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Uncertain Bioethics

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Book Series: Routledge Annals of Bioethics ISBN: 9780815372981 9781351244510 Year: Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis Grant: Knowledge Unlatched - 102684
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-07 11:21:14
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Uncertain Bioethics makes a significant and distinctive contribution to the bioethics literature by culling the insights from contemporary moral psychology to highlight the epistemic pitfalls and distorting influences on our apprehension of value. Stephen Napier also incorporates research from epistemology addressing pragmatic encroachment and the significance of peer disagreement to justify what he refers to as epistemic diffidence when one is considering harming or killing human beings. Napier extends these developments to the traditional bioethical notion of dignity and argues that beliefs subject to epistemic diffidence should not be acted upon. He proceeds to apply this framework to traditional and developing issues in bioethics including abortion, stem cell research, euthanasia, decision-making for patients in a minimally conscious state, and risky research on competent human subjects.

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Philosophy

Clandestine Philosophy

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9781487504618 9781487531560 9781487530556 Year: Language: English
Publisher: University of Toronto Press Grant: Knowledge Unlatched - 102828
Subject: Philosophy
Added to DOAB on : 2020-02-13 11:21:04
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Clandestine Philosophy examines the circulation and consequences of 'clandestine philosophical manuscripts', a genre that flourished in the eighteenth century and included forbidden works such as erotic texts, political pamphlets, satires of court life and of the nobility, forbidden religious texts, and books about alchemy and the occult. The editors have brought together leading experts on the history of European philosophy to explore the circulation of radical ideas during the eighteenth century and the social, political, and cultural impact they had on eighteenth-century society.

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Philosophy

Qualitative Freedom - Autonomy in Cosmopolitan Responsibility

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ISBN: 9783030047238 Year: Pages: 365 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-04723-8 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Philosophy --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-02-05 11:21:12
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In the light of growing political and religious fundamentalism, this open access book defends the idea of freedom as paramount for the attempt to find common ethical ground in the age of globality. The book sets out to examine as yet unexhausted ways to boost the resilience of the principle of liberalism. Critically reviewing the last 200 years of the philosophy of freedom, it revises the principle of liberty in order to revive it. It discusses many different aspects that fall under its three main topics: the metaphysics of freedom, quantitative freedom and qualitative freedom. Open societies worldwide have come under increasing pressure in the last decades. The belief that politics and markets fare best when guided by the principle of liberty presently faces multiple challenges such as terrorism, climate warming, inequality, populism, and financial crises. In the view of its critics, the idea of freedom no longer offers adequate guidance to meet these challenges and should be partially corrected or even entirely replaced by countervailing values. Against the reduction of freedom to the merely quantitative question as to how much liberties individuals call their own, this book draws attention to the qualitative concerns which and whose opportunities society should foster. It argues that, correctly understood, the idea of liberty commits us to defend as well as advance the freedom of each and every world citizen.

Sceptical Paths. Enquiry and Doubt from Antiquity to the Present

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Studies and Texts in Scepticism ISSN: 25689614 ISBN: 9783110591040 Year: Volume: 6 Pages: 232 DOI: 10.1515/9783110591040 Language: English
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: Philosophy
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-06 16:06:17
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Sceptical Paths gathers a variety of innovative studies that inquire into the presence and function of sceptical elements, strategies, and approaches in various traditions throughout Ancient, Medieval, Modern, and contemporary philosophy. Special attention is given to the place of sceptical argumentation in religious authors, challenging commonly held distinctions within the historiography of scepticism, and introduction of lesser-known thinkers.

Emotion, Reason and Action in Kant

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ISBN: 9781350078369 9781350078376 9781350078383 Year: Language: English
Publisher: Bloomsbury Academic Grant: Knowledge Unlatched - 102499
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-15 11:21:16
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This book explores how, in Kant’s world view, our actions are informed, contextualized and dependent on the tension between emotion and reason. Arguing that affects and passions are illnesses of the mind, because both hinder the sovereignty of reason, Borges demonstrates Kant’s recognition of the malleability of reason. To this end, the book explores the full range of negative and positive emotions in Kant’s work, including self-control, compassion, sympathy, as well as anger. Kant’s argument on the gendered nature of emotion, that women’s innate morality disciplined men’s tendency to behave in immoral ways, is also discussed. Finally, Borges shows how Kant’s theory of emotion includes both physiological and cognitive aspects.Emotion, Reason and Action in Kant is an important new contribution to Kant Studies, suitable for students of Kant, ethics, and moral psychology.

