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Tensor network is a fundamental mathematical tool with a huge range of applications in physics, such as condensed matter physics, statistic physics, high energy physics, and quantum information sciences. This open access book aims to explain the tensor network contraction approaches in a systematic way, from the basic definitions to the important applications. This book is also useful to those who apply tensor networks in areas beyond physics, such as machine learning and the bigdata analysis. Tensor network originates from the numerical renormalization group approach proposed by K. G. Wilson in 1975. Through a rapid development in the last two decades, tensor network has become a powerful numerical tool that can efficiently simulate a wide range of scientific problems, with particular success in quantum manybody physics. Varieties of tensor network algorithms have been proposed for different problems. However, the connections among different algorithms are not well discussed or reviewed. To fill this gap, this book explains the fundamental concepts and basic ideas that connect and/or unify different strategies of the tensor network contraction algorithms. In addition, some of the recent progresses in dealing with tensor decomposition techniques and quantum simulations are also represented in this book to help the readers to better understand tensor network. This open access book is intended for graduated students, but can also be used as a professional book for researchers in the related fields. To understand most of the contents in the book, only basic knowledge of quantum mechanics and linear algebra is required. In order to fully understand some advanced parts, the reader will need to be familiar with notion of condensed matter physics and quantum information, that however are not necessary to understand the main parts of the book. This book is a good source for nonspecialists on quantum physics to understand tensor network algorithms and the related mathematics.
Physics  Physics  Quantum physics  Quantum optics  Statistical physics  Machine learning  Elementary particles (Physics)  Quantum field theory
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Quantum information has dramatically changed information science and technology, looking at the quantum nature of the information carrier as a resource for building new information protocols, designing radically new communication and computation algorithms, and ultrasensitive measurements in metrology, with a wealth of applications. From a fundamental perspective, this new discipline has led us to regard quantum theory itself as a special theory of information, and has opened routes for exploring solutions to the tension with general relativity, based, for example, on the holographic principle, on noncausal variations of the theory, or else on the powerful algorithm of the quantum cellular automaton, which has revealed new routes for exploring quantum fields theory, both as a new microscopic mechanism on the fundamental side, and as a tool for efficient physical quantum simulations for practical purposes. In this golden age of foundations, an astonishing number of new ideas, frameworks, and results, spawned by the quantum information theory experience, have revolutionized the way we think about the subject, with a new research community emerging worldwide, including scientists from computer science and mathematics.
reconstruction of quantum theory  entanglement  monogamy  quantum nonlocality  conserved informational charges  limited information  complementarity  characterization of unitary group and state spaces  algebraic quantum theory  C*algebra  gelfand duality  classical context  bohrification  process theory  classical limit  purity  higherorder interference  generalised probabilistic theories  Euclidean Jordan algebras  Pauli exclusion principle  quantum foundations  Xray spectroscopy  underground experiment  silicon drift detector  measurement uncertainty relations  relative entropy  position  momentum  quantum mechanics  the measurement problem  collapse models  Xrays  quantum gravity  discrete spacetime  causal sets  path summation  entropic gravity  physical computing models  complexity classes  causality  blind source separation (BSS)  qubit pair  exchange coupling  entangled pure state  unentanglement criterion  probabilities in quantum measurements  independence of random quantum sources  iterant  Clifford algebra  matrix algebra  braid group  Fermion  Dirac equation  quantum information  quantum computation  semiclassical physics  quantum control  quantum genetic algorithm  samplingbased learning control (SLC)  quantum foundations  relativity  quantum gravity  cluster states  multipartite entanglement  percolation  Shannon information  quantum information  quantum measurements  consistent histories  incompatible frameworks  single framework rule  probability theory  entropy  quantum relative entropy  quantum information  quantum mechanics  inference  quantum measurement  quantum estimation  macroscopic quantum measurement  quantum annealing  adiabatic quantum computing  hard problems  Hadamard matrix  binary optimization  reconstruction of quantum mechanics  conjugate systems  Jordan algebras  quantum correlations  Gaussian states  Gaussian unitary operations  continuousvariable systems  Wignerfriend experiment  nogo theorem  quantum foundations  interpretations of quantum mechanics  subsystem  agent  conservation of information  purification  group representations  commuting subalgebras  quantum walks  Hubbard model  Thirring model  quantum information  quantum foundations  quantum theory and gravity
