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The culture of toleration in diverse societies

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ISBN: 9780719062322 Year: DOI: 10.9760/mupoa/9780719062322 Language: English
Publisher: Manchester University Press
Subject: Philosophy
Added to DOAB on : 2011-11-04 00:00:00
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The idea of toleration as the appropriate response to difference has been central to liberal thought since Locke. Although the subject has been widely and variously explored, there has been reluctance to acknowledge the new meaning that current debates on toleration have when compared with those at its origins in the early modern period and with subsequent discussions about pluralism and freedom of expression. This collection starts from a clear recognition of the new terms of the debate. It recognises that a new academic consensus is slowly emerging on a view of tolerance that is reasonable in two senses. Firstly of reflecting the capacity of seeing the other's viewpoint, secondly on the relatively limited extent to which toleration can be granted. It reflects the cross-thematic and cross-disciplinary nature of such discussions, dissecting a number of debates such as liberalism and communitarianism, public and private, multiculturalism and the politics of identity, and a number of disciplines: moral, legal and political philosophy, historical and educational studies, anthropology, sociology and psychology. A group of distinguished authors explore the complexities emerging from the new debate. They scrutinise, with analytical sophistication, the philosophical foundation, the normative content and the broadly political implications of a new culture of toleration for diverse societies. Specific issues considered include the toleration of religious discrimination in employment, city life and community, social ethos, publicity, justice and reason and ethics. The book is unique in resolutely looking forward to the theoretical and practical challenges posed by commitment to a conception of toleration demanding empathy and understanding in an ever-diversifying world.

Keywords

tolerance --- racism --- discrimination

Biotic and Abiotic Stress Responses in Crop Plants

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ISBN: 9783038974635 9783038974642 Year: Pages: 252 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-464-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Plant Sciences --- Genetics --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-16 10:24:11
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While the demand for crop products continues to increase strongly, agricultural productivity is threatened by various stress factors, often associated with global warming. To sustain and improve yield, it is necessary to understand how plants respond to various stresses, and to use the generated knowledge in modern breeding programs. Most knowledge regarding the molecular mechanisms associated with stress responses has been obtained from investigations using the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Stress hormones, such as abscisic acid, jasmonic acid, and salicylic acid, have been shown to play key roles in defense responses against abiotic and biotic stresses. More recently, evidence that growth-regulating plant hormones are also involved in stress responses has been accumulating. Epigenetic regulation at the DNA and histone level, and gene regulation by small non-coding RNAs appear to be important as well. Many approaches have used mutant screens and next generation sequencing approaches to identify key players and mechanisms how plants respond to their environment. However, it is often unclear to which extent the elucidated mechanisms also operate in crops.This Special Issue Book, therefore, aims to close this gap and contains a number of contributions from labs that work both, on Arabidopsis and crops. The book includes contributions reporting how crop plant species respond to various abiotic stresses, such as drought, heat, cold, flooding, and salinity, as well as biotic stimuli during microbial infections. It contains reviews, opinions, perspectives, and original articles, and its focus is on our molecular understanding of biotic and abiotic stress responses in crops, highlighting, among other aspects, the role of stress hormones, secondary metabolites, signaling mechanisms, and changes in gene expression patterns and their regulation. Approaches and ideas to achieve stress tolerance and to maintain yield stability of agricultural crops during stress periods can be found in most chapters. These include also perspectives on how knowledge from model plants can be utilized to facilitate crop-plant breeding and biotechnology.

Control of Multiphase Machines and Drives

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ISBN: 9783039281367 9783039281374 Year: Pages: 146 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-137-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-30 16:39:46
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With the growing interest in electrical machines in recent times, the multiphase machine field has developed into a fascinating research area. Their intrinsic features (power splitting, better fault tolerance, or lower torque ripple) make them an appealing competitor to conventional three-phase machines. Multiphase electric drives have been recently used in applications where fault tolerance and continuous operation of the drive are required. However, the difficulties in extending the three-phase conventional current regulation and control structure to multiphase systems still limit their broad applicability in industry solutions. The main objective of this book is to illustrate new advances, developments, and applications in the field of multiphase machines and drives, while exposing these advances, developments, and applications to the scientific community and industry.

