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The Viscous

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ISBN: 9781950192861 Year: Pages: 274 DOI: 10.21983/P3.0292.1.00 Language: English
Publisher: punctum books
Subject: Arts in general --- Philosophy --- Electrical and Nuclear Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-05-21 11:09:17
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Slime, goo, gunge, gloop, gels, sols, globules, jellies, emulsions, greases, soaps, syrups, glues, lubricants, liquid crystals, moulds, plasmas, and protoplasms – the viscous is not one thing, but rather a quality of resistance and flow, of stickiness and slipperiness. It is a state of matter that oozes into the gaps of our everyday existence, across age groups, between cultures and disciplines.Since the large-scale extraction of petroleum in the 19th century the viscous has witnessed a proliferation in the variety of its forms. Mechanized industry required lubricants and oil distillation produced waste products that were refined to form Vaseline. From this age, new viscous forms and technologies emerged, products from plastic (and plastic explosives) to cosmetics, glycerine, asphalt, sexual lubrication, hydro- and aero- gels, even anti-climb paint.Based on unique and wide-ranging research, The Viscous is the first major investigation of viscous encounter and possibility over the course of the last century, not simply as a material state, but also an imaginative event. We enter into a story of matter at its most wayward, deviant, hesitant, and resistant.From asphalt lakes to industrial molasses tanks, from liquid crystals squirming in our screens to milk fetishes, The Viscous discloses gooeyness as a peculiarly modern phase of matter. "Everything oozes," as Beckett’s Estragon famously proclaims in Waiting for Godot. Viscous dynamics are exposed as not only hugely various in a post industrial age, but particularly useful ways of thinking, feeling, writing, and making in a time of ecological anxiety.

Mining for Change

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9780198851172 Year: Pages: 512 DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780198851172.001.0001 Language: English
Publisher: Oxford University Press Grant: UNU WIDER
Subject: Economics --- Electrical and Nuclear Engineering --- Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-25 23:58:38
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For a growing number of countries in Africa the discovery and exploitation of natural resources is a great opportunity, but one accompanied by considerable risks. In Africa, countries dependent on oil, gas, and mining have tended to have weaker long-run growth, higher rates of poverty, and greater income inequality than less resource-abundant economies. In resource-producing economies, relative prices make it more difficult to diversify into activities outside of the resource sector, limiting structural change. Economic structure matters for at least two reasons. First, countries whose exports are highly concentrated are vulnerable to declining prices and volatility. Second, economic diversification matters for long-term growth. This book presents research undertaken to understand how better management of the revenues and opportunities associated with natural resources can accelerate diversification and structural change in Africa. It begins with chapters on managing the boom, the construction sector, and linking industry to the resource—three major issues that frame the question of how to use natural resources for structural change. It then reports the main research results for five countries—Ghana, Mozambique, Uganda, Tanzania, and Zambia. Each country study covers the same three themes—managing the boom, the construction sector, and linking industry to the resource. One message that clearly emerges is that good policy can make a difference. A concluding chapter sets out some ideas for policy change in each of the areas that guided the research, and then goes on to propose some ideas for widening the options for structural change.

Shale Oil and Shale Gas Resources

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039288755 / 9783039288762 Year: Pages: 194 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-876-2 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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This multidisciplinary book covers a wide range of topics addressing critical challenges for advancing the understanding and management of shale oil and shale gas resources. Both fundamental and practical issues are considered. By covering a variety of technical topics, we aim to contribute to building a more integrated perspective to meet major challenges faced by shale resources. Combining complementary techniques and examining multiple sources of data serve to advance our current knowledge about these unconventional reservoirs. The book is a result of interdisciplinary and collaborative work. The content includes contributions authored by active scientists with ample expertise in their fields. Each article was carefully peer-reviewed by researchers, and the editorial process was performed by an experienced team of Senior Editors, Guest Editors, Topic Editors, and Editorial Board Members. The first part is devoted to fundamental topics, mostly investigated on the laboratory scale. The second part elaborates on larger scales (at near-wellbore and field scales). Finally, two related technologies, which could be relevant for shale plays applications, are presented. With this Special Issue, we provide a channel for sharing information and lessons learned collected from different plays and from different disciplines.