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This third open access volume of the handbook series deals with accelerator physics, design, technology and operations, as well as with beam optics, dynamics and diagnostics. A joint CERNSpringer initiative, the “Particle Physics Reference Library” provides revised and updated contributions based on previously published material in the wellknown LandoltBoernstein series on particle physics, accelerators and detectors (volumes 21A,B1,B2,C), which took stock of the field approximately one decade ago. Central to this new initiative is publication under full open access
Particle Acceleration and Detection, Beam Physics  Measurement Science and Instrumentation  Elementary Particles, Quantum Field Theory  Nuclear Physics, Heavy Ions, Hadrons  Accelerator Physics  Nuclear Physics  Physics of particle detectors  beam optics  accelerator diagnostics  Highenergy physics handbook  beam diagnostics  Accelerators and beams  Standard model of particle physics  Fundamental particles and forces  Accelerator design  Open Access  Particle & highenergy physics  Scientific standards, measurement etc  Quantum physics (quantum mechanics & quantum field theory)  Atomic & molecular physics
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This second open access volume of the handbook series deals with detectors, large experimental facilities and data handling, both for accelerator and nonaccelerator based experiments. It also covers applications in medicine and life sciences. A joint CERNSpringer initiative, the “Particle Physics Reference Library” provides revised and updated contributions based on previously published material in the wellknown LandoltBoernstein series on particle physics, accelerators and detectors (volumes 21A,B1,B2,C), which took stock of the field approximately one decade ago. Central to this new initiative is publication under full open access.
Particle Acceleration and Detection, Beam Physics  Measurement Science and Instrumentation  Elementary Particles, Quantum Field Theory  Nuclear Physics, Heavy Ions, Hadrons  Nuclear Energy  Accelerator Physics  Nuclear Physics  Highenergy physics handbook  Standard model of particle physics  Fundamental particles and forces  Physics of particle detectors  Accelerators and beams  Open Access  Particle & highenergy physics  Scientific standards, measurement etc  Quantum physics (quantum mechanics & quantum field theory)  Atomic & molecular physics  Nuclear power & engineering
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This first open access volume of the handbook series contains articles on the standard model of particle physics, both from the theoretical and experimental perspective. It also covers related topics, such as heavyion physics, neutrino physics and searches for new physics beyond the standard model. A joint CERNSpringer initiative, the “Particle Physics Reference Library” provides revised and updated contributions based on previously published material in the wellknown LandoltBoernstein series on particle physics, accelerators and detectors (volumes 21A,B1,B2,C), which took stock of the field approximately one decade ago. Central to this new initiative is publication under full open access.
Elementary Particles, Quantum Field Theory  Nuclear Physics, Heavy Ions, Hadrons  Particle Acceleration and Detection, Beam Physics  Quantum Field Theories, String Theory  Measurement Science and Instrumentation  Nuclear Physics  Accelerator Physics  Theoretical, Mathematical and Computational Physics  Standard Model of particle physics  High energy physics handbook  Collider physics  Fundamental particles and forces  HEP reference work  experimental particle physics  LandoltBoernstein elementary particles  accelerator physics experiments  physics of particle detectors  Open Access  Quantum physics (quantum mechanics & quantum field theory)  Atomic & molecular physics  Particle & highenergy physics  Statistical physics  Scientific standards, measurement etc
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During the last decade, novel graphene related materials (GRMs), perovskites, as well as metal oxides and other metal nanostructures have received the interest of the scientific community. Due to their extraordinary physical, optical, thermal, and electrical properties, which are correlated with their 2D ultrathin atomic layer structure, large interlayer distance, ease of functionalization, and bandgap tunability, these nanomaterials have been applied in the development or the improvement of innovative optoelectronic applications, as well as the expansion of theoretical studies and simulations in the fastgrowing fields of energy (photovoltaics, energy storage, fuel cells, hydrogen storage, catalysis, etc.), electronics, photonics, spintronics, and sensing devices. The continuous nanostructurebased applications development has provided the ability to significantly improve existing products and to explore the design of materials and devices with novel functionalities. This book demonstrates some of the most recent trends and advances in the interdisciplinary field of optoelectronics. Most articles focus on light emitting diodes (LEDs) and solar cells (SCs), including organic, inorganic, and hybrid configurations, whereas the rest address photodetectors, transistors, and other wellknown dynamic optoelectronic devices. In this context, this exceptional collection of articles is directed at a broad scientific audience of chemists, materials scientists, physicists, and engineers, with the goals of highlighting the potential of innovative optoelectronic applications incorporating nanostructures and inspiring their realization.