Heimatrecht und Staatsbürgerschaft österreichischer Juden

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ISBN: 9783205794950 Year: Pages: 290 DOI: 10.26530/oapen_461430 Language: German
Publisher: Böhlau Grant: Austrian Science Fund - PUB 81
Subject: History
Added to DOAB on : 2013-12-06 22:31:37
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The study describes the process of gradual inclusion of the Jews into the ‚Heimatrecht‘ and citizenship in the Austrian monarchy since the Josephine reforms. The stony path of integration of the Jews into general citizenship which spans centuries and is marked by numerous setbacks allows to shed new light on the act of expatriation of the Austrian Jews during the Nazi regime.The stony path of integration of the Jews into general citizenship spans many centuries and is marked by numerous setbacks. It stretches from special royal protection of the Jews ('Judenregal') via Tolerance or 'Familienstelle' all the way to full citizenship. A description of this development allows to shed new light on the previously dimly lit act of expatriation of the Austrian Jews during the Nazi regime. This was a complex process running in several stages which, although similar to the rest of the German Reich, occurred at a somewhat later stage and already under the sign of flight and expulsion. However, the disenfranchisement and – literally and legally - depersonalization of the Austrian Jews was - so the argument - not just an act of targeted Nazi persecution, but the systematic reversal in rapid motion of the Jews' emancipation which had started at the end of the 18th century. What at first glance appears to have been an abstruse and cluttered convolution of Nazi regulatory activity turns out, on closer analysis, to have been a meticulous reversal of the historical process of 'Jewish emancipation'. Numerous case studies and three major biographical studies towards the end of the book show to what extent the 'Heimatrecht' and citizenship or, by contrast, the fate of statelessness determined the lives and identities of people - far beyond the time of the Austrian monarchy.

Metal Metabolism in Animals

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ISBN: 9783038428435 9783038428442 Year: Pages: X, 356 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-04-20 14:25:48
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Through evolution of life, animals have adapted to the ubiquitous presence of metals in the biosphere. They utilize the more frequent ones as essential constituents of their biochemical machinery. In fact, about 40% of all proteins present in animal cells are so-called metalloproteins. On the other hand, animals have invented regulatory and detoxifying mechanisms to protect themselves from critical concentrations of both essential and non-essential metal concentrations. Metallomics is a modern approach applying cellular, biochemical, molecular and analytical methods to investigate the relationships of metals in their cellular context. The present edition contains a number of original articles and reviews dealing with various aspects of metallomics in animals, published as Special Issues of the International Journal of Molecular Sciences in 2016 and 2017. The book addresses subjects such as metal definition in biology, metabolism of metals in invertebrate and vertebrate animals, metal detoxification and regulation strategies, supplementation of essential trace elements, metal behavior in pregnancy and embryonic development, as well as metal toxicology and emerging medical implications.

Cooperative Connected and Automated Mobility (CCAM): Technologies and Applications

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ISBN: 9783039281589 9783039281596 Year: Pages: 128 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-159-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:08
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Cooperative connected and automated mobility (CCAM) has the potential to reshape the transportation ecosystem in a revolutionary way. Transportation systems will be safer, more efficient and more comfortable. Cars are going to be the third living space, as passengers will have the freedom to use their car to live, work and travel. Despite the massive effort devoted, both by academia and industry, to developing connected and automated vehicles, there are still many issues to be addressed, including not only scientific and technological, but also regulatory and political issues. This book, mostly centered on the scientific and technological aspects of CCAMs, features seven articles highlighting recent advances of the state of the art in different CCAM technologies. Two papers address vehicular platooning, a key application for day-1 automated driving, other presents a scheme to improve the resource utilization of vehicular networks, while another paper addresses critical train communications, proposing an architecture based on 5G, SDN and MPTCP to provide path diversity and end-to-end redundancy. One paper describes the status of roadside deployment activities and analyzes the policies and practices of cooperative driving in the European Union. Finally, two review papers, one on congestion control techniques for VANETs and the other on fault tolerance techniques for vehicular networks, conclude the book.

Probiotics and Prebiotics in Pediatrics

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038979500 9783038979517 Year: Pages: 258 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-951-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Pediatrics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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The goal of this Special Issue, “Probiotics and Prebiotics in Pediatrics”, is to focus on the importance of pediatric nutrition with probiotics and prebiotics to improve gastrointestinal health in newborn, infants, and children.Specifically, the aim is to clarify if probiotics and prebiotics can influence gut microbiota composition and host-interaction favoring human health and preventing diseases.This new information will provide health care professionals with a widespread, clear and update evidence on probiotics and prebiotics and intestinal gut microbiota in pediatric care.

