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From Slavery to Civil Rights

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ISBN: 9781789622584 Year: Pages: 272 Language: English
Publisher: Liverpool University Press
Subject: Economics --- History
Added to DOAB on : 2020-09-08 00:00:57
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The history of Louisiana from slavery until the Civil Rights Act of 1964 shows that unique influences within the state were responsible for a distinctive political and social culture. In New Orleans, the most populous city in the state, this was reflected in the conflict that arose on segregated streetcars that ran throughout the crescent city. This study chronologically surveys segregation on the streetcars from the antebellum period in which black stereotypes and justification for segregation were formed. It follows the political and social motivation for segregation through reconstruction to the integration of the streetcars and the white resistance in the 1950s while examining the changing political and social climate that evolved over the segregation era. It considers the shifting nature of white supremacy that took hold in New Orleans after the Civil War and how this came to be played out daily, in public, on the streetcars. The paternalistic nature of white supremacy is considered and how this was gradually replaced with an unassailable white supremacist atmosphere that often restricted the actions of whites, as well as blacks, and the effect that this had on urban transport. Streetcars became the 'theatres' for black resistance throughout the era and this survey considers the symbolic part they played in civil rights up to the present day.

Women, Agency, and the State in Guinea

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Book Series: Routledge Studies on Gender and Sexuality in Africa ISBN: 9780367189594 9780429578663 9780429576553 9780429199547 9780429574443 Year: Pages: 234 DOI: 10.4324/9780429199547 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis Grant: Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF) - OAPEN-CH
Subject: Anthropology --- Gender Studies --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-03-06 11:21:02
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"This book examines how women in Guinea articulate themselves politically within and outside institutional politics. It documents the everyday practices that local female actors adopt to deal with the continuous economic, political, and social insecurities that emerge in times of political transformations. Carole Ammann argues that women’s political articulations in Muslim Guinea do not primarily take place within women’s associations or institutional politics such as political parties; but instead women’s silent forms of politics manifest in their daily agency, that is, when they make a living, study, marry, meet friends, raise their children, and do household chores. The book also analyses the relationship between the female population and the local authorities, and discusses when and why women’s claim making enjoys legitimacy in the eyes of other men and women, as well as representatives of ‘traditional’ authorities and the local government. Paying particular attention to intersectional perspectives, this book will be of interest to scholars of African studies, social anthropology, political anthropology, the anthropology of gender, urban anthropology, gender studies, and Islamic studies."

Towards Shared Research

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Book Series: Kultur und soziale Praxis ISBN: 9783839451502 Year: Pages: 186 DOI: 10.14361/transcript.9783839451502 Language: English
Publisher: transcript Verlag
Subject: Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-05-04 10:28:39
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Intercultural, interdisciplinary, and transdisciplinary research interfaces confront researchers with considerable challenges. Towards Shared Research portrays how scholars from different disciplinary and geographical origins and at various academic career stages strive for a more inclusive and better understanding of knowledge about African environments. The book is addressed to researchers, facilitators, and policy-makers to make a case for participatory and integrative approaches resulting in systemic and co-created analyses.

The Informal Economy Revisited

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ISBN: 9780367191511 Year: Pages: 326 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Economics --- History --- Migration
Added to DOAB on : 2020-07-08 23:59:19
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This landmark volume brings together leading scholars in the field to investigate recent conceptual shifts, research findings and policy debates on the informal economy. Researchers, practitioners and policy makers will find this book an invaluable guide to the significance of the informal economy.

National Commissions of Inquiry in Africa: Vehicles to pursue accountability for violations of the right to life?

