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Chapter 3 Derivation of Morality from Prudence (Book chapter)

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Book Series: Routledge Focus on Philosophy ISBN: 9780367230159 9780429277955 Year: Pages: 36 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Philosophy
Added to DOAB on : 2020-02-05 11:21:22
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This chapter derives and refines a novel normative moral theory and descriptive theory of moral psychology—Rightness as Fairness—from the theory of prudence defended in Chapter 2 of Neurofunctional Prudence and Morality: A Philosophical Theory. The chapter briefly summarizes Chapter 2’s finding that prudent agents typically internalize ‘moral risk-aversion’. The chapter then outlines how this prudential psychology leads prudent agents to want to know how to act in ways they will not regret in morally salient cases, as well as to regard moral actions as the only types of actions that satisfy this prudential interest. The chapter then uses these findings to defend a new derivation of Marcus Arvan’s theory of morality, Rightness as Fairness, showing how the derivation successfully defends Rightness as Fairness against a variety of objections. Additionally, the chapter outlines how Arvan’s theory of prudence can help substantiates the claim that Rightness as Fairness unifies a variety of competing moral frameworks: deontology, consequentialism, contractualism, and virtue ethics. Finally, the chapter shows how Chapter 2’s theory of prudence entails some revisions to Rightness as Fairness, including the adoption of a series of Rawlsian original positions to settle prudential, moral, and social-political issues under ideal and nonideal circumstances.

Confucius and Cicero

Authors: ---
Book Series: Roma Sinica ISBN: 9783110616804 9783110617009 9783110616606 Year: Volume: 1 Pages: 216 DOI: 10.1515/9783110617009 Language: English
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: Philosophy --- Languages and Literatures
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-30 11:21:05
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This book explores the relationships between ancient Roman and Confucian thought, paying particular attention to their relevance for the contemporary world. More than 10 scholars from all around the world offer thereby a reference work for the comparative research between Roman (and early Greek) and Eastern thought, setting new trends in the panorama of Classical and Comparative Studies.

Understanding Perspectivism

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Book Series: Routledge Studies in the Philosophy of Science ISBN: 9781138503069 9781315145198 Year: Pages: 210 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis Grant: H2020 European Research Council - 647272
Subject: Education --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-05 11:21:02
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This edited collection is the first of its kind to explore the view called perspectivism in the philosophy of science. The book brings together an array of essays that reflect on the methodological promises and scientific challenges of perspectivism in a variety of fields such as physics, biology, cognitive neuroscience, and cancer research, just for a few examples. What are the advantages of using a plurality of perspectives in a given scientific field and for interdisciplinary research? Can different perspectives be integrated? What is the relation between perspectivism, pluralism, and pragmatism? These ten new essays by top scholars in the field offer a kaleidoscopic journey toward understanding the view called “perspectivism” and its relevance to science.

Keywords

science --- philosophy --- opinion

Bentham and the Arts

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ISBN: 9781787357365 Year: Pages: 324 DOI: 10.14324/111.9781787357365 Language: English
Publisher: UCL Press
Subject: Philosophy
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-03 23:56:46
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Bentham and the Arts considers the sceptical challenge presented by Bentham’s hedonistic utilitarianism to the existence of the aesthetic, as represented in the oft-quoted statement that, ‘Prejudice apart, the game of push-pin is of equal value with the arts and sciences of music and poetry. If the game of push-pin furnish more pleasure, it is more valuable than either.’ This statement is one part of a complex set of arguments on culture, taste, and utility that Bentham pursued over his lifetime, in which sensations of pleasure and pain were opposed to aesthetic sensibility. Leading scholars from a variety of disciplines reflect on the implications of Bentham’s radical utilitarian approach for our understanding of the history and contemporary nature of art, literature, and aesthetics more generally. Each contributor takes into account, from the perspective of their own discipline and expertise, the implications for their research area of the views contained in Bentham’s Of Sexual Irregularities, and other writings on Sexual Morality (published in the authoritative edition of The Collected Works of Jeremy Bentham in 2014) and ‘Not Paul, but Jesus: Volume III’ (published online by the Bentham Project in 2014). In these essays, Bentham puts forward the first philosophical defence of sexual liberty. In doing so, he questions the meaning of ‘taste’ and hence the received understanding of aesthetics more generally. The contributors, moreover, challenge two of the major commonplaces in literary and historical studies of the nineteenth century: first that literature and utilitarianism represented alternative and incompatible views of the world; and second that Bentham’s utilitarianism was somehow emaciated in comparison with that of John Stuart Mill. The volume also includes new reflections on the auto-icon and the panopticon, the latter showing the utilitarian genealogy of a collaborative art and architecture project on the site of the Millbank Penitentiary. The title ‘Bentham and the Arts’ itself challenges the commonly held notion that Bentham had nothing relevant to say on the subject of the Arts – the essays in this volume show that Bentham remains extraordinarily relevant, both in historical and philosophical terms. 'Bentham and the Arts is a feast. Ranging from poetry and sexual nonconformity to the auto-icon and public sculpture, from Hume, Kant, and de Staël to Freud and Michel Onfray, an excellent crew of contributors brings Jeremy Bentham out from the shadow cast by John Stuart Mill with much new to say on taste and politics. Highly recommended for students and scholars alike, this fine interdisciplinary volume is available to all through open-access publishing.' - Stephen Engelmann, University of Illinois at Chicago

