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Volatile Organic Compounds in Environment

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ISBN: 9783038425120 9783038425137 Year: Pages: VIII, 122 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-02 11:42:58
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Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are released from both static and mobile sources (e.g., industrial, transport, household, fossil fuels use, and many other sources). They are emitted into the atmosphere, taken up by plants, and ingested by animals to be bio accumulated along the food chain up to the apex predator. Many of these pollutants are classified as being toxic/carcinogenic by varying degrees and pose a worldwide risk to the environment and human health. Exposure (through different exposure pathways, i.e., inhalation, dermal absorption, ingestion, etc.) to those hazardous pollutants can damage the immune, neurological, reproductive (e.g., reduced fertility), developmental, and respiratory systems of humans and animals. More efforts are thus needed to improve the method of their detection and treatment. This Special Issue aims to present articles emphasizing more than one of all the available tools to monitor or treat VOCs: (1) measurement techniques for VOC; (2) treatment techniques for VOC; and (3) all important environmental issues associated with the management of VOCs.

Noise and Vibration Control in the Built Environment

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ISBN: 9783038424215 9783038424208 Year: Pages: XII, 176 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2017-06-02 09:49:16
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With global urbanization rapidly rising and the increasing need of high-quality built environments, the requirement of achieving improved sound quality, both for outdoor and indoor environments, has received a lot of attention. This Special Issue collection reflects the current state of the art, with 12 papers covering environmental acoustics; the influence of soundscapes on people’s behavior; soundscape pleasantness estimation; tranquility; perceived quality of sonic environments; sound and vibration-related health complaints concerning tramways; and the disturbance of construction machines; as well as in building and room acoustics, including natural ventilation-enabling façade noise control devices; the effect of external shading devices; rating method of airborne sound insulation; water supply and drainage noise, and the effect of diffusive surfaces in auditoria. Some papers cover research on the engineering aspects of sound and vibration, such as sound propagation and noise control techniques, as well as perception aspects of sound, such as indoor acoustic comfort and environmental soundscapes. The book is prefaced by Prof. S Wu, entitled ‘Sustainable Urban Sound Environment’.

Reducing Dietary Sodium and Improving Human Health

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ISBN: 9783038429258 9783038429265 Year: Pages: X, 390 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-05-18 15:50:08
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This Special Issue of Nutrients, entitled “Reducing Dietary Sodium and Improving Human Health”, welcomes the submission of manuscripts either describing original research or reviewing scientific literature related to salt reduction. Manuscripts should focus on population interventions for reducing dietary sodium and we are particularly interested in innovative approaches to changing the food environment and/or consumer behaviour. Manuscripts that discuss theoretical models informing the design of interventions for reducing dietary sodium are also welcome, as are studies from low or lower middle income countries.Potential topics may include, but are not limited to: Development/evaluation of regional or national strategies to reduce population salt intake Methodological issues related to measuring salt consumption patterns Use of policy or legislative approaches to reduce salt consumption Design and/or assessment of impact of behavioural change programs Modelling of the impact of interventions on salt intake and health outcomes.

Advances in Optofluidics

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ISBN: 9783038970958 9783038970965 Year: Pages: VIII, 140 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Optics and Lights
Added to DOAB on : 2018-08-15 11:37:09
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Optofluidics a niche research field that integrates optics with microfluidics. It started with elegant demonstrations of the passive interaction of light and liquid media such as liquid waveguides and liquid tunable lenses. Recently, the optofluidics continues the advance in liquid-based optical devices/systems. In addition, it has expanded rapidly into many other fields that involve lightwave (or photon) and liquid media. This Special Issue invites review articles (only review articles) that update the latest progress of the optofluidics in various aspects, such as new functional devices, new integrated systems, new fabrication techniques, new applications, etc. It covers, but is not limited to, topics such as micro-optics in liquid media, optofluidic sensors, integrated micro-optical systems, displays, optofluidics-on-fibers, optofluidic manipulation, energy and environmental applciations, and so on.

Walkable Neighborhoods: The Link between Public Health, Urban Design, and Transportation

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ISBN: 9783039219308 9783039219315 Year: Pages: 234 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-931-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Transportation --- Media and communication
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-30 16:39:46
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It is now widely recognized that individual-based motivational interventions alone are not sufficient to address the global pandemic of physical inactivity (lack of exercise and too much sitting time). There has been a growing interest in the effect the physically built environment can have on people’s active behaviors. The fundamental assumption is that surrounding physical environments can support active behaviors among a large number of people with long-term effects. This topic has received much attention over the last decade, mainly in the three fields of urban design, public health, and transportation. This Special Issue aims to provide multidisciplinary and evidence-based state-of-the-art research on how the locations where people live impact their active behaviors and health outcomes.

Keywords

urban design --- active living --- aging --- physical activity --- sedentary behavior --- age-friendly environments --- older adult --- physical activity --- social connectedness --- physical environment --- citizen science --- Discovery Tool --- built environment --- urban health --- urban form --- walking --- physical activity --- health promotion --- walkability --- neighborhood --- older adult --- chronic diseases --- body mass --- disease mapping --- geographic variation --- obese --- overweight --- spatial analysis --- walkability --- traffic safety --- walking --- cycling --- infrastructure --- active travel --- active transport --- neighbourhood --- scale --- built environment --- physical activity --- walking --- soft mobility --- walkable environment --- physical activity --- health outcomes --- active living --- street network configuration --- peripheral neighbourhoods --- pedestrian flow --- streetscape features --- Istanbul --- walkable neighborhood --- sitting --- elderly --- built environment --- non-communicable diseases --- Africa --- walkable environment --- physical activity --- sedentary behaviour --- neighbourhood --- walkability --- active living --- survey --- questionnaire --- mobility management --- public transport --- step counts --- city planning --- compact city --- neighborhood --- natural experiment --- built environment --- urban design --- policy evaluation --- active living --- liveability --- Australia --- walkability --- environment --- overweight --- obesity --- review

Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks for Smart Cities

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ISBN: 9783038974239 9783038974246 Year: Pages: 168 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-424-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 11:43:26
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Our lives are being transformed by the interplay between mobile networks, wireless communications, and artificial intelligence. This transformation is an outcome of the emerging Internet of Things (IoT) concept and advancements in computer architecture that translate into high computing power, high-performance processing, and huge memory capacities. In addition to the IoT, cyber-physical systems aim for the seamless integration of physical systems with computing and communication resources. Furthermore, in urban areas, the integration of “software-defined sensor networks” and “sensing as a service” concepts with legacy WSN-based systems is leading to the transformation of conventional city services towards smart cities. Smart energy, smart driving, smart homes, smart living, smart governance, and smart health are just a few services that smart cities can offer. This book focuses on novel solutions for wireless sensor and actuator networks in smart cities. This Special Issue invites academic and industry researchers in computer science and engineering, electrical engineering, and communication engineering, as well as ICT industry engineers and practitioners, to contribute original articles in all aspects of wireless sensor networks and actuator systems for smart cities.

Health Literacy in Context—Settings, Media, and Populations

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ISBN: 9783038974710 9783038974727 Year: Pages: 250 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-472-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Internal medicine --- Education --- Media and communication
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-24 10:13:02
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To date, most published health literacy research has focused on assessing and improving personal skills and abilities. More recently, a better understanding has emerged of the extent to which these skills and abilities are mediated by environmental demands and situational complexities — the context in which health literacy is developed and applied. This has led to much greater attention being given to ways of reducing the situational demands and complexity in which an individual makes a health decision. This collection of papers examines current progress in understanding health literacy "in context", by improving our understanding of the mutual impact of a range of social, economic, environmental, and organisational influences on health literacy.These papers provide unique and original perspectives on the concept, distribution, and application of health literacy in very diverse populations, offering cultural insights and a clear indication of the impact of social and environmental context on health literacy. These perspectives include an examination of differing national policy responses to health literacy illustrating how policy and practice can (and should) respond to this more complete but complex understanding of health literacy. Other papers look at the application of new digital media and the creative harnessing of popular culture as routes to extend the reach and customisation of communications. These papers also illustrate good progress in the evolution of research in the contexts in which health literacy is developed and applied, as well as signaling some areas in which more research would be useful.

Human Factors in Green Building

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ISBN: 9783038975663 9783038975670 Year: Pages: 200 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-567-0
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Construction --- Architecture
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 09:42:11
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World Green Building Council suggests that health, well-being and productivity should be the next chapter for green building. There is an obvious shift of green building movement from technology-centric towards human-centric, which culminates in recent WELL Building Standard, focusing exclusively on human health and wellness. This special issue aims to push forward the research, discourse and practice of green building towards more human-oriented design solutions. Particularly, this special issue collects papers on: Post-occupancy evaluation of green buildingsIndoor Environmental Quality (IEQ)Thermal Comfort and Adaptive BehaviorsQuality of Life and HousingHealthcare Design

Sustainability in China: Bridging Global Knowledge with Local Action

ISBN: 9783038421139 9783038421146 Year: Pages: 332 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2016-05-09 15:17:13
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China’s road to sustainability has attracted global attention. Since the “Reform & Opening Up” policy, China’s rapid pace of both urbanization and industrialization has made its being the second largesteconomy but meantime a heavy environmental price has been paid over the past few decades for addressing the economic developmental target. Today, as the biggest developing country, China needs to take more responsibilities for constructing its local ecological-civilization society as well as for addressingthe global challenges such as climate change, resources scary and human beings well-fare; therefore, weneed to have deeper understandings into China’s way to sustainability at very different levels, bothspatially and structurally, concerns ranging from generating sustainable household livelihoods to globalclimate change, from developing technological applications to generate institutional changes. In thisspirit, this publication, “Sustainability in China: Bridging Global Knowledge with Local Action” aims to investigate the intended and spontaneous issues concerning China’s road to sustainability in a combined top-down and bottom-up manner, linking international knowledge to local-based studies.

Optofluidics 2015

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783038424697 9783038424680 Year: Pages: X, 162 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-13 16:23:40
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Optofluidics combines and integrates optics and fluidics to produce versatile systems that are achievable only with difficulty through either field alone. With the spatial and temporal control of the microfluids, the optical properties can be varied, providing highly flexible, tunable, and reconfigurable optical systems. Since the emergence of optofluidics, numerous systems with varied configurations have been developed and applied to imaging, light routing, bio-sensors, energy, and other fields. This Special Issue aims to collect high quality research papers, short communications, and review articles that focus on optofluidics, micro/nano technology, and related multidisciplinary emerging fields. The special issue will also publish selected papers from the 5th Optofluidics 2015 conference (http://www.optofluidics2015.org/), 26–28 July 2015, Taipei, Taiwan. The aim of optofluidics 2015 conference is to provide a forum to promote scientific exchange and to foster closer networks and collaborative ties between leading international optics and micro/nanofluidics researchers across various disciplines. The scope of Optofluidics 2015 is deliberately broad and interdisciplinary, encompassing the latest advances and the most innovative developments in micro/nanoscale science and technology. Topics range from fundamental research to its applications in chemistry, physics, biology, materials and medicine.

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