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ISBN: 9781920538866 Year: Pages: 338 Language: English
Publisher: Pretoria University Law Press (PULP)
Subject: Law
Added to DOAB on : 2020-09-09 13:45:17
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National commissions of inquiry in the aftermath of violations of human rights, including violations of the right to life, are a common feature of the African legal and political landscape. There is often a fair measure of scepticism or caution about their use, and with good reason. They can serve as convenient instruments to avoid accountability, rather than to achieve it. However, very little hard evidence is available upon which the performance of such commissions can be assessed, and hence impressions of their utility are often largely anecdotal.For the purposes of this book, researchers went to six countries in Africa—Chad, Burkina Faso, Kenya, Malawi, South Africa and Nigeria—and conducted in-depth investigations of commissions of inquiry that have been held there, interviewing those directly involved in the proceedings and those working on the issues since, including victims, lawyers, investigators and Commissioners. Drawing on this research, the book argues that commissions of inquiry should not be contrasted with courts or with criminal trials, since their proper place is at a different stage of the investigative process. Rather than replacing criminal processes, commissions might guide whether and how they should take place. Commissions can be cathartic events for victims or families; they can demonstrate that human rights are a priority for the state and thus lay the foundations for the rule of law; and they can make broader recommendations about what should be done. In short, in certain circumstances, they can serve to enable a broader concept of accountability.Praise for this publication“A rich collection of well-researched chapters made up of normative analysis and case studies, which presents a much-needed scholarly contribution to the question of accountability for violations of human rights—particularly the right to life—through a means other than a routine criminal process, a question with which the African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights wrestled in its Study on Transitional Justice that was the basis for the African Union Transitional Justice Policy. The insights it offers on why, how and when Commissions of Inquiry in Africa facilitate accountability are profoundly informative not only for scholars but also for policy makers and practitioners.”Solomon Ayele DerssoChairperson, African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights “This book covers new ground, with six rich case studies drawing from on-the ground research across the African continent. It demonstrates that while independent mechanisms can all face significant challenges in the aftermath of grave violations of human rights, properly-mandated, adequately-empowered and well-supported commissions of inquiry can in some cases play a valuable role within broader processes of accountability. The authors rightly focus on the complementarity of the different elements that a transitional justice process must have in order to be compatible with human rights standards, making an extraordinary theoretical contribution to debates about how to guarantee human rights in the face of atrocious facts.”Fabián SalvioliUN Special Rapporteur on the promotion of truth, justice, reparation and guarantees of non-recurrenceTable of ContentsBackground and acknowledgments &Members of the research teamIntroduction: The role of national commissions of inquiry in securing the supreme human rightThomas Probert & Christof HeynsA brief introduction to the right to life and the normative framework mandating accountability, including the duty to investigate potentially unlawful deaths, as well as to the broader research project lying behind this volumeThe concept of accountability and its importance for the protection of the right to lifeThomas ProbertA chapter that looks at how the mutually-reinforcing character of human rights accountability is fundamental to its definition, and the consequence that human rights accountability must contain three key elements: finding out what happened and who was responsible (investigations); finding waysof remedying the situation (remedies); and finding ways of preventing it from happening again (reforms).‘Lawfare’, instruments of governmentality and accountability, or both? An overview of national commissions of inquiry in AfricaMeetali JainA chapter illustrating how commissions of inquiry have a long pedigree in the legal and bureaucratic architecture of several of the colonial powers in Africa, and have been adopted by many African governments during the post-colonial period. It explores how the commission of inquiry, as an instrument of governmentality, can be and has been imposed for the purpose of legalistic domination, but how it has sometimes acquired a life of its own and also catalysed reform.Commissions of inquiry and social solidarity in the African contextChristof HeynsA chapter that discusses the extent to which it is possible to draw lessons from an historical emphasis on social solidarity to inform our understanding of the role of commissions in Africa. In particular, it explores the extent to which South African jurisprudence has been informed by or has deployed the concept of ubuntu and its impact on accountability, also for right to life violationsShedding all the light? The Commission of Inquiry into the Crimes and Misappropriations of Hissène Habré in ChadThe first case-study chapter, this examines the Commission of Inquiry into the Crimes and Misappropriations Committed by Ex-President Habré, his Accomplices and/or Accessories, which took place in Chad in 1990 to 1991. Established by new President Idriss Déby after Habré had fled the country, it provided a rather one-sided account of the abuses that had occurred during the latter’s rule. Nonetheless, its role in documenting violations, and its status as an official record adopted by the government of Chad, would go on to play a central role in the long story of the pursuit of justice for Habré’s victims, culminating in the Extraordinary African Chambers verdict and his conviction in 2016.A murdered journalist and a crisis of faith in the judiciary: The Independent Commission of Inquiry into the Death of Norbert Zongo in Burkina FasoThomas ProbertWhereas that Chadian Commission reviewed evidence of violations that took place over eight years, and reported on thousands of deaths, the next case study, that of the Independent Commission of Inquiry into the Death of Norbert Zongo and His Four Companions in Burkina Faso in 1999, investigated the events of a single afternoon. This chapter shows how, while the Commission focused on the murder of a journalist, the mobilisation for its establishment, and the challenges it faced reflected a complete lack of faith of the official judicial machinery of Blaise Compaoré’s regime.Public hearings and secret envelopes: The Waki Commission as a case study of accountability in KenyaAnyango Yvonne OyiekeThe third case study is of the well-known Commission of Inquiry into Post-Election Violence in Kenya (sometimes called the Waki Commission). This Commission played a central role at the beginning of a long process of the pursuit of accountability for the abuses at the hands of both non-state and state actors in the aftermath of the 2007 election in Kenya. The Commission formed part of an internationally-mediated peace agreement, involved two international commissioners, and would ultimately end up implicated in a far more international process of indictments before the ICC that would lead to a sitting President appearing (briefly) in the dock at The Hague.A slow but steady search for justice: The Commission of Inquiry into the July 2011 ‘riots’ in MalawiJohn KotsopoulosThe conduct of the police was also examined by the Commission of Inquiry into the Death and Destruction of Property during the events of July 2011 in Malawi. This case was an interesting example of a commission of inquiry investigating a single set of events (the state’s response to a coordinated set of public protests across several cities) from multiple social perspectives, while also drawing important lessons for how the police ought to conduct public order operations.The rose that grew from concrete: The Commission of Inquiry into policing in Khayelitsha, South AfricaMeetali JainThe Commission of Inquiry into Police Inefficiency in Khayleitsha was tasked with investigating an ongoing situation, in one of South Africa’s larger townships. Rather than inquiring into a specific police action, it was in many ways tasked with examining the causes of police inaction. This chapter shows how a commission established by the provincial government of the Western Cape was able to cast a spotlight on a series of social injustices that contributed to substantially weaker protections of the right to life.The (im)partiality of justice: The challenges of investigating the clashes between the Islamic Movement of Nigeria and the Nigerian army in Zaria, NigeriaAnyango Yvonne OyiekeThe final case study is the most recent. The Kaduna State Commission of Inquiry into the Clashes Between the Islamic Movement of Nigeria and the Nigerian Army in Zaria Between 12th & 14th December 2015 provides an interesting example in many respects of how not to conduct a commission of inquiry. This chapter demonstrates how, provided with a less than impartial mandate, a commission can ostensibly neglect the opportunity to conduct detailed investigations into credible evidence of serious violations.Commissions of inquiry: Valuable first steps towards accountability or smokescreens for inaction?Thomas Probert & Christof HeynsWhile not based on a representative sample of current usage or “success”, the findings of this study can lend themselves to certain generalised observations about the effectiveness of commissions of inquiry as accountability mechanisms, and the circumstances under which they can play a role in the broader process that fulfils the state’s procedural obligations with regard to violations of the right to life. In a concluding chapter the editors pull together some of these general characteristics, while also drawing upon international human rights law standards for the conduct of investigations.Annex: A list of commissions of inquiry in Africa, 1990-2016