Homo absconditus

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ISBN: 9783110666373 9783110666397 9783110661422 Year: Pages: 673 DOI: 10.1515/9783110666397 Language: German
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: Philosophy
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-30 11:21:03
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This volume examines the specifics of Plessner's philosophy in comparison with the conceptions of Dewey, Freud, Habermas, Heidegger, Jaspers, Kant, Nietzsche, v. Uexküll and today's brain, cognition and behavioral research. It shows how philosophical anthropology overcomes the speciesism, ethnocentrism, anthropocentrism of modernity in favour of a common and open future of personal life forms.

Translating Wisdom

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ISBN: 9780520345683 Year: Pages: 278 DOI: 10.1525/luminos.87 Language: English
Publisher: University of California Press
Subject: History --- Religion
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-18 23:59:18
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During the height of Muslim power in South Asia, Muslim nobles of the Mughal Empire (1526-1857) patronized the translation of a large body of Hindu Sanskrit texts into the Persian language, including the Upaniṣads, the Bhagavad Gītā, and numerous other works. In Translating Wisdom, Shankar Nair reconstructs the intellectual processes that underlay these translations, traversing an exceptional linguistic scope including Sanskrit, Arabic, and Persian materials. Using the 1597 Persian rendition of the Sanskrit Yoga Vāsiṣṭha as a case study, Nair traces the intellectual exchanges by which teams of Muslim and Hindu translators, working collaboratively and drawing upon their respective religio-philosophical traditions, crafted a novel lexicon with which to express Hindu philosophical wisdom in an Islamic Persian idiom. How did these translators find a vocabulary through which to convey Hindu, Sanskrit articulations of God, conceptions of salvation and the afterlife, Hindu ritual notions, etc., in Islamic Persian terms? How did these two communities of scholars devise a shared language with which to communicate and to render one another’s religious and philosophical views mutually comprehensible? Translating Wisdom illustrates how these early modern Muslim and Hindu scholars found the words and the means to put their traditions into conversation with one another, achieving a nuanced inter-religious and cross-philosophical dialogue significant not only to South Asia’s past, but also its present.

Historical Background of Wang Yang-ming’s Philosophy of Mind

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ISBN: 9789811530364 Year: Pages: 199 DOI: 10.1007/978-981-15-3036-4 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Philosophy --- Languages and Literatures
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-16 23:59:18
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This open access book offers comprehensive information on Wang Yang-ming’s life, helping readers identify and grasp the foundations on which his philosophy was established. Though a great man, Wang had an extremely difficult life, full of many hardships. Based on various official histories, Wang’s own writings, and his disciples’ records, the book explores the legendary life of this ancient philosopher, who not only diligently pursued his objective of living as a sage, but also persistently sought the ideal state of a sage in ideology. The author also shares his own interpretations of the main aspects of Wang’s philosophy using simple and straightforward language. This book will help readers understand and appreciate Wang Yang-ming’s extraordinary life, his generous mind, deep thoughts and bright personality, inspiring them to pursue enriching lives. It offers a unique and insightful work for undergraduate students and all others interested in Wang’s philosophy and life story.

Philosophical Issues in Sport Science

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ISBN: 9783039218882 9783039218899 Year: Pages: 140 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-889-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Sports Science
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:08
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The role and value of science within sport increases with ever greater professionalization and commercialization. Scientific and technological innovations are devised to increase performance, ensure greater accuracy of measurement and officiating, reduce risks of harm, enhance spectatorship, and raise revenues. However, such innovations inevitably come up against epistemological and metaphysical problems related to the nature of sport and physical competition. This Special Issue identifies and explores key and contemporary philosophical issues in relation to the science of sport and exercise. It is divided into three sections: 1. Scientific evidence, causation, and sport; 2. Science technology and sport officiating; and 3. Scientific influences on the construction of sport. It brings together scholars working on philosophical problems in sport to examine issues related to the values and assumptions behind sport and exercise science and key problems resulting from these and to provide recommendations for improving its practice.

