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La disuguaglianza economica in area marchigiana: uno studio di lungo periodo (1400-1800) (Book chapter)

Book title: Disuguaglianza economica nelle società preindustriali: cause ed effetti / Economic inequality in pre-industrial societies: causes and effect

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Book Series: Datini Studies in Economic History ISBN: 9788855180535 Year: Volume: 1 DOI: 10.36253/978-88-5518-053-5.08
Publisher: Firenze University Press
Subject: Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2020-11-26 11:35:25
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The research aimed at bringing new data to the study of inequality in the distribution of wealth in the long run using the fiscal documentation available to many communities of the Marches region over a period covering the late Middle Ages and the full modern age. The political-administrative history of this territory, progressively incorporated into the Papal State, was reflected in an evolution of the methodologies for assessing wealth for tax purposes. Their characteristics have been carefully taken into account and criticized in order to ensure compatibility in time and space. Land registers, “estimi”, "libre", as well as books of “collette”, will be used to describe the fiscal capacity of taxpayers enrolled in these registers and to estimate the dynamics of economic inequality.

Montagne diseguali? Il ruolo regolatore delle risorse collettive nella montagna friulana, secoli XVII-XVIII (Book chapter)

Book title: Disuguaglianza economica nelle società preindustriali: cause ed effetti / Economic inequality in pre-industrial societies: causes and effect

Author:
Book Series: Datini Studies in Economic History ISBN: 9788855180535 Year: Volume: 1 DOI: 10.36253/978-88-5518-053-5.17
Publisher: Firenze University Press
Subject: Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2020-11-26 11:35:25
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Among the structural elements characterizing the Alpine communities in comparison to those in the plains was the specularity of their landscapes: large collective areas (woods and pastures) and scarce space for farming; extensive and fertile land, prerogative of selected groups (noblemen, clergymen), and limited collective spaces (pastures). It is on this basis that the argument was made of the ‘natural’ equality of Alpine communities. Recent studies have instead demonstrated also in these contexts a polarization of land, especially where the temporary migration of men represented one of the foundations of the economy. This is applicable also to the Carnia region, in particular during the second half of the 18th century.

Regional Geological Survey of Hanggai, Xianxia and Chuancun, Zhejiang Province in China

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: The China Geological Survey Series ISBN: 9789811517884 Year: Pages: 292 DOI: 10.1007/978-981-15-1788-4 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Geology --- Earth Sciences --- Ecology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-17 00:00:45
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This Open Access book introduces readers to the regional geology of Hanggai, Xianxia and Chuancun, the area between China's northern Zhejiang Province and southern Anhui Province and explores the strata, magmatic rocks and tectonic structures in 1:50,000 scale geological maps. Based on studies of multiple stratigraphic divisions, the standard stratigraphic section of the upper Ordovician Hirnantian in the lower Yangtze region is established, revealing for the first time numerous “Burgess Shale-type” sponge fossils in Hirnantian strata and identifying 10 grapholite fossil belts and various fossil categories, including chitin, trilobites, gastropods, brachiopods, and cephalopods. Moreover, the book identifies for the first time Late Ordovician volcanic events in northern Zhejiang province. The work represents a major contribution to research on Paleozoic strata in the Lower Yangtze region, and sheds new light on understanding the Hirnantian glacial event and biological extinction event in South China by providing a high-precision time scale. In addition, the book opens an important avenue for future research on sponge evolution after the Cambrian life explosion. As such, it offers a unique and valuable asset for researchers and graduate students alike.

Dynamics of the Coastal Zone

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039284849 9783039284856 Year: Pages: 182 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-485-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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The coastal zone is the host to many human activities, which have significantly increased in the last decades. However, sea level rise and more frequent storm events severely affect beaches and coastal structures, with negative consequences and dramatic impacts on coastal communities. These aspects add to typical coastal problems, like flooding and beach erosion, which already leading to large economic losses and human fatalities. Modeling is thus fundamental for an exhaustive understanding of the nearshore region in the present and future environment. Innovative tools and technologies may help to better understand coastal processes in terms of hydrodynamics, sediment transport, bed morphology, and their interaction with coastal structures. This book collects several contributions focusing on nearshore dynamics, and span among several time and spatial scales using both physical and numerical approaches. The aim is to describe the most recent advances in coastal dynamics.