Keywords

Philosophy --- Philosophy --- Immanuel Kant --- Emotion --- Reason

From Assessing to Conserving Biodiversity

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: History, Philosophy and Theory of the Life Sciences ISBN: 9783030109912 Year: Pages: 452 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-10991-2 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Environmental Sciences --- Ecology --- Philosophy
Added to DOAB on : 2020-02-04 11:21:11
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This open access book features essays written by philosophers, biologists, ecologists and conservation scientists facing the current biodiversity crisis. Despite increasing communication, accelerating policy and management responses, and notwithstanding improving ecosystem assessment and endangered species knowledge, conserving biodiversity continues to be more a concern than an accomplished task. Why is it so? The overexploitation of natural resources by our species is a frequently recognised factor, while the short-term economic interests of governments and stakeholders typically clash with the burdens that implementing conservation actions imply. But this is not the whole story. This book develops a different perspective on the problem by exploring the conceptual challenges and practical defiance posed by conserving biodiversity, namely: on the one hand, the difficulties in defining what biodiversity is and characterizing that “thing” to which the word ‘biodiversity’ refers to; on the other hand, the reasons why assessing biodiversity and putting in place effective conservation actions is arduous. ; Features essays that are explicitly critical of the species approach to biodiversity Presents bio-philosophical perspectives on the interaction between biodiversity’s units, levels, and scales Serves as an interdisciplinary contribution to the emergent field of biodiversity studies

Happiness and Utility

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9781787350489 Year: Pages: 332 DOI: 10.14324/111.9781787350489 Language: English
Publisher: UCL Press
Subject: Law --- Political Science --- Philosophy
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-01 11:21:02
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Happiness and Utility brings together experts on utilitarianism to explore the concept of happiness within the utilitarian tradition, situating it in earlier eighteenth-century thinkers and working through some of its developments at the end of the nineteenth and beginning of the twentieth centuries. Drawing on a range of philosophical and historical approaches to the study of the central idea of utilitarianism, the chapters provide a rich set of insights into a founding component of ethics and modern political and economic thought, as well as political and economic practice. In doing so, the chapters examine the multiple dimensions of utilitarianism and the contested interpretations of this standard for judgement in morality and public policy.

Keywords

philosophy --- Bentham --- utilitarianism --- ethics --- law

Discourse on the State of the Jews. Bilingual Edition

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Book Series: Studies and Texts in Scepticism ISSN: 25689614 ISBN: 9783110527988 Year: Volume: 7 Pages: 395 DOI: 10.1515/9783110527988 Language: English / Italian
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: Religion
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-06 16:06:17
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In 1638, a small book of no more than 92 pages in octavo was published “appresso Gioanne Calleoni” under the title “Discourse on the State of the Jews and in particular those dwelling in the illustrious city of Venice.” It was dedicated to the Doge of Venice and his counsellors, who are labelled “lovers of Truth.” The author of the book was a certain Simone (Simḥa) Luzzatto, a native of Venice, where he lived and died, serving as rabbi for over fifty years during the course of the seventeenth century.Luzzatto’s political thesis is simple and, at the same time, temerarious, if not revolutionary: Venice can put an end to its political decline, he argues, by offering the Jews a monopoly on overseas commercial activity. This plan is highly recommendable because the Jews are “wellsuited for trade,” much more so than others (such as “foreigners,” for example). The rabbi opens his argument by recalling that trade and usury are the only occupations permitted to Jews. Within the confines of their historical situation, the Venetian Jews became particularly skilled at trade with partners from the Eastern Mediterranean countries. Luzzatto’s argument is that this talent could be put at the service of the Venetian government in order to maintain – or, more accurately, recover – its political importance as an intermediary between East and West. He was the first to define the role of the Jews on the basis of their economic and social functions, disregarding the classic categorisation of Judaism’s alleged privileged religious status in world history.Nonetheless, going beyond the socio-economic arguments of the book, it is essential to point out Luzzatto’s resort to sceptical strategies in order to plead in defence of the Venetian Jews. It is precisely his philosophical and political scepticism that makes Luzzatto’s texts so unique.This edition aims to grant access to his works and thought to English-speaking readers and scholars. By approaching his texts from this point

