementary neural networks might be recruited to carry out subtasks; for example, the retrieval of arithmetic facts is done by the angular gyrus. Now that the neural networks in charge of basic mathematical cognition are identified, we can move onto the stage where we seek to understand how these basics skills are used to support the acquisition and use of abstract mathematical concepts.

Applied Olfactory Cognition

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193431 Year: Pages: 239 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-343-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:32
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Foreword by Richard J. Stevenson, Macquarie University (Australia):It was long thought that the human nose might be able to discriminate somewhere in the order of 10,000 different odourants. The recent finding that the human nose can discriminate something like a trillion different smells serves as yet another reminder that we have again underestimated the capacity of our sense of smell (Bushdid, Magnasco, Vosshall & Keller, 2014). This volume serves as a further corrective for anyone who should hold the view that olfaction is unimportant in human affairs. The papers presented in this ebook, carefully collated and overseen by Aldo Zucco, Benoist Schaal, Mats Olsson and Ilona Croy, showcase a large number of quite different reasons for studying the applied side of olfaction, and indeed human olfaction in general. The 23 contributions presented here cover a broad range of topics, which illustrate contemporary interests in our field. Although with a strong applied focus, a noteworthy feature of this ebook is the richness of the theoretical perspectives that are developed. These range from considerations of olfactory perception, memory, expertise, and priming right the way through to receptor genetics. These contributions, from many leading experts in the field, will surely shape much of the applied work linking olfaction to disease, which is a further focus of this ebook. In respect to health and disease, the chapters on aging, pregnancy, depression, alcohol dependency and environmental odours, present overviews and rich new data on many contemporary problems, to which the study of olfaction is now contributing. A particularly notable aspect of olfactory experience is the affective impact that odours can have on people and their lives. The ebook covers some particularly intriguing aspects of work in this area, with empirical studies investigating dissociations between wanting and liking, stress reduction in the elderly, mother-infant bonding, and the emotions that different odourants can evoke. This affective line of work is nicely complemented by empirical studies on expertise, the effect of odours on visual attention, and the relationship between particular personality traits and interest in olfaction. The gradual appropriation of methods from cognitive neuroscience into olfaction is also nicely represented in this ebook, with at least three of the chapters reporting data using neuroimaging, including a particular intriguing study looking at recognition of odours in mixtures. Finally, the close links between olfactory perception and sensory evaluation are also reflected in a chapter on wine. I hope that readers of this e-book will be struck, as I have been in reading its various chapters, how much olfaction affects our lives, and how the study of this sense can enrich it.

Neural Implementations of Expertise

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196883 Year: Pages: 236 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-688-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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When we think about expertise, we usually consider people who master tasks at a level not reachable by most other people. Although we rarely realise it, however, most humans are experts in many aspects of everyday life. This expertise enables us to find our way through a complex environment that is our life. For instance, we can instantly recognise multiple objects and relations between them to form a meaningful unit, such as an office. Thus, research on expertise is not only important to investigate the cognitive and neural processes within an “elite” group, but it is also a powerful tool to understand how everyone can acquire complex skills. The goal of this Research Topic is to shed further light on the common and distinct neural mechanisms that implement various kinds of expertise. We broadly define expertise as skill in any perceptual, cognitive, social or motor domain, with the common core being optimised information processing due to knowledge acquired from repeated experiences. Thus, we are interested in the full range of mental processes modulated or modified by expertise, from “simple” object or pattern recognition to complex decision making or problem solving in a particular domain. These domains can range from everyday or occupational expertise to sports and rather artificial domains such as board games. In all cases, the aim should be to elucidate how the brain implements these sometimes incredible feats. We are particularly interested in connecting cognitive theories about expertise and expertise-related performance differences with models and data on the neural implementation of expertise. We welcome original research contributions using the full range of behavioural neuroscience methods, as well as theoretical, methodological or historical reviews, and opinion papers focusing on any of the above-mentioned aspects.

