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Landscapes in the Eastern Mediterranean between the Future and the Past

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ISBN: 9783039217748 / 9783039217755 Year: Pages: 164 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-775-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Geography
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Abstract

Landscapes have long been viewed as ‘multifunctional’, integrating ecological, economic, sociocultural, historical, and aesthetic dimensions. Landscape science and public awareness in Europe have been progressing in leaps and bounds. The challenges involved in landscape-related issues and fields, however, are multiple and refer to landscape stewardship and protection, as well as to the development of comprehensive theoretical and methodological approaches, in tandem with public sensitization and participatory governance and in coordination with appropriate top-down planning and policy instruments. Landscape-scale approaches are fundamental to the understanding of past and present cultural evolution, and are now considered to be an appropriate spatial framework for the analysis of sustainability. Methods and tools of landscape analysis and intervention have also gone a long way since their early development in Europe and the United States. Although significant progress has been made, there remain many issues which are understudied or not investigated at all—at least in a Mediterranean context. This Special Issue addresses the application of landscape theory and practice in the Eastern Mediterranean and mainly, but not exclusively, reports on the outcomes of an international conference held in Jordan, in December 2015, with the title “Landscapes of Eastern Mediterranean: Challenges, Opportunities, Prospects and Accomplishments”. The focus of this Special Issue, landscapes of the Eastern Mediterranean region, thus constitutes a timely area of research interest, not only because these landscapes have so far been understudied, but also as a rich site of strikingly variegated, long-standing multicultural human–environmental interactions. These interactions, resting on and taking shape through millennia of continuity in tradition, have been striving to adapt to technological advances, while currently juggling with manifold and multilayered socioeconomic and climate–environmental crises.

Advances in Food and Non-Food Biomass Production, Processing and Use in Sub-Saharan Africa: Towards a Basis for a Regional Bioeconomy

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ISBN: 9783039286683 / 9783039286690 Year: Pages: 446 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-669-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Agriculture (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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The bioeconomy concept aims to add sustainability to the production, transformation, and trade of biological goods. Though implemented around the world, the development of national bioeconomies is uneven, especially in the global South, where major challenges exist in Sub-Saharan Africa. In this context, the international BiomassWeb project aimed to underpin the bioeconomy concept by applying the value web approach, which seeks to uncover complex interlinked value webs instead of linear value chains. The project also aimed to develop intervention options to strengthen and optimize the synergies and trade-offs among different value chains. The Special Issue “Advances in Food and Non-Food Biomass Production, Processing and Use in Sub-Saharan Africa: Toward a Basis for a Regional Bioeconomy"" compiles 23 articles produced in this framework. The articles are grouped in four sections: the value web approach; the production side; processing, transformation and trade; and global views.

Keywords

contract farming --- contract design --- cassava --- bioeconomy --- Ghana --- adoption --- land-use --- deforestation --- food security --- renewable energy --- collaboration --- leadership --- push–pull technology --- sustainability --- transdisciplinary research --- Ethiopia --- demand-driven research --- Biomass --- innovation --- Ghana --- husk --- pulp --- parchment --- mucilage --- methane --- renewable energy --- bioeconomy --- green economy --- sustainable development --- bioproductivity --- high-tech bioeconomy --- knowledge-based bioeconomy --- primary sector --- typology --- cluster analysis --- food and non-food benefit --- homegarden --- multipurpose tree on farmland --- multistorey coffee system --- multi-functionality --- traditional agroforestry --- Yayu Biosphere Reserve --- yellow cassava --- sustainability --- cassava variants --- cassava processing --- carotenoids retention --- amylose --- bioeconomy --- governance --- development policy --- innovation --- technology --- bio-based --- mixed methods --- richness --- edible --- food bearing --- neighborhoods --- maize --- Policy Analysis Matrix --- comparative advantage --- probit --- Ghana --- cassava farmers --- value addition --- productivity differentials --- impact --- endogenous switching regression --- plantain residues --- fiber --- value web --- bioeconomy --- Ghana --- biochar --- crop residue --- corncob --- germination --- phytotoxicity --- self-purging pyrolysis --- soil amendment --- biomass --- value web --- bioeconomy --- bamboo --- Ethiopia --- sustainability --- intensification options --- maize --- groundnut --- crop residue --- crop model --- cassava processors --- smallholders --- solid waste --- pollution --- value-added --- willingness to pay --- biomass utilization --- intensity --- cassava smallholders --- Nigeria --- availability --- access --- Ghana --- Nigeria --- Ethiopia --- value chain --- CGE --- fertilizer-yield-response --- productivity --- welfare --- Ethiopia --- family farming --- farmland --- food security --- rural development --- biomass scenarios --- global biomass --- bioenergy --- sustainability --- food security --- basic needs --- intragenerational justice --- equity --- fairness --- development --- Biomass-based value web --- biological goods --- bio-based economy --- food and non-food --- circular economy