Analytical Technology in Nutrition Analysis

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ISBN: 9783039287642 / 9783039287659 Year: Pages: 172 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-765-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Due to increasing global food needs as a result of population growth, the use of new food sources has gained interest in the last decade. However, the inclusion of new foods in our diet, as well as the increased interest of the population in consuming foods with better nutritional properties, has increased the need for adequate food analytical methods. This monographic issue presents innovative methods of chemical analysis of foods, as well as the nutritional and chemical characterization of foods whose consumption is expected to increase worldwide in the coming years.

Lamiaceae Species: Biology, Ecology and Practical Uses

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ISBN: 9783039284184 9783039284191 Year: Pages: 140 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-419-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Plant Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:08
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This Special Issue Book entitled ""Lamiaceae Species: Biology, Ecology and Practical Uses"" contributes to the knowledge of selected Lamiaceae species from several perspectives, such as diversity and phytogeography, taxonomy, ethnobotany, and quantitative and qualitative composition, as well as the biological activity of secondary metabolites.

Bioactive Components in Fermented Foods and Food By-Products

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039288519 / 9783039288526 Year: Pages: 140 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-852-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Food fermentation is one of the most ancient processes of food production that has historically been used to extend food shelf life and to enhance its organoleptic properties. However, several studies have demonstrated that fermentation is also able to increase the nutritional value and/or digestibility of food. Firstly, microorganisms are able to produce huge amounts of secondary metabolites with excellent health benefits and preservative properties (i.e., antimicrobial activity). Secondarily, fermented foods contain living organisms that contribute to the modulation of the host physiological balance, which constitutes an opportunity to enrich the diet with new bioactive molecules. Indeed, some microorganisms can increase the levels of numerous bioactive compounds (e.g., vitamins, antioxidant compounds, peptides, etc.). Moreover, recent advances in fermentation have focused on food by-products; in fact, they are a source of potentially bioactive compounds that, after fermentation, could be used as ingredients for nutraceuticals and functional food formulations. Because of that, understanding the benefits of food fermentation is a growing field of research in nutrition and food science. This book aims to present the current knowledge and research trends concerning the use of fermentation technologies as sustainable and GRAS processes for food and nutraceutical production.

Biomass Processing for Biofuels, Bioenergy and Chemicals

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039289097 / 9783039289103 Year: Pages: 428 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-910-3 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Biomass can be used to produce renewable electricity, thermal energy, transportation fuels (biofuels), and high-value functional chemicals. As an energy source, biomass can be used either directly via combustion to produce heat or indirectly after it is converted to one of many forms of bioenergy and biofuel via thermochemical or biochemical pathways. The conversion of biomass can be achieved using various advanced methods, which are broadly classified into thermochemical conversion, biochemical conversion, electrochemical conversion, and so on. Advanced development technologies and processes are able to convert biomass into alternative energy sources in solid (e.g., charcoal, biochar, and RDF), liquid (biodiesel, algae biofuel, bioethanol, and pyrolysis and liquefaction bio-oils), and gaseous (e.g., biogas, syngas, and biohydrogen) forms. Because of the merits of biomass energy for environmental sustainability, biofuel and bioenergy technologies play a crucial role in renewable energy development and the replacement of chemicals by highly functional biomass. This book provides a comprehensive overview and in-depth technical research addressing recent progress in biomass conversion processes. It also covers studies on advanced techniques and methods for bioenergy and biofuel production.