localized surface plasmon  green LED  cathodoluminescence  FDTD  NiCo2S4 nanotubes  Ti porous film  quantum dot  solar cells  counter electrode  metasurfaces  orthogonal polarization  highefficiency  polarization analyzer  green LEDs  InGaN/GaN superlattice  Vpits  external quantum efficiency  PeLEDs  OAB  perovskite  quantum confinement effect  transparent electrode  Ag film  nucleation layer  organic solar cell  graphene oxide  oxidation  photodetector  lightemitting diodes  quantum dots  stability  colorconversion efficiency  photoluminescence  ptype InGaN  graded indium composition  hole injection  quantum efficiency  green LED  2D perovskite  controllable synthesis  flexible substrate  photodetector  photoelectric performance  photodetector  organic  photomultiplication  tunneling  external quantum efficiency  liquid crystals  metasurfaces  plasmonics  actively tunable nanodevices  solvent  compact  smooth  perovskite solar cells  indium nanoparticles (In NPs)  textured silicon solar cells  antireflective coating (ARC)  plasmonic forward scattering  InN/pGaN heterojunction  interface  photovoltaics  GaN  LED  nanograting  metamaterials  mid infrared  graphene splitring  gold splitring  electromagnetically induced transparency effect  transparent conductive electrode  Ga2O3  AlGaNbased ultraviolet lightemitting diode  transmittance  sheet resistance  electrowetting  tunable absorbers  subwavelength metal grating  plasmon resonance  field emission  graphene  reduced graphene oxide  polymer composites  graphene ink  cold cathode  Fowler–Nordheim  CdTe microdots  Schottky barrier  photodetector  piezophototronic effect  UV LEDs  doublelayer ITO  pinhole pattern  current spreading  light output power  flipchip miniLED  prismstructured sidewall  waveguide photons  light extraction  erbium  silicon transistor  photocurrent  colorimetry  excitation wavelength  lightemitting diode  quantum dots  ternary organic solar cells  graphene ink  functionalization  airprocessed  cascade effect  charge transfer  n/a
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This book compiles selected papers from the Proceedings of the 1st International Online Conference on Nanomaterials, held 1–15 September, 2018 on sciforum.net, an online platform for hosting scholarly econferences and discussion groups. It targets a broad readership of physicists, chemists, materials scientists, biologists, environmentalists, and nanotechnologists, and provides interesting examples of the most recent advances in the synthesis, characterization, and applications of nanomaterials.