Keywords

elite sports --- sport nutrition --- standards of evidence --- evidence-based practices --- randomized controlled trials --- philosophy of medicine --- casuistry --- umpiring and refereeing --- technological assistance to match officials --- justice and continuity in match officiating --- ball trackers --- goal-line technology --- football --- cricket --- tennis --- transgender --- trans women --- sport --- testosterone --- gender --- gender binary --- sports tournaments --- team rankings --- intransitive dominance --- win-loops --- social choice theory --- Condorcet’s paradox --- championship pluralism --- technology --- running --- fairness --- competition --- accuracy --- officiating --- justice --- the human element --- technology --- Hawk-Eye --- aesthetics of sports --- counterfactuals --- absence causation --- causal necessity --- causal contingency --- david kellogg lewis --- prelusory goal --- possible sport worlds --- metaphysics of sport --- causation in sport --- sport ethics --- technology --- the spirit of sport --- excellence --- anti-doping --- nature --- governance --- ethics --- testosterone --- discrimination --- integrity --- science --- fair-play --- sport --- athletics --- exercise science --- philosophy --- sport psychology --- materialism --- Aristotle --- causation and nature --- exercise professional --- professional knowledge --- health --- wellbeing --- philosophy --- medicalization --- scientism --- biomedicine --- sport science --- epistemology --- ontology --- causation --- technology --- evidence

Conceptos, autores, instituciones. Revisión crítica de la investigación reciente sobre la Escuela de Salamanca (2008-19) y bibliografía multidisciplinar

Authors: ---
Book Series: Historia de las Universidades ISSN: 1886-0710 ISBN: 9788413247212 Year: Volume: 54 Pages: 333 Language: Spanish
Publisher: Universidad Carlos III de Madrid. Figuerola Institute of Social Science History
Subject: Multidisciplinary --- Education --- Bibliography
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-17 09:21:21
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This book offers a panorama on the research on the School of Salamanca carried out in the last decade. In this period a great renewal of research methods took place, together with the growing interest of various disciplines in Salamanca's scholasticism, its internationalization as a field of study and the launching of various research projects and initiatives of publication of important scholastic sources aimed at broadening previous research perspectives, until recently very focused on the study of natural law, the law of nations and some theological and metaphysical themes. Our critical review of the recent research on the School of Salamanca takes its main conclusions from a wide bibliography of academic works having being published between 2008 and 2019. These writings are ordered according to an exhaustive list of thematic descriptors, which make it easy to locate the publications dedicated to a certain author, concept, research topic or institution (mendicant orders, Universities,...). Although most of the concepts used as descriptors are of philosophical-political and historical-legal character, the bibliography offers conceptually and institutionally ordered references related to disciplines such as history of the book, history of Universities, natural philosophy or epistemology, in what is intended to be a faithful image of the current multidisciplinary interest on Salamanca scholasticism.---La presente obra ofrece una perspectiva sobre la investigación realizada en la última década acerca de la Escuela de Salamanca. Se trata de un período caracterizado por la renovación de los métodos de estudio, el creciente interés de diversas disciplinas en la escolástica salmantina, su internacionalización como campo de estudios y el lanzamiento de distintos proyectos de investigación y edición de fuentes destinados a ampliar los horizontes de estudio de la misma, hasta hace poco tiempo muy concentrados en el estudio de la ley natural, el derecho de gentes y algunos temas teológicos y metafísicos. La revisión crítica de la investigación reciente sobre la Escuela de Salamanca que presentamos apoya sus principales conclusiones en una amplia bibliografía de trabajos académicos sobre la Escuela publicados entre 2008 y 2019, ordenada de acuerdo a una exhaustiva lista de descriptores temáticos que hacen fácilmente localizables las publicaciones consagradas a un determinado autor, concepto, tema de investigación o institución (órdenes mendicantes, Universidades,...). Aunque la mayoría de conceptos utilizados como descriptores son conceptos filosófico-políticos e histórico-jurídicos, la bibliografía recoge y ordena a nivel conceptual e institucional, muchos otros trabajos sobre la Escuela de interés para la historia del libro, las Universidades, la filosofía natural o la epistemología, en lo que se pretende sea un reflejo fiel del actual interés multidisciplinar sobre la escolástica salmantina.

Blockchain and Crypto Currency

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Economics, Law, and Institutions in Asia Pacific ISBN: 9789811533761 Year: Pages: 141 DOI: 10.1007/978-981-15-3376-1 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Business and Management --- Economics --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-05-14 09:29:47
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This open access book contributes to the creation of a cyber ecosystem supported by blockchain technology in which technology and people can coexist in harmony. Blockchains have shown that trusted records, or ledgers, of permanent data can be stored on the Internet in a decentralized manner. The decentralization of the recording process is expected to significantly economize the cost of transactions. Creating a ledger on data, a blockchain makes it possible to designate the owner of each piece of data, to trade data pieces, and to market them. This book examines the formation of markets for various types of data from the theory of market quality proposed and developed by M. Yano. Blockchains are expected to give data itself the status of a new production factor. Bringing ownership of data to the hands of data producers, blockchains can reduce the possibility of information leakage, enhance the sharing and use of IoT data, and prevent data monopoly and misuse. The industry will have a bright future as soon as better technology is developed and when a healthy infrastructure is created to support the blockchain market.

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