African Economic Development

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9780198832331 Year: Pages: 336 DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780198832331.001.0001 Language: English
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Subject: Economics --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-09-25 00:07:46
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This book challenges conventional wisdoms both about economic performance and about policies for economic development in African countries. Its starting point is the striking variation in economic performance: unevenness and inequalities form a central fact. The authors highlight not only differences between African countries but also variations within countries, differences often organized around distinctions of gender, class, and ethnic identity. For example, school dropout and neonatal mortality have been reduced, particularly for some classes of women in some areas. Horticultural and agribusiness exports have grown far more rapidly in some countries than others. These variations (and many others) point to opportunities for changing performance, reducing inequalities, learning from other African policy experiences, and escaping the ties of structure and legacies of a colonial past. The book rejects teleological illusions and Eurocentric prejudice, but does pay close attention to the results of policy in more industrialized parts of the world. Seeing the contradictions of capitalism for what they are—fundamental and enduring—may help policy officials protect themselves against the misleading idea that development is likely to be a smooth, linear process, or that it would be were certain impediments removed. The authors criticize a wide range of orthodox and heterodox economists, especially for their cavalier attitude to statistical sources. Drawing on decades of research and policy experience, they combine careful use of available evidence from a range of African countries with heterodox political economy insights (mainly derived from Kalecki, Kaldor, and Hirschman) to make the policy case for specific types of public sector investment.

Across the Sahara

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ISBN: 9783030001452 Year: Pages: 260 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-00145-2 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Economics --- History --- Geography --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-09-23 00:07:20
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This open access book provides a multi-perspective approach to the caravan trade in the Sahara during the 19th century. Based on travelogues from European travelers, recently found Arab sources, historical maps and results from several expeditions, the book gives an overview of the historical periods of the caravan trade as well as detailed information about the infrastructure which was necessary to establish those trade networks. Included are a variety of unique historical and recent maps as well as remote sensing images of the important trade routes and the corresponding historic oases. To give a deeper understanding of how those trading networks work, aspects such as culturally influenced concepts of spatial orientation are discussed. The book aims to be a useful reference for the caravan trade in the Sahara, that can be recommended both to students and to specialists and researchers in the field of Geography, History and African Studies.

