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Die Begriffsanalyse im 21. Jahrhundert

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ISBN: 9783957431677 Year: Pages: 318 DOI: 10.30965/9783957437259 Language: German
Publisher: Brill
Subject: Philosophy
Added to DOAB on : 2020-07-21 23:58:09
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Philosophy

Cow Care in Hindu Animal Ethics

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Book Series: The Palgrave Macmillan Animal Ethics Series ISBN: 9783030284084 Year: Pages: 269 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-28408-4 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Philosophy --- Religion --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-02-05 11:21:04
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This open access book provides both a broad perspective and a focused examination of cow care as a subject of widespread ethical concern in India, and increasingly in other parts of the world. In the face of what has persisted as a highly charged political issue over cow protection in India, intellectual space must be made to bring the wealth of Indian traditional ethical discourse to bear on the realities of current human-animal relationships, particularly those of humans with cows. Dharma, yoga, and bhakti paradigms serve as starting points for bringing Hindu—particularly Vaishnava Hindu—animal ethics into conversation with contemporary Western animal ethics. The author argues that a culture of bhakti—the inclusive, empathetic practice of spirituality centered in Krishna as the beloved cowherd of Vraja—can complement recently developed ethics-of-care thinking to create a solid basis for sustaining all kinds of cow care communities. ; Offers a focused insight into a key aspect of Hindu religious practice Integrates primary research and tertiary sources to give a multifaceted understanding of the intricacies of cow care practice Challenges conventional Western thought on cow care and its worldwide implications for animal ethics

Panentheism and Panpsychism

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Book Series: Innsbruck Studies in Philosophy of Religion ISBN: 9783957431714 Year: Pages: 311 DOI: 10.30965/9783957437303 Language: English
Publisher: Brill
Subject: Religion --- Philosophy
Added to DOAB on : 2020-07-21 23:58:15
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Panpsychism has become a highly attractive position in the philosophy of mind. On panpsychism, both the physical and the mental are inseparable and fundamental features of reality. Panentheism has also become immensely popular in the philosophy of religion. Panentheism strives for a higher reconciliation of an atheistic pantheism, on which the universe itself is causa sui, and the ontological dualism of necessarily existing, eternal creator and contingent, finite creation. Historically and systematically, panpsychism and panentheism often went together as essential parts of an allembracing metaphysical theory of Being. The present collection of essays analyses the relation between panpsychism and panentheism and provides critical reflections on the significance of panpsychistic and panentheistic thinking for recent debates in philosophy and theology.

Keywords

Religion --- Philosophy

Knowledge from a Human Point of View

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Book Series: Synthese Library ISBN: 9783030270414 Year: Pages: 152 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-27041-4 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Philosophy --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-02-04 11:21:16
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This open access book – as the title suggests – explores some of the historical roots and epistemological ramifications of perspectivism. Perspectivism has recently emerged in philosophy of science as an interesting new position in the debate between scientific realism and anti-realism. But there is a lot more to perspectivism than discussions in philosophy of science so far have suggested. Perspectivism is a much broader view that emphasizes how our knowledge (in particular our scientific knowledge of nature) is situated; it is always from a human vantage point (as opposed to some Nagelian "view from nowhere"). This edited collection brings together a diverse team of established and early career scholars across a variety of fields (from the history of philosophy to epistemology and philosophy of science). The resulting nine essays trace some of the seminal ideas of perspectivism back to Kant, Nietzsche, the American Pragmatists, and Putnam, while the second part of the book tackles issues concerning the relation between perspectivism, relativism, and standpoint theories, and the implications of perspectivism for epistemological debates about veritism, epistemic normativity and the foundations of human knowledge.

Chapter 3 Derivation of Morality from Prudence (Book chapter)

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Book Series: Routledge Focus on Philosophy ISBN: 9780367230159 9780429277955 Year: Pages: 36 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Philosophy
Added to DOAB on : 2020-02-05 11:21:22
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This chapter derives and refines a novel normative moral theory and descriptive theory of moral psychology—Rightness as Fairness—from the theory of prudence defended in Chapter 2 of Neurofunctional Prudence and Morality: A Philosophical Theory. The chapter briefly summarizes Chapter 2’s finding that prudent agents typically internalize ‘moral risk-aversion’. The chapter then outlines how this prudential psychology leads prudent agents to want to know how to act in ways they will not regret in morally salient cases, as well as to regard moral actions as the only types of actions that satisfy this prudential interest. The chapter then uses these findings to defend a new derivation of Marcus Arvan’s theory of morality, Rightness as Fairness, showing how the derivation successfully defends Rightness as Fairness against a variety of objections. Additionally, the chapter outlines how Arvan’s theory of prudence can help substantiates the claim that Rightness as Fairness unifies a variety of competing moral frameworks: deontology, consequentialism, contractualism, and virtue ethics. Finally, the chapter shows how Chapter 2’s theory of prudence entails some revisions to Rightness as Fairness, including the adoption of a series of Rawlsian original positions to settle prudential, moral, and social-political issues under ideal and nonideal circumstances.

Confucius and Cicero

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Book Series: Roma Sinica ISBN: 9783110616804 9783110617009 9783110616606 Year: Volume: 1 Pages: 216 DOI: 10.1515/9783110617009 Language: English
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: Philosophy --- Languages and Literatures
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-30 11:21:05
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This book explores the relationships between ancient Roman and Confucian thought, paying particular attention to their relevance for the contemporary world. More than 10 scholars from all around the world offer thereby a reference work for the comparative research between Roman (and early Greek) and Eastern thought, setting new trends in the panorama of Classical and Comparative Studies.