Keywords

acute diarrhea --- children --- Bacillus clausii --- efficacy --- randomized controlled trials --- breast feeding --- formula feeding --- human milk oligosaccharide --- 2?-fucosyllactose --- Lacto-N-neotetraose --- microbiota --- bifidobacteria --- acute gastroenteritis --- children --- Lactobacillus reuteri --- oral rehydration solution --- probiotics --- zinc --- probiotics --- allergy --- infants --- pediatrics --- human milk oligosaccharides --- human milk --- infant formula --- necrotizing enterocolitis --- preterm infant --- preterm infant --- probiotic --- human milk --- probiotic strain --- safety --- fecal microbiota --- protein hydrolyzed formulas --- cow’s milk protein --- tolerance acquisition --- non-IgE mediated allergy --- microbiome --- intestinal microbiota --- microbial programming --- nutritional programming --- allergy --- prevention --- neonatal --- preterm --- breast milk --- oligosaccharides --- diversity --- necrotizing enterocolitis --- sepsis --- growth --- constipation --- prebiotic --- intestinal transit time --- infant --- Bifidobacterium --- Lactobacillus --- probiotics --- asthma --- Childhood Asthma Control Test --- peak expiratory flow rate --- immunoglobulin E --- “Probiotics”[Mesh] --- “Pregnancy”[Mesh] --- “Infant, Newborn”[Mesh] --- Bifidobacterium breve --- probiotics --- paediatrics --- therapeutic microbiology --- celiac disease --- iron deficiency anemia --- gluten-free diet --- inulin --- prebiotics --- iron absorption --- hepcidin --- probiotics --- microbiota --- celiac disease --- gluten free diet --- probiotics --- functional gastrointestinal disorders --- functional abdominal pain disorders --- functional constipation --- infantile colic --- infant --- colic --- lactobacilli --- n/a --- fecal microbiota --- protein hydrolyzed formulas --- cow’s milk protein --- tolerance acquisition --- non-IgE mediated allergy --- n/a

Salinity Tolerance in Plants

Author:
ISBN: 9783039210268 9783039210275 Year: Pages: 422 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-027-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Biochemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 10:09:00
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Salt stress is one of the most damaging abiotic stresses because most crop plants are susceptible to salinity to different degrees. According to the FAO, about 800 million Has of land are affected by salinity worldwide. Unfortunately, this situation will worsen in the context of climate change, where there will be an overall increase in temperature and a decrease in average annual rainfall worldwide. This Special Issue presents different research works and reviews on the response of plants to salinity, focused from different points of view: physiological, biochemical, and molecular levels. Although an important part of the studies on the response to salinity have been carried out with Arabidopsis plants, the use of other species with agronomic interest is also notable, including woody plants. Most of the conducted studies in this Special Issue were focused on the identification and characterization of candidate genes for salt tolerance in higher plants. This identification would provide valuable information about the molecular and genetic mechanisms involved in the salt tolerance response, and it also supplies important resources to breeding programs for salt tolerance in plants.

Keywords

Arabidopsis --- Brassica napus --- ion homeostasis --- melatonin --- NaCl stress --- nitric oxide --- redox homeostasis --- Chlamydomonas reinhardtii --- bZIP transcription factors --- salt stress --- transcriptional regulation --- photosynthesis --- lipid accumulation --- Apocyni Veneti Folium --- salt stress --- multiple bioactive constituents --- physiological changes --- multivariate statistical analysis --- banana (Musa acuminata L.) --- ROP --- genome-wide identification --- abiotic stress --- salt stress --- MaROP5g --- rice --- genome-wide association study --- salt stress --- germination --- natural variation --- Chlamydomonas reinhardtii --- salt stress --- transcriptome analysis --- impairment of photosynthesis --- underpinnings of salt stress responses --- chlorophyll fluorescence --- J8-1 plum line --- mandelonitrile --- Prunus domestica --- redox signalling --- salicylic acid --- salt-stress --- soluble nutrients --- Arabidopsis thaliana --- VOZ --- transcription factor --- salt stress --- transcriptional activator --- chlorophyll fluorescence --- lipid peroxidation --- Na+ --- photosynthesis --- photosystem --- RNA binding protein --- nucleolin --- salt stress --- photosynthesis --- light saturation point --- booting stage --- transcriptome --- grapevine --- salt stress --- ROS detoxification --- phytohormone --- transcription factors --- Arabidopsis --- CDPK --- ion homeostasis --- NMT --- ROS --- salt stress --- antioxidant enzymes --- Arabidopsis thaliana --- ascorbate cycle --- hydrogen peroxide --- reactive oxygen species --- salinity --- SnRK2 --- RNA-seq --- DEUs --- flax --- NaCl stress --- EST-SSR --- Salt stress --- Oryza sativa --- proteomics --- iTRAQ quantification --- cell membrane injury --- root activity --- antioxidant systems --- ion homeostasis --- melatonin --- salt stress --- signal pathway --- SsMAX2 --- Sapium sebiferum --- drought, osmotic stress --- salt stress --- redox homeostasis --- strigolactones --- ABA --- TGase --- photosynthesis --- salt stress --- polyamines --- cucumber --- abiotic stresses --- high salinity --- HKT1 --- halophytes --- glycophytes --- poplars (Populus) --- salt tolerance --- molecular mechanisms --- SOS --- ROS --- Capsicum annuum L. --- CaDHN5 --- salt stress --- osmotic stress --- dehydrin --- Gossypium arboretum --- salt tolerance --- single nucleotide polymorphisms --- association mapping. --- n/a

