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Environmental Impact Assessment of Buildings

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ISBN: 9783039282432 9783039282449 Year: Pages: 168 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-244-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:08
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This Special Issue covers a wide range of areas—including building orientation, service life, use of photocatalytically active structures and PV facades, implications of transportation system, building types (i.e., high rise, multilevel, commercial, residential), life cycle assessment, and structural engineering—that need to be considered in the environmental impact assessment of buildings, and the chapters include case studies across the globe. Consideration of these strategies would help reduce energy and material consumption, environmental emissions, and waste generation associated with all phases of a building’s life cycle. Chapter 1 demonstrates that green star concrete exhibits the same structural properties as conventional concrete in Australia. Chapter 2 showed that the use of TiO2 as a photocatalyst on the surface of construction materials with a suitable stable binding agent, such as aggregates, would enable building walls to absorb NOx from air. This study found that TiO2 has the potential to reduce ambient concentrations of NOx from areas where this pollutant becomes concentrated under solar irradiation. Chapter 3 presents the life cycle assessment of architecturally integrated glass–glass photovoltaics in building facades to find the appropriate material composition for a multicolored PV façade offering improved environmental performance. Chapter 4 shows that urban office buildings lacking appropriate orientation experienced indoor overheating. Chapter 5 details four modeling approaches that were implemented to estimate buildings’ response towards load shedding. Chapter 6 covers the life cycle GHG emissions of high-rise residential housing block to discover opportunities for environmental improvement. Chapter 7 discusses an LCA framework that took into account variation in the service life of buildings associated with the use of different types of materials. Chapter 8 presents a useful data mining algorithm to conduct life cycle asset management in residential developments built on transport systems.

Energy Storage and Management for Electric Vehicles

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039218622 9783039218639 Year: Pages: 238 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-863-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-30 16:39:46
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This Special Edition of Energies on “Energy Storage and Management for Electric Vehicles” draws together a collection of research papers that critically evaluates key areas of innovation and novelty when designing and managing the high-voltage battery system within an electrified powertrain. The addressed topics include design optimisation, mathematical modelling, control engineering, thermal management, and component sizing.

Keywords

zinc–nickel single-flow battery --- equivalent circuit model --- self-discharge --- dynamic flow rate optimization --- genetic algorithm --- hybrid power system --- electric vehicle --- rule-based optimal strategy --- dynamic programming approach --- thermal modelling --- thermal behaviour --- lithium titanate oxide batteries --- optimal control --- supercapacitors --- batteries --- fuel cell --- hybrid vehicle --- battery degradation --- battery energy storage system --- charging scheme --- efficiency --- electric vehicle --- linear programming --- lithium ion battery --- operating expenses --- residential battery storage --- vehicle-to-building --- supercapacitor models --- parameter estimation --- ECE15 --- HPPC --- Simulink --- Simscape --- Matlab --- Identification --- regenerative energy --- timetable optimization --- energy storage system --- ?-constraint method --- improved artificial bee colony --- lithium-ion battery --- equivalent circuit model --- recursive least square --- adaptive forgetting factor --- parameter identification --- energy storage ageing and degradation --- life cycle assessment --- second-life energy storage applications --- Li-Sulfur batteries --- lithium-ion battery --- cell sorting --- multi-parameters sorting --- principal component analysis --- self-organizing maps clustering --- battery charging --- cycle-life --- state-of-health (SOH) --- battery cycle-life extension --- nonlinear battery model --- state of charge estimation --- lithium-ion battery --- Lipschitz nonlinear system --- Luenberger observer

Practice and Innovations in Sustainable Transport

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ISBN: 9783039285488 / 9783039285495 Year: Pages: 118 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-549-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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The book continues with an experimental analysis conducted to obtain accurate and complete information about electric vehicles in different traffic situations and road conditions. For the experimental analysis in this study, three different electric vehicles from the Edinburgh College leasing program were equipped and tracked to obtain over 50 GPS and energy consumption data for short distance journeys in the Edinburgh area and long-range tests between Edinburgh and Bristol. In the following section, an adaptive and robust square root cubature Kalman filter based on variational Bayesian approximation and Huber’s M-estimation is proposed to accurately estimate state of charge (SOC), which is vital for safe operation and efficient management of lithium-ion batteries. A coupled-inductor DC-DC converter with a high voltage gain is proposed in the following section to match the voltage of a fuel cell stack to a DC link bus. Finally, the book presents a review of the different approaches that have been proposed by various authors to mitigate the impact of electric buses and electric taxis on the future smart grid.