Between Psychology and Philosophy

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Book Series: Palgrave Studies in Comparative East-West Philosophy ISBN: 9783030225032 Year: Pages: 215 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-22503-2 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: History --- Philosophy --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-02-05 11:21:09
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This open access book discusses a variety of important but unprecedented ways in which psychology can be useful to philosophy. The early chapters illustrate this theme via comparisons between Chinese and Western philosophy. It is argued that the Chinese notion of a heart-mind is superior to the Western concept of mind, but then, more even-handedly, the relative strengths and weaknesses of Chinese and Western thought overall are critically examined. In later chapters, the philosophical uses of psychology are treated more specifically in relation to major issues in Western philosophy. Michael Slote shows that empathy and emotion play a role in speech acts (like assertion and thanking) that speech act theory has totally ignored. Similarly, he treats the age-old question of whether justice pays using psychological material that has not previously been recognized. Finally, the implications of psychological egoism are discussed in terms of some new psychological and, indeed, human distinctions. Human life is pervaded by instincts and aspirations that are neither egoistic nor altruistic, and recognizing that fact can help put egoism in its place. It is less of a challenge to morality than we have realized.

Understanding Perspectivism

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Book Series: Routledge Studies in the Philosophy of Science ISBN: 9781138503069 9781315145198 Year: Pages: 210 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis Grant: H2020 European Research Council - 647272
Subject: Education --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-05 11:21:02
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This edited collection is the first of its kind to explore the view called perspectivism in the philosophy of science. The book brings together an array of essays that reflect on the methodological promises and scientific challenges of perspectivism in a variety of fields such as physics, biology, cognitive neuroscience, and cancer research, just for a few examples. What are the advantages of using a plurality of perspectives in a given scientific field and for interdisciplinary research? Can different perspectives be integrated? What is the relation between perspectivism, pluralism, and pragmatism? These ten new essays by top scholars in the field offer a kaleidoscopic journey toward understanding the view called “perspectivism” and its relevance to science.

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science --- philosophy --- opinion

Bentham and the Arts

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ISBN: 9781787357365 Year: Pages: 324 DOI: 10.14324/111.9781787357365 Language: English
Publisher: UCL Press
Subject: Philosophy
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-03 23:56:46
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Bentham and the Arts considers the sceptical challenge presented by Bentham’s hedonistic utilitarianism to the existence of the aesthetic, as represented in the oft-quoted statement that, ‘Prejudice apart, the game of push-pin is of equal value with the arts and sciences of music and poetry. If the game of push-pin furnish more pleasure, it is more valuable than either.’ This statement is one part of a complex set of arguments on culture, taste, and utility that Bentham pursued over his lifetime, in which sensations of pleasure and pain were opposed to aesthetic sensibility. Leading scholars from a variety of disciplines reflect on the implications of Bentham’s radical utilitarian approach for our understanding of the history and contemporary nature of art, literature, and aesthetics more generally. Each contributor takes into account, from the perspective of their own discipline and expertise, the implications for their research area of the views contained in Bentham’s Of Sexual Irregularities, and other writings on Sexual Morality (published in the authoritative edition of The Collected Works of Jeremy Bentham in 2014) and ‘Not Paul, but Jesus: Volume III’ (published online by the Bentham Project in 2014). In these essays, Bentham puts forward the first philosophical defence of sexual liberty. In doing so, he questions the meaning of ‘taste’ and hence the received understanding of aesthetics more generally. The contributors, moreover, challenge two of the major commonplaces in literary and historical studies of the nineteenth century: first that literature and utilitarianism represented alternative and incompatible views of the world; and second that Bentham’s utilitarianism was somehow emaciated in comparison with that of John Stuart Mill. The volume also includes new reflections on the auto-icon and the panopticon, the latter showing the utilitarian genealogy of a collaborative art and architecture project on the site of the Millbank Penitentiary. The title ‘Bentham and the Arts’ itself challenges the commonly held notion that Bentham had nothing relevant to say on the subject of the Arts – the essays in this volume show that Bentham remains extraordinarily relevant, both in historical and philosophical terms. 'Bentham and the Arts is a feast. Ranging from poetry and sexual nonconformity to the auto-icon and public sculpture, from Hume, Kant, and de Staël to Freud and Michel Onfray, an excellent crew of contributors brings Jeremy Bentham out from the shadow cast by John Stuart Mill with much new to say on taste and politics. Highly recommended for students and scholars alike, this fine interdisciplinary volume is available to all through open-access publishing.' - Stephen Engelmann, University of Illinois at Chicago

Agency and Causal Explanation in Economics

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Book Series: Virtues and Economics ISBN: 9783030261146 Year: Pages: 171 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-26114-6 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Philosophy --- Sociology --- Ethnology --- Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2020-02-04 11:21:04
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This open access book provides an exploration of the consequences of the ontological differences between natural and social objects (sometimes described as objects of nature and objects of thought) in the workings of causal and agency relationships. One of its important and possibly original conclusions is that causal and agency relationships do not encompass all of the dependent relationships encountered in social life. The idea that social reality is contingent has been known (and largely undisputed) at least since Wittgenstein’s “On Certainty”, but social science, and most notably economics has continued to operate on the basis of causal and agency theories borrowed or adapted from the natural sciences. This volume contains essays that retain and justify the partial or qualified use of this approach and essays that totally reject any use of causal and agency theory built on determined facts (closed systems).The rejection is based on the possibly original claim that, whereas causation in the objects of the natural sciences reside in their properties, human action is a matter of intentionality. It engages with critical realist theory and re-examines the role of free will in theories of human action in general and economic theory in particular.

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