Zoonotic Diseases and One Health

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783039280100 / 9783039280117 Year: Pages: 182 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-011-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Social Sciences --- Sociology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Humans are part of an ecosystem, and understanding our relationship with the environment and with other organisms is a prerequisite to living together sustainably. Zoonotic diseases, which are spread between animals and humans, are an important issue as they reflect our relationship with other animals in a common environment. Zoonoses are still presented with high occurrence rates, especially in rural communities, with direct and indirect consequences for people. In several cases, zoonosis could cause severe clinical manifestations and is difficult to control and treat. Moreover, the persistent use of drugs for infection control enhances the potential of drug resistance and impacts on ecosystem balance and food production. This book demonstrates the importance of understanding zoonosis in terms of how it allows ecosystems to transform, adapt, and evolve. Ecohealth/One Health approaches recognize the interconnections among people, other organisms, and their shared developing environment. Moreover, these holistic approaches encourage stakeholders of various disciplines to collaborate in order to solve problems related to zoonosis. The reality of climate change necessitates considering new variables in studying diseases, particularly to predict how these changes in the ecosystems can affect human health and how to recognize the boundaries between medicine, veterinary care, and environmental and social changes towards healthy and sustainable development.

Governance of Arctic Shipping

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Springer Polar Sciences ISBN: 9783030449759 Year: Pages: 319 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-44975-9 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Geography --- Environmental Sciences --- Ecology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-09-01 00:01:49
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This open access book is a result of the Dalhousie-led research project Safe Navigation and Environment Protection, supported by a grant from the Ocean Frontier Institute’s the Canada First Research Excellent Fund (CFREF). The book focuses on Arctic shipping and investigates how ocean change and anthropogenic impacts affect our understanding of risk, policy, management and regulation for safe navigation, environment protection, conflict management between ocean uses, and protection of Indigenous peoples’ interests. A rapidly changing Arctic as a result of climate change and ice loss is rendering the North more accessible, providing new opportunities while producing impacts on the Arctic. The book explores ideas for enhanced governance of Arctic shipping through risk-based planning, marine spatial planning and scaling up shipping standards for safety, environment protection and public health.

Air Quality Assessment Standards and Sustainable Development in Developing Countries

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039280148 9783039280155 Year: Pages: 232 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-015-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Technology --- Environmental Sciences --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-30 16:39:46
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This book brings together the latest research results of air quality assessment standards and sustainable development in developing countries. The content is full and the discussion is vivid. These articles are suitable for students and researchers at all levels seeking to understand the status of air pollution, governance standards, and governance effects in developing countries.

Biochar as Soil Amendment: Impact on Soil Properties and Sustainable Resource Management

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ISBN: 9783039282746 9783039282753 Year: Pages: 252 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-275-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Agriculture (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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The role of biochar in improving soil fertility is increasingly being recognized and is leading to recommendations of biochar amendment of degraded soils. In addition, biochars offer a sustainable tool for managing organic wastes and to produce added-value products. The benefits of biochar use in agriculture and forestry can span enhanced plant productivity, an increase in soil C stocks, and a reduction of nutrient losses from soil and non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions. Nevertheless, biochar composition and properties and, therefore, its performance as a soil amendment are highly dependent on the feedstock and pyrolysis conditions. In addition, due to its characteristics, such as high porosity, water retention, and adsorption capacity, there are other applications for biochar that still need to be properly tested. Thus, the 16 original articles contained in this book, which were selected and evaluated for this Special Issue, provide a comprehensive overview of the biological, chemicophysical, biochemical, and environmental aspects of the application of biochar as soil amendment. Specifically, they address the applicability of biochar for nursery growth, its effects on the productivity of various food crops under contrasting conditions, biochar capacity for pesticide retention, assessment of greenhouse gas emissions, and soil carbon dynamics. I would like to thank the contributors, reviewers, and the support of the Agronomy editorial staff, whose professionalism and dedication have made this issue possible.

Protection Strategy against Spruce Budworm

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ISBN: 9783039280964 9783039280971 Year: Pages: 220 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-097-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Forestry --- Biology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-30 16:39:46
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Spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana (Clem.)) outbreaks are a dominant natural disturbance in the forests of Canada and northeastern USA. Widespread, severe defoliation by this native insect results in large-scale mortality and growth reductions of spruce (Picea sp.) and balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) forests, and largely determines future age–class structure and productivity. The last major spruce budworm outbreak defoliated over 58 million hectares in the 1970s–1980s, and caused 32–43 million m3/year of timber volume losses from 1978 to 1987, in Canada. Management to deal with spruce budworm outbreaks has emphasized forest protection, spraying registered insecticides to prevent defoliation and keep trees alive. Other tactics can include salvage harvesting, altering harvest schedules to remove the most susceptible stands, or reducing future susceptibility by planting or thinning. Chemical insecticides are no longer used, and protection strategies use biological insecticides Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t.) or tebufenozide, a specific insect growth regulator. Over the last five years, a $30 million research project has tested another possible management tactic, termed an ‘early intervention strategy’, aimed at area-wide management of spruce budworm populations. This includes intensive monitoring to detect ‘hot spots’ of rising budworm populations before defoliation occurs, targeted insecticide treatment to prevent spread, and detailed research into target and non-target insect effects. The objective of this Special Issue is to compile the most recent research on protection strategies against spruce budworm. A series of papers will describe results and prospects for the use of an early intervention strategy in spruce budworm and other insect management.