Mineralogy and Geochemistry of Gems

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783039280766 9783039280773 Year: Pages: 528 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-077-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Geology --- Earth Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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Gems have been used in the manufacture of jewellery and as ornaments since antiquity. Considering gems, recent statistics have shown that about 15 billion Euros are annually at stake. Nowadays, gemmology, i.e., the study of gem materials, is one of the most expanding fields in the earth sciences, positioned between academia and industry. As an applied science, in gemmology, the instruments used should be non- or microdestructive, and their cost should be reasonable both in terms of equipment and time consumption. Gemmology can also be used contribute to the development of pure science and in some cases, destructive techniques may have to be used. Taking into account the fact that gems are albeit rarely available for scientific research, this compilation of 20 articles by around 100 researchers from over 30 different institutions situated in 20 countries from around the globe, presented in the Special Issue entitled “Mineralogy and Geochemistry of Gems”, offers very good examples on the application of various methods for their study which will hopefully contribute to our better understanding of gem formation in general and will enhance scientific debates attracting more scientists from various disciplines to get involved in this field.

Keywords

danburite --- trace elements --- REE --- femtosecond LA-ICP-MS --- CHNS elemental analyzer --- pegmatites --- skarn --- gemstones --- placer --- heavy and light minerals --- landforms --- climate --- geodynamic setting --- green quartz --- prase --- amethyst --- color --- amphibole --- actinolite --- skarn --- Serifos --- Greece --- zircon --- xenocryst --- alkali basalt --- Ratanakiri Volcanic Province --- trace elements --- O-isotopes and Hf-isotopes --- U-Pb --- (U-Th)/He --- granitic pegmatite --- gem-quality tourmaline --- Adamello Massif --- Central Alps --- Italy --- ruby --- Mogok --- Mong Hsu --- New South Wales --- trace elements --- LA-ICP-MS analysis --- inclusions --- U–Pb age-dating --- genetic diversity --- geographic typing --- corundum --- blue sapphire --- meta-ultramafic rocks --- LA-ICP-MS --- Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopy --- Ilmenogorsky complex --- Ural Mountains --- metasomatism --- corundum megacrysts --- ruby --- sapphire --- plumasite --- metamorphic-metasomatic origin --- Greece --- zircon megacrysts --- placer deposits --- rare earth elements (REE) --- carbonatite-dominant melts --- Central Highlands --- Vietnam --- hyperspectral photoluminescence imaging --- LA-ICP-MS --- rubies --- corundum --- in-situ oxygen isotopes --- Paranesti Greece --- Nestos Shear Zone --- Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) --- emerald deposits --- classification --- typology --- metamorphism --- magmatism --- sedimentary --- alkaline metasomatism --- fluids --- stable and radiogenic isotopes --- genetic models --- exploration --- andradite --- demantoid --- gemstone --- Raman spectroscopy --- UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy --- X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy --- gem-quality --- garnet --- gem-bearing pegmatite --- fluid inclusions --- P-T-X equilibria --- spodumene --- Ar/Ar dating --- blue sapphire --- anorthosites --- kyshtymites --- sapphire geochemistry --- Ilmenogorsky-Vishnevogorsky complex --- in situ LA-ICP-MS U-Pb zircon dating --- kyanite --- Mn-rich silicates --- Rhodope --- Thassos --- amphibolite facies --- metasomatism --- opal --- hyalite --- silica --- X-ray diffraction --- Raman --- Infrared --- 29Si nuclear magnetic resonance --- SEM --- provenance --- pearls --- freshwater --- saltwater --- LA-ICP-MS --- X-ray luminescence --- sapphires --- corundum --- in situ oxygen isotopes --- Orosmayo Argentina --- lamprophyre --- secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) --- carbonatite --- gemstones --- corundum --- beryl --- jadeitite --- garnet --- quartz varieties --- Greece --- emeralds --- LA-ICP-MS --- UV-Vis-NIR --- FTIR --- Raman --- PL --- n/a

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eng (2)

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2020 (3)