Keywords

lignocellulose --- pretreatment --- hardwood --- extrusion --- enzymatic digestibility --- bioethanol --- renewable energy --- biofuel --- environment --- technology development --- co-combustion --- sewage sludge --- thermogravimetric analysis --- Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy --- synergistic effect --- single-pellet combustion --- biodiesel --- fatty acid methyl ester --- free fatty acids --- oxidation stability --- antioxidant --- hydrogen --- coffee mucilage --- organic wastes --- dark fermentation --- anaerobic digestion --- biodiesel --- bio-jet fuel --- triacylglycerides --- Fatty Acid Methyl Ester --- lipids --- hydrodeoxygenation --- drop-in fuel --- rubber seed oil --- biodiesel production --- nanomagnetic catalyst --- subcritical methanol --- FAME yield --- Box-Behnken design --- GCI --- biodiesel --- diesel --- combustion --- emission --- renewable energy --- microwave --- free fatty acid --- crude oil --- renewable energy --- biomass --- waste --- black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) --- instar --- lipid --- fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) --- fermentation --- Rancimat method --- butylated hydroxyanisole --- tert-butylhydroquinone --- fatty acid methyl esters --- viscosity --- response surface --- anaerobic treatment --- biogas --- kinetic study --- potato peels --- cow manure --- thermophilic --- mesophilic --- palm oil mill effluent --- acclimatization --- direct carbon fuel cell --- biochar --- pyrolysis --- power density --- pre-treatment --- post-treatment --- combustion characteristics --- injection strategies --- compression ratio --- intake temperature --- torrefaction --- vacuum --- biomass pretreatment --- bioenergy --- energy yield --- biochar --- rice straw --- rice husk --- power generation --- gasification --- alternative fuel --- Rhus typhina biodiesel --- non-edible oil --- base-catalyzed transesterification --- Physico-chemical properties --- concentration polarization --- draw solution --- feed solution --- forward osmosis --- pressure-retarded osmosis --- operating conditions --- membrane fouling --- osmotic membrane --- bioenergy --- biofuel --- nanotechnology --- nano-catalysts --- nano-additives --- crude glycerol --- glycerol carbonate --- dimethyl carbonate --- microwave irradiation --- reaction kinetics

China's Energy Revolution in the Context of the Global Energy Transition

Book Series: Advances in Oil and Gas Exploration & Production ISBN: 9783030401542 Year: Pages: 700 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-40154-2 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Environmental Technology --- Agriculture (General) --- Geology --- Earth Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-16 23:59:04
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This open access book is an encyclopaedic analysis of the current and future energy system of the world’s most populous country and second biggest economy. What happens in China impacts the planet. In the past 40 years China has achieved one of the most remarkable economic growth rates in history. Its GDP has risen by a factor of 65, enabling 850,000 people to rise out of poverty. Growth on this scale comes with consequences. China is the world’s biggest consumer of primary energy and the world’s biggest emitter of CO2 emissions. Creating a prosperous and harmonious society that delivers economic growth and a high quality of life for all will require radical change in the energy sector, and a rewiring of the economy more widely. In China’s Energy Revolution in the Context of the Global Energy Transition, a team of researchers from the Development Research Center of the State Council of China and Shell International examine how China can revolutionise its supply and use of energy. They examine the entire energy system: coal, oil, gas, nuclear, renewables and new energies in production, conversion, distribution and consumption. They compare China with case studies and lessons learned in other countries. They ask which technology, policy and market mechanisms are required to support the change and they explore how international cooperation can smooth the way to an energy revolution in China and across the world. And, they create and compare scenarios on possible pathways to a future energy system that is low-carbon, affordable, secure and reliable. ;

Food Authentication: Techniques, Trends and Emerging Approaches

Author:
ISBN: 9783039287482 / 9783039287499 Year: Pages: 182 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-749-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Multiple factors can directly influence the chemical composition of foods and, consequently, their organoleptic, nutritional, and bioactive properties, including their geographical origin, the variety or breed, as well as the conditions of cultivation, breeding, and/or feeding, among others. Therefore, there is a great interest in the development of accurate, robust, and high-throughput analytical methods to guarantee the authenticity and traceability of foods. For these purposes, a large number of sensorial, physical, and chemical approaches can be used, which must be normally combined with advanced statistical tools. In this vein, the aim of the Special Issue “Food Authentication: Techniques, Trends, and Emerging Approaches” is to gather original research papers and review articles focused on the development and application of analytical techniques and emerging approaches in food authentication. This Special Issue comprises 12 valuable scientific contributions, including one review article and 11 original research works, dealing with the authentication of foods with great commercial value, such as olive oil, Iberian ham, and fruits, among others.