Keywords

forest pests --- defoliation --- spruce budworm --- multi-spectral remote sensing --- Acadian region --- Maine --- Quebec --- Choristoneura fumiferana --- Abies balsamea --- hardwood content --- defoliation prediction --- Choristoneura fumiferana --- annual defoliation --- spatial autocorrelation --- spatial-temporal patterns --- mixed effect models --- intertree variance --- insect population management --- spruce budworm --- early intervention --- defoliation --- economic losses --- decision support system --- optimized treatment design --- insect population management --- spruce budworm --- early intervention --- defoliation --- economic losses --- decision support system --- computable general equilibrium model --- Pinaceae --- endophytic fungi --- plant tolerance --- Phialocephala scopiformis --- Picea glauca --- spruce budworm --- phenology --- insect susceptibility --- spruce budworm --- forest protection --- early intervention strategy --- egg recruitment --- apparent fecundity --- growth rate --- spruce budworm --- Choristoneura fumiferana --- forest protection --- early intervention strategy --- survival --- apparent fecundity --- immigration --- growth rate --- treatment threshold --- insecticides --- spruce budworm --- moth --- tortricidae --- Choristoneura fumiferana (Clemens) --- forest protection --- early intervention strategy --- pheromone mating disruption --- migration --- dispersal --- spruce budworm --- Choristoneura fumiferana --- moth --- Lepidoptera --- forest protection --- early intervention strategy --- migration --- simulation --- aerobiology --- moths --- migration --- forest protection --- spruce budworm --- Choristoneura fumiferana (Clem.) --- early intervention strategy --- modelling --- circadian rhythm --- foliage protection --- population control --- monitoring --- area-wide management --- science communication --- economic and ecological cost: benefit analyses --- early intervention strategy --- foliage protection --- defoliation --- monitoring --- insecticide application

Remote Sensing for Target Object Detection and Identification

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039283323 9783039283330 Year: Pages: 336 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-333-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Geography
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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Target object detection and identification are among the primary uses for a remote sensing system. This is crucial in several fields, including environmental and urban monitoring, hazard and disaster management, and defense and military. In recent years, these analyses have used the tremendous amount of data acquired by sensors mounted on satellite, airborne, and unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) platforms. This book promotes papers exploiting different remote sensing data for target object detection and identification, such as synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging and multispectral and hyperspectral imaging. Several cutting-edge contributions, which provide examples of how to select of a technology or another depending on the specific application, will be detailed.

Keywords

anomaly detection --- hyperspectral imagery --- low-rank representation --- dictionary construction --- HSI reconstruction --- sparse coding --- adaptive weighting --- infrared small target detection --- local prior analysis --- nonconvex tensor robust principle component analysis --- partial sum of the tensor nuclear norm --- low rank sparse decomposition --- Lp-norm constraint --- non-convex optimization --- alternating direction method of multipliers --- infrared small target detection --- convolutional neural networks (CNNs) --- object detection --- remote sensing images --- contextual information --- part-based --- multi-model --- very-high-resolution (VHR) remote sensing imagery --- object detection --- multi-scale pyramidal features --- multi-scale strategies --- oil tank detection --- unsupervised saliency model --- Color Markov Chain --- bottom-up and top-down --- hazard prevention --- flood hazard --- hidden danger identification --- tower failure --- vehicle detection --- object matching --- superpixel segmentation --- unmanned aerial vehicle --- remote sensing imagery --- thermal infrared target tracking --- semantic features --- mask sparse representation --- particle filter framework --- ADMM --- satellite videos --- region proposals --- convolutional neural networks --- tiny and dim target detection --- component mixture model --- object detection --- remote sensing image --- deep learning --- convolutional neural networks (CNNs) --- hardware architecture --- processor --- ground-based detection --- infrared imaging --- observability --- detecting distance --- earth entry vehicle --- synthetic aperture radar (SAR) --- rivers water-flow elevation estimation --- pixel-tracking --- phase unwrapping --- infrared small-faint target detection --- non-independent and identical distribution (non-i.i.d.) mixture of Gaussians --- flux density --- variational Bayesian --- target detection --- target identification --- SAR --- visible --- infrared --- hyperspectral

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