Hardwood Reforestation and Restoration

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038977308 9783038977315 Year: Pages: 192 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-731-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Ecology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:28
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Hardwood-dominated temperate forests (mostly in Eastern North America, Europe, North East Asia) provide valuable renewable timber and numerous ecosystem services. Many of these forests have been subjected to harvesting or conversion to agriculture, sometimes over centuries, that have greatly reduced their former extent and diversity. Natural regeneration following harvesting or during post-agricultural succession has often failed to restore these forests adequately. Past harvesting practices and the valuable timber of some species have led to a reduction in their abundance. The loss of apex predators has caused herbivore populations to increase and exert intense browsing pressure on hardwood regeneration, often preventing it. Particularly important are fruit, nut and acorn bearing species, because of their vital role in forest food webs and biodiversity. Restoring hardwood species to natural forests in which they were formerly more abundant will require a number of forest management actions (e.g., resistant hybrids, deer exclosures/protectors, enrichment planting, underplanting, etc.). Similarly, reforesting areas that were once natural forests will also require new silvicultural knowledge. Global warming trends will intensify the need for interventions to maintain the diversity and function of temperate hardwood forests, as well as for increase hardwood reforestation.

Technological Eco-Innovations for the Quality Control and the Decontamination of Polluted Waters and Soils

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039284641 9783039284658 Year: Pages: 226 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-465-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Environmental Sciences --- Environmental Technology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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The Special Issue “Technological Eco-Innovations for the Quality Control and the Decontamination of Polluted Waters and Soils” deals with the most recent research activities carried out at lab and field scale on eco-sustainable tools for the remediation of contaminated environmental substrates. It is particularly devoted to highlight the relevance of biological organisms (plants, microbes, algae) to assess the chemical contamination in water and soil and to remediate such matrices from the pollution caused by the human activities. Therefore, bioremediation is a primary focus of most of the articles published within the present Special Issue. Bioremediation is a promising environmentally friendly technology to deal with the chemical pollution in different ecosystem compartments and its integration with the traditional approaches might represent a

Keywords

chlorophyll fluorescence --- industrial crop --- metal tolerance --- phytomanagement --- phytoremediation --- soil pollution --- coal --- soil --- water --- bioremediation --- Ralstonia sp. --- sulfur --- synthetic zeolite --- removal --- 2,4-D --- MCPA --- plant secondary metabolites --- ferulic acid --- syringic acid --- biodegradation --- ecotoxicity --- bioremediation --- biostimulation --- diesel oil --- indigenous microorganisms --- kinetics --- dielectric permittivity --- acclimation --- Brassica napus --- salt stress --- chlorophyll fluorescence --- photosynthesis --- anti-oxidant enzymes --- polyamines --- proline --- phytoremediation --- water pollution --- DDT --- TNT --- heavy metals --- cesium ions --- Tagetes patula --- Festuca arundinacea --- bottom urban sediment --- phytoremediation --- plant growth promoting bacteria --- oxidative stress --- plant stress reactions --- phytoremediation --- heavy metals --- energy crops --- pollution --- water contamination --- chlorophyll fluorescence --- mining wastes --- iron and manganese minerals --- water filtration --- arsenic adsorption --- geostatistical analysis --- geological heterogeneity --- dissolved organic carbon --- autochthonous microbial community --- urban sediments --- PCDDs/PCDFs --- rhizobacterial inoculants --- bioremediation --- phytoremediation --- natural-based remediation strategies --- Monviso clone --- plant physiology --- antioxidant defence --- soil microbial communities --- microscope --- bacterial contamination --- water contamination --- artificial intelligence

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