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P-type ATPases in Health and Disease

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889457113 Year: Pages: 256 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-711-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Physiology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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P-type ATPases are a large group of evolutionary related ion and lipid pumps that have in common that they catalyze a transient phosphorylated intermediate at a key conserved aspartate residue within the pump in order to function. While all the P-type ATPases perform active transport across cellular membranes, they have different transport specificities and serve diverse physiological functions. The ion pumps of the P-type ATPase family create electrochemical gradients that are essential for transepithelial transport, nutrient uptake and membrane potential. They mediate cellular signaling and provide the ligands for metalloenzymes. Phospholipid flippases, also members of the P-type ATPase superfamily, regulate the asymmetric lipid distribution across the lipid bilayer and are critical for the biogenesis of cell membranes. Since all of these ATPases serve fundamental cellular functions, malfunctioning is associated with various pathophysiological processes and dysfunctions of P-type ATPases are known to contribute to cardiovascular, neurological, renal and metabolic diseases. However, with the ever growing knowledge about the diseases associated with the malfunction of P-type ATPases, they are also promising targets for future drug development. In eukaryotes the most prominent examples of P-type ATPases are the Na+,K+-ATPase (sodium pump), the H+-ATPase (proton pump), the H+,K+-ATPase (proton-potassium pump