graphene oxide  functionalization  hexamethylene diisocyanate  dispersion  functionalization degree  morphology  hydrophobicity  thermal stability  hydrogel nanocomposites  elastic modulus  rotational rheology  pseudocrosslinking  coculture intestinal model  Caco2  HT29MTX  nanoparticle transport  quantum dots  iron oxide nanoparticles  carbon nanodots  hybrid polymer composites  FTIR study  XRD study  optical properties  optical sensing  humidity  Bragg stacks  branched polymers  n/a
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This book focuses on recent advances in the synthesis of nanoparticles, their characterization, and their applications in different fields such as catalysis, photonics, magnetism, and nanomedicine. Nanoparticles receive a large share of the worldwide research activity in contemporary materials science. This is witnessed by the number of scientific papers with ""nanoparticle"" as a keyword, increasing linearly in the last 10 years from about 16,000 in 2009 to about 50,000 in 2019. This impressive widespread interest stems from the basic science of nanoparticles, which constitute a bridge between the molecular and the bulk worlds, as well as from their technological applications. The preparation of nanoparticles is a crossroad of materials science where chemists, physicists, engineers, and even biologists frequently meet, leading to a continuous improvement of existing techniques and to the invention of new methods. The reader interested in nanoparticles synthesis and properties will here find a valuable selection of scientific cases that cannot cover all methods and applications relevant to the field, but still provide an updated overview on the fervent research activity focused on nanoparticles.
phytosynthesis  silver nanoparticles  Ligustrum ovalifolium L.  cytotoxic activity  ovarian carcinoma cells  InPBi  quantum dot  finite element method  superluminescent diode  emission spectrum  ceria  catalytic activity  hierarchical structure  gold nanorods  A375 cells  plasmonic coupling  photothermal therapy  hot spot  graphene  PLD  mobility  egg white protein  isomaltooligosaccharide  glycation  thermal aggregation  nanoparticle  emulsifying property  pulse laser deposition  FePt alloy  magnetic phase  laser melting in liquid  AuFe alloy  submicrometre spherical particles  phase separation  reaction control  coreshell particles  laser wavelength  zeta potential  nanoparticles  nanocomposites  gas phase condensation  electron microscopy  metal oxides  alloys  iron  cobalt  titanium  LaNa codoped TiO2  nonaqueous solvent controlled solgel route  physical adsorption  methylene  blue  silicon quantum dots  synthesis  onepot hydrothermal method  synergistic effect
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The development of special and general relativity has relied significantly on ideas of symmetry. Similarly, modern efforts to test these theories have often sought either violations or extensions of the symmetries seen, and symmetry is regularly used a tool in seeking new applications. In this Special Issue of symmetry, we explore some contemporary research related to symmetry in special and general relativity.
Lorentz symmetry  rotation invariance  StandardModel Extension  Noether’s theorem  Weyl method  Palais principle of symmetric criticality  solutions to Einstein’s equations  magnetic monopole  pulsar timing  StandardModel Extension  binary pulsars  Lorentz and CPT violation  StandardModel Extension  Dirac fermions  Dirac neutrinos  Majorana neutrinos  determinants of block matrices  lorentz violation  CPT violation  penning trap  quantum mechanics  antimatter  interferometry  gravitational waves  Lorentz violation  standardmodel extension  geodesic deviation  Lorentz violation  standard model extension  CPT violation
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This open access StateoftheArt Survey presents the main recent scientific outcomes in the area of reversible computation, focusing on those that have emerged during COST Action IC1405 "Reversible Computation  Extending Horizons of Computing", a European research network that operated from May 2015 to April 2019. Reversible computation is a new paradigm that extends the traditional forwardsonly mode of computation with the ability to execute in reverse, so that computation can run backwards as easily and naturally as forwards. It aims to deliver novel computing devices and software, and to enhance existing systems by equipping them with reversibility. There are many potential applications of reversible computation, including languages and software tools for reliable and recoveryoriented distributed systems and revolutionary reversible logic gates and circuits, but they can only be realized and have lasting effect if conceptual and firm theoretical foundations are established first.
Logic Design  Computer System Implementation  Computer Communication Networks  Special Purpose and ApplicationBased Systems  Software Engineering  Operating Systems  open access  reversible computation  semantics of reversible computation  formal methods  models of computation  circuit design  simulation  robotics  debugging  quantum computing  wireless communications  programming languages  dependability  modelling of biochemical systems  computer networks  engineering  software engineering  parallel processing systems  theoretical computer science  Computer architecture & logic design  Systems analysis & design  Network hardware  Expert systems / knowledgebased systems  Operating systems
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