Keywords

Expertise --- Sport --- Board games --- Music --- Language --- Perception --- MRI --- fMRI --- EEG

L’expertise

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9782802804178 Year: DOI: 10.4000/books.pusl.12905 Language: French
Publisher: Presses de l’Université Saint-Louis
Subject: Law
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-06 13:15:50
License: OpenEdition Licence for Books

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De longue date, les reproches essentiels formulés à propos de la procédure d'expertise judiciaire, actuellement organisée par les articles 962 à 991 du Code judiciaire, se sont focalisés autour de deux grands thèmes : - le coût excessif de ce genre de procédure ; - la durée anormalement longue de son déroulement. Le Code judiciaire a voulu remédier à ces griefs, tout en admettant la nécessité de recourir à ce mode de preuve lorsque l'enjeu du litige dépasse d'un point de vue technique les compétences de nos Cours et Tribunaux. Les trente articles du Code judiciaire relatifs à l'expertise sont cependant source de nombreuses dérives, susceptibles de se produire à tous les stades de la procédure. Il a dès lors paru indispensable de les dénoncer, mais également d'envisager les palliatifs et/ou remèdes dont les acteurs (magistrats, avocats, experts,...) disposent. La qualité et l'expérience en la matière des intervenants aux journées d'étude organisées témoignent à suffisance de l'intérêt qu'ils ont suscité.

Violences juvéniles sous expertise(s) / Expertise and Juvenile Violence

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ISBN: 9782874632594 9782875581723 Year: Language: French
Publisher: Presses universitaires de Louvain
Added to DOAB on : 2017-05-12 11:12:22
License: OpenEdition licence for Books

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Dans la construction historique du problème social que constitue la violence juvénile, le rôle de l'expertise est primordial. L'expert, agissant au coeur ou à la lisière du système institutionnel de protection de la jeunesse, peut être celui qui recueille et met en forme l'expression de cette violence. De ce fait, il contribue à l'extension de sa définition: violence physique, mais aussi psychique, voire symbolique. Les experts dépassent alors la posture du simple diagnostic pour s'inscrire d...

Psychological perspectives on expertise

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195206 Year: Pages: 240 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-520-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:06
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Experts are persons who are very knowledgeable about or skillful in a particular area. The aim of this Research Topic is to advance knowledge in the understanding of the phenomenon of expertise by putting together different lines of research that directly or indirectly study expertise. Herbert Simon’s expertise studies initiated two lines of research. One is interested in elucidating the cognitive processes underlying expertise, and the other investigates how expertise develops. These lines of research started with studies comparing experts and novices in chess, and then they extended to numerous areas of expertise such as music, medical diagnosis, sports, arts and sciences. In the field of judgment and decision making researchers investigate the quality of judgments and decisions of experts in different professions (e.g., clinical psychologists, medical practitioners, judges, meteorologists, stock brokers). Those lines of research explicitly investigate the topic of expertise, but there are other research areas that make a substantial contribution to understanding expertise. Scholars in language acquisition and in face perception, for example, investigate cognitive processes and development of expertise in areas in which almost everyone becomes an expert. Furthermore, skill acquisition research informs in detail about short term cognitive changes that may be important to understand how expertise develops. We are interested in original research that advances knowledge in the understanding of decision making, cognitive processes and development of expertise in sports, intellectual games, arts, scientific disciplines and professions, as well as expertise in cognitive abilities such as perception, memory, attention, language and imagery. We are also interested in theoretical articles in any of these areas, articles that describe computational or mathematical models of expertise, and articles offering a framework that would guide expertise research. Articles that offer integrative approaches of some of the areas described above are strongly encouraged. The goal of this Research Topic is to produce a hallmark piece of work in the field of expertise, which complements and does not overlap with the “Neural implementations of expertise” Research Topic in Frontiers in Human Neuroscience.

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