The Role of Smallholder Farms in Food and Nutrition Security

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ISBN: 9783030421489 Year: Pages: 251 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-42148-9 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Agriculture (General) --- Economics --- Chemical Technology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-16 23:58:08
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This open access book discusses the current role of smallholders in connection with food security and poverty reduction in developing countries. It addresses the opportunities they enjoy, and the constraints they face, by analysing the availability, access to and utilization of production factors. Due to the relevance of smallholder farms, enhancing their production capacities and economic and social resilience could produce positive impacts on food security and nutrition at a number of levels. In addition to the role of small farmers as food suppliers, the book considers their role as consumers and their level of nutrition security. It investigates the link between agriculture and nutrition in order to better understand how agriculture affects human health and dietary patterns. Given the importance of smallholdings, strategies to increase their productivity are essential to improving food and nutrition security, as well as food diversity.

Psychosocial Experiences of African Migrants in Six European Countries

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Book Series: Social Indicators Research Series ISBN: 9783030483470 Year: Pages: 237 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-48347-0 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Psychology --- History --- Migration
Added to DOAB on : 2020-09-01 00:03:08
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This open access book provides an empirical account of the psychological and social experiences of 3500 African migrants to 6 European countries: Germany, Spain, Italy, The Netherlands, France, and the UK. It discusses the psychosocial motivations for migration from Africa, who migrates where, and stressful pre- and post-migration factors affecting the social and psychological wellbeing of migrants. The book also includes a detailed exploration of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) among African migrants. Addressing and offering solutions to pre- and post-migration problems in Africa and Europe as well as the problems associated with the perilous journeys involved, this unique study is a must-read for anyone interested in cross-cultural psychology and social science, and particularly in migration and mental health.

Equine Viruses

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ISBN: 9783039283200 / 9783039283217 Year: Pages: 230 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-321-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations has recently estimated that the world equid population exceeds 110 million. Working equids (horses, ponies, donkeys, and mules) remain essential to ensure the livelihood of poor communities around the world. In many developed countries, the equine industry has significant economical weight, with around 7 million horses in Europe alone. The close relationship between humans and equids and the fact that the athlete horse is the terrestrial mammal that travels the most worldwide after humans are important elements to consider in the transmission of pathogens and diseases, amongst equids and to other species. The potential effect of climate change on vector ecology and vector-borne diseases is also of concern for both human and animal health. In this Special Issue, we intend to explore our understanding of a panel of equine viruses, looking at their pathogenicity, their importance in terms of welfare and potential association with diseases, their economic importance and impact on performance, and how their identification can be helped by new technologies and methods.

Keywords

equine papillomaviruses --- horse --- genital wart --- phylogeny --- evolution --- Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus --- vaccine --- strain selection --- Animal Rule --- cDNA cloned virus --- virus stock propagation --- African horse sickness --- virus structure --- replication --- vaccine strategies --- Equid alphaherpesvirus 1 --- horse --- PCR --- sequencing --- ORF30 --- ORF33 --- ORF34 --- ORF68 --- equine herpesvirus type 1 --- outbreak --- respiratory disease --- abortion --- neuropathogenic strain --- myeloencephalopathy --- phylogeny --- ORF30 --- MLST --- Parvoviridae --- Eqcopivirus --- horse parvovirus-CSF --- equine hepacivirus --- equine parvovirus H --- bosavirus --- virome --- equine coronavirus --- Ireland --- enteric disease --- equine rhinitis virus A --- Thoroughbred racehorses --- loss of performance --- equine parvovirus-hepatitis --- Germany --- risk factors --- transmission --- arbovirus --- flavivirus --- hematophagous arthropod --- hepacivirus A --- hepatitis --- insects --- mosquito-borne virus --- virus transmission --- equine coronavirus --- spike S1 protein --- ELISA --- virus neutralization --- seroprevalence --- MxA --- equine Mx1 --- influenza A viruses --- polymerase activity --- interspecies transmission --- nucleoprotein --- equine influenza --- non-primate hepacivirus --- equine hepacivirus --- in utero transmission --- horse --- fetuses --- encephalitis --- arbovirus --- rabies --- Equid herpesviruses --- Borna disease virus --- West Nile virus --- horses --- n/a

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