Current Trends on Monomial and Binomial Ideals

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ISBN: 9783039283606 9783039283613 Year: Pages: 140 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-361-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Mathematics --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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Historically, the study of monomial ideals became fashionable after the pioneering work by Richard Stanley in 1975 on the upper bound conjecture for spheres. On the other hand, since the early 1990s, under the strong influence of Gröbner bases, binomial ideals became gradually fashionable in commutative algebra. The last ten years have seen a surge of research work in the study of monomial and binomial ideals. Remarkable developments in, for example, finite free resolutions, syzygies, Hilbert functions, toric rings, as well as cohomological invariants of ordinary powers, and symbolic powers of monomial and binomial ideals, have been brought forward. The theory of monomial and binomial ideals has many benefits from combinatorics and Göbner bases. Simultaneously, monomial and binomial ideals have created new and exciting aspects of combinatorics and Göbner bases. In the present Special Issue, particular attention was paid to monomial and binomial ideals arising from combinatorial objects including finite graphs, simplicial complexes, lattice polytopes, and finite partially ordered sets, because there is a rich and intimate relationship between algebraic properties and invariants of these classes of ideals and the combinatorial structures of their combinatorial counterparts. This volume gives a brief summary of recent achievements in this area of research. It will stimulate further research that encourages breakthroughs in the theory of monomial and binomial ideals. This volume provides graduate students with fundamental materials in this research area. Furthermore, it will help researchers find exciting activities and avenues for further exploration of monomial and binomial ideals. The editors express our thanks to the contributors to the Special Issue. Funds for APC (article processing charge) were partially supported by JSPS (Japan Society for the Promotion of Science) Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research (S) entitled ""The Birth of Modern Trends on Commutative Algebra and Convex Polytopes with Statistical and Computational Strategies"" (JP 26220701). The publication of this volume is one of the main activities of the grant.

Building Thermal Envelope

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039285181 9783039285198 Year: Pages: 244 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-519-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Construction --- General and Civil Engineering --- Technology (General)
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This book results from a Special Issue published in Energies, entitled “Building Thermal Envelope"". Its intent is to identify emerging research areas within the field of building thermal envelope solutions and contribute to the increased use of more energy-efficient solutions in new and refurbished buildings. Its contents are organized in the following sections: Building envelope materials and systems envisaging indoor comfort and energy efficiency; Building thermal and energy modelling and simulation; Lab test procedures and methods of field measurement to assess the performance of materials and building solutions; Smart materials and renewable energy in building envelope; Adaptive and intelligent building envelope; and Integrated building envelope technologies for high performance buildings and cities.

Keywords

hybrid heat collecting facade (HHCF) --- passive solar building --- heat transfer model --- thermal performance --- heat transfer --- energy --- thermosyphon --- natural circulation loop --- thermal resistance --- thermal transmittance --- heat flow meter method --- average method --- convergence characteristics --- opaque exterior wall --- hot box --- thermal models --- measuring and control system --- digital temperature probes --- data post-processing --- roof window --- thermal performance --- passive building --- building component development --- natural ventilation --- air environment --- school restroom --- awning window --- CFD --- thermal anisotropy --- building envelope --- thermal management --- energy efficiency --- peak load reduction --- window thermal performance --- U-value --- window type --- simulation performance test --- actual physical performance test --- heat transfer --- energy --- thermosyphon --- natural circulation loop --- expanded polystyrene (EPS) --- gray polystyrene --- artificial sun --- thermographic measurement --- temperature distribution --- cork --- energy retrofitting --- life cycle assessment --- life cycle costs --- thermal insulating rendering mortar --- Building Information Modeling --- cloud-based --- envelope thermal performance --- green buildings --- Green Mark --- Integrated Digital Delivery (IDD) --- traditional Diyarbak?r houses --- courtyard --- settlement --- Designbuilder simulation --- energy performance --- n/a

Civil and Military Airworthiness: Recent Developments and Challenges

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ISBN: 9783039289158 / 9783039289165 Year: Pages: 272 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-916-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Airworthiness, as a field, encompasses the technical and non-technical activities required to design, certify, produce, maintain, and safely operate an aircraft throughout its lifespan. The evolving technology, science, and engineering methods and, most importantly, aviation regulation, offer new opportunities and create, new challenges for the aviation industry. This book assembles review and research articles across a variety of topics in the field of airworthiness: aircraft maintenance, safety management, human factors, cost analysis, structures, risk assessment, unmanned aerial vehicles and regulations. This selection of papers informs the industry practitioners and researchers on important issues.

Digital Transformation in Semiconductor Manufacturing

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering ISBN: 9783030486020 Year: Pages: 146 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-48602-0 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Agriculture (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-16 23:58:21
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This open access book reports on cutting-edge electrical engineering and microelectronics solutions to foster and support digitalization in the semiconductor industry. Based on the outcomes of the European project iDev40, which were presented at the two first conference editions of the European Advances in Digital Transformation Conference (EADCT 2018 and EADTC 2019), the book covers different, multidisciplinary aspects related to digital transformation, including technological and industrial developments, as well as human factors research and applications. Topics include modeling and simulation methods in semiconductor operations, supply chain management issues, employee training methods and workplaces optimization, as well as smart software and hardware solutions for semiconductor manufacturing. By highlighting industrially relevant developments and discussing open issues related to digital transformation, the book offers a timely, practice-oriented guide to graduate students, researchers and professionals interested in the digital transformation of manufacturing domains and work environments.