Echoes of No Thing: Thinking between Heidegger and Dōgen

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ISBN: 9781950192014 97819501920201 Year: Pages: 210 DOI: 10.21983/P3.0239.1.00 Language: English
Publisher: punctum books
Subject: Philosophy
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-26 11:21:03
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Echoes of No Thing seeks to understand the space between thinking which Martin Heidegger and the 13th-century Zen patriarch Eihei Dōgen explore in their writing and teachings. Heidegger most clearly attempts this in Contributions to Philosophy (of the Event) and Dōgen in his Shōbōgenzō, a collection of fascicles which he compiled in his lifetime. Both thinkers draw us towards thinking, instead of merely defining systems of thought. Both Heidegger and Dōgen imagine possibilities not apparent in the world we currently inhabit, but notably, find possible, through a refashioning of thinking as a soteriological reimagining that clears space for the presencing of an authentic experience in the space which emerges between certainties. Jenkins elucidates this soteriological reimagining through a close reading of both authors’ conceptions of time and space, and by developing a practice of listening that is attuned to the echoes that resonate between the two thinkers. While Heidegger often wrote about new beginnings (as well as about gathering oneself, preparing the site, clearings, and practicing) in preparation for the evental un-concealing of truth, nowhere is this as present as in the enigmatic, difficult, and in fact beautiful, Contributions. To call a text beautiful, especially a work of philosophy, risks committing an act of disingenuity, and yet Contributions, like Jacques Derrida’s Glas or Walter Benjamin’s unfinished Arcades Project, rises to this acclaim through its very resistance to a system, its refusal to be easily digested, or even understood. Contributions is unfinished, partial, even at times muttered; it is the beginning of a thinking which takes place on a path and as such cannot imagine—or refuse—its final destination. It invites us to take up towards, but not to insist on, its thinking; it is a “turn” away from the reason and logic of a technologized world and returns philosophy—as a thinking—to a place of wonder and awe. Dōgen’s Shōbogenzō, from another culture and time entirely, is also a beautiful text, for similar reasons. The Shōbogenzō, gathered first as a series of talks given by Eihei Dōgen (and later composed as written texts) details the process of understanding which leads, for Dōgen, to a position of pure seeing, or satori, and yet these talks are not simply rules for monks, nor merely imprecations and demands for a laity; rather, they open a being’s thinking to the possibility of something purely other and work as a transition across worlds that also opens us to an other world. What both thinkers illustrate, as do the other thinkers drawn on in this project—most notably, those philosophers associated with the Kyoto School, who were both intimately aware of Dōgen’s work, and studied, or studied with, Heidegger—is that world is not a fixed, stable entity; rather it is a fugal composition of possibility, of as yet untraversed—and at times un-traversable—spaces. Echoes of No Thing seeks to examine, within the lacunal eddies of be-coming’s arrival, that space between which both thinkers point towards as possible sites of new beginnings.

Non-Conceptual Negativity: Damaged Reflections on Turkey

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9781950192038 9781950192045 Year: Pages: 142 DOI: 10.21983/P3.0247.1.00 Language: English
Publisher: punctum books
Subject: Languages and Literatures
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-12 11:21:02
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Non-Conceptual Negativity: Damaged Reflections on Turkey critiques those who have accused Deleuze of an unbounded affirmation which, according to them, has played directly into the hands of capitalist modes of production. Yet no one has acknowledged that under the aegis of nano-fascism, late capitalism has grown into Neanderthal capitalism, invented and developed in laboratory countries like Turkey with the aid of an international Neanderthal league. Layer upon layer, Aracagök explains in fragmentary fashion that it is not only a matter of how Turkey has grown into a prime laboratory of nano-fascism with the aid of the US and the European Union, but also how the results obtained from this laboratory are put into practice in different countries under Neanderthal capitalism, enslaving each and every one of us into accepting even the position of suicide bomber. As none of us is exempted from nano-fascism today, perhaps it is timely to reconsider the ways in which Deleuzian thought is appropriated in the form of an unquestioned affirmation of everything and how its critique has ended up in an old-fashioned formulation of the in-dividual according to a party program. If this all goes to show that we are face to face with a route different from the accepted forms of affirmation — that is, if we are all affirmed and seem to be happily affirming life as it is as a result of the Neanderthal manipulation of the negative — then isn’t it timely to rethink the Deleuzian affirmation in its non-originary origin with regard to Adorno’s resistance against affirmation? That is, the double negation never ends up in affirmation, and if it does so, it might mean your negation is not strong enough.

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