Mathematical Modeling of Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in Petroleum Industries and Geothermal Applications

Author:
ISBN: 9783039287208 / 9783039287215 Year: Pages: 470 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-721-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Geothermal energy is the thermal energy generated and stored in the Earth's core, mantle, and crust. Geothermal technologies are used to generate electricity and to heat and cool buildings. To develop accurate models for heat and mass transfer applications involving fluid flow in geothermal applications or reservoir engineering and petroleum industries, a basic knowledge of the rheological and transport properties of the materials involved (drilling fluid, rock properties, etc.)—especially in high-temperature and high-pressure environments—are needed. This Special Issue considers all aspects of fluid flow and heat transfer in geothermal applications, including the ground heat exchanger, conduction and convection in porous media. The emphasis here is on mathematical and computational aspects of fluid flow in conventional and unconventional reservoirs, geothermal engineering, fluid flow, and heat transfer in drilling engineering and enhanced oil recovery (hydraulic fracturing, CO2 injection, etc.) applications.

Keywords

dynamic hydraulic-fracturing experiments --- dynamic crack tip --- fluid front kinetics --- energy conservation analysis --- cost-effective --- frequency conversion technology (FCT) --- ventilation --- methane removal --- computational fluid dynamic (CFD) --- spatiotemporal characteristics --- capacitance-resistance model --- aquifer support --- inter-well connectivity --- production optimization --- karst carbonate reservoir --- tight reservoir --- huff-‘n-puff --- fracture simulation --- enhanced oil recovery --- CO2 diffusion --- percolation model --- fractal theory --- microstructure --- critical porosity --- conductivity --- permeability --- tight oil reservoirs --- fracture compressibility --- numerical simulation --- flowback --- fracture uncertainty --- enhanced geothermal systems --- multiple parallel fractures --- semi-analytical solution --- main gas pipeline --- pressure fluctuations --- unsteady process --- multifractal theory --- fractal theory --- pore structure --- mercury intrusion porosimetry --- pore size distribution --- natural gas --- pipeline network --- continuity/momentum and energy equations coupled --- efficient simulation --- enhanced gas recovery --- longitudinal dispersion coefficient --- injection orientation --- supercritical CO2 --- CO2 permeability --- Coal excavation --- coal and rock fracture --- multiple structural units (MSU) --- energy dissipation --- AE energy --- cement --- non-Newtonian fluids --- rheology --- variable viscosity --- diffusion --- underground coal gasification (UCG) --- economics --- cost of electricity (COE) --- techno-economic model --- methanol --- ammonia --- carbon capture and storage (CCS) --- carbon capture and utilization (CCU) --- electricity generation --- process simulation --- fractal --- slippage effect --- Knudsen diffusion --- surface diffusion --- apparent permeability --- wellbore temperature --- bottom-hole pressure --- multi-pressure system --- comprehensive heat transfer model --- leakage and overflow --- GSHP (ground source heat pump) --- heat transfer --- coupled heat conduction and advection --- nest of tubes --- three-dimensional numerical simulation --- sloshing --- real-scale --- highly viscous fluids --- Navier-Stokes equations --- impact pressure --- flowback --- complex fracture network --- shale oil --- porous media --- fractal theory --- particles model --- permeability --- tube bundle model --- cement slurries --- non-Newtonian fluids --- rheology --- constitutive relations --- viscosity --- yield stress --- thixotropy --- mathematical modeling --- computational fluid dynamics (CFD) --- drilling --- porous media --- multiphase flow --- hydraulic fracturing --- geothermal --- enhanced oil recovery

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