Adopting Circular Economy Current Practices and Future Perspectives

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ISBN: 9783039283422 9783039283439 Year: Pages: 160 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-343-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Technology (General)
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The development of a closed-loop cycle is a necessary condition so as to develop a circular economy model as an alternative to the linear model, in order to maintain the value of products and materials for as long as possible. For this motive, the definition of the value must be demonstrated for both the environment and the economy. The presence of these analyses should be associated with the social dimension and the human component. A strong cooperation between social and technical profiles is a new challenge for all researchers. End of life of products attract a lot of attention, and the final output could be the production of technologies suitable for managing this waste.

Hydrothermal Technology in Biomass Utilization & Conversion

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039286768 / 9783039286775 Year: Pages: 166 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-677-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
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This book addresses a key innovative technology for decarbonization of the energy system: hydrothermal processing. It basically consists of treating biomass and wastes in a wet form, under pressure and temperature condition. This approach is becoming more and more attractive, as new feedstock and applications are appearing on the scene of bioeconomy and bioenergy. The hydrothermal processing of various type of biomass, waste, and residues, thus, raised the interest of many researchers and companies around the world, together with downstream upgrading processes and technologies: solid products as biochar, for instance, or liquid ones as crude bioliquids, are finding new market opportunities in circular economy schemes. The Special Issue collects recent innovative research works in the field, from basic to applied research, as well as pilot industrial applications/demo. It is a valuable set of references for those investing time and effort in research in the field.

Energy Efficiency in Buildings: Both New and Rehabilitated

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ISBN: 9783039287024 / 9783039287031 Year: Pages: 412 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-703-1 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Arts in general --- Architecture
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Buildings are one of the main causes of the emission of greenhouse gases in the world. Europe alone is responsible for more than 30% of emissions, or about 900 million tons of CO2 per year. Heating and air conditioning are the main cause of greenhouse gas emissions in buildings. Most buildings currently in use were built with poor energy efficiency criteria or, depending on the country and the date of construction, none at all. Therefore, regardless of whether construction regulations are becoming stricter, the real challenge nowadays is the energy rehabilitation of existing buildings. It is currently a priority to reduce (or, ideally, eliminate) the waste of energy in buildings and, at the same time, supply the necessary energy through renewable sources. The first can be achieved by improving the architectural design, construction methods, and materials used, as well as the efficiency of the facilities and systems; the second can be achieved through the integration of renewable energy (wind, solar, geothermal, etc.) in buildings. In any case, regardless of whether the energy used is renewable or not, the efficiency must always be taken into account. The most profitable and clean energy is that which is not consumed.

Keywords

greenhouse --- floor envelope design --- ground heat transfer --- thermal insulation --- energy modeling --- life cycle cost analysis --- nearly zero energy building --- artificial neural network --- performance parameter design --- energy saving ratio --- dynamic simulation --- urban modelling --- co-simulation --- simulation engines --- building stock energy demand --- building --- energy --- heat load --- sensitivity --- glazing --- surface cooling --- three-phase unbalance minimization --- model predictive control --- home energy management system --- perturbation and observation --- adjustable step size --- low power loss --- maximum power point tracking --- HVAC demand --- prediction --- energy efficiency --- residential buildings --- Ipomoea batatas --- lightweight expanded clay aggregate (LECA), thermal performance --- extensive green roof --- subtropical climate --- artificial neural network --- big data --- energy-performance gap --- building energy prediction --- building user activity --- single-person household --- Korean household energy consumption --- analytical hierarchy process --- energy efficiency promotion --- influencing factors --- residential buildings --- policy design --- building energy --- passive architecture --- test method --- energy performance standard --- zero energy building --- technology package --- renovation --- energy renovation --- demolition --- new construction --- energy use --- energy performance --- life cycle cost --- optimization --- OPERA-MILP --- multi-family buildings --- Arab region --- building sector --- energy efficiency --- energy productivity --- GCC --- Maghreb --- Mashreq --- space heating --- domestic hot water (DHW) --- air, ground and water source heat pump (ASHP, GSHP and WSHP) --- coefficient of performance (COP) --- seasonal performance factor (SPF) --- energy pile --- energy tunnel --- Level(s) --- green building rating systems --- Building Research Establishment Assessment Method (BREEAM) --- Deutsche Gesellschaft für Nachhaltiges Bauen (DGNB) --- Haute Qualité Environnementale (HQE) --- Leadership in Energy &amp --- Environmental Design (LEED) --- energy efficiency --- subtropical climate building --- Minimum-Energy Building (MEB) --- building refurbishment --- building rehabilitation --- building renovation --- envelope airtightness --- envelope thermography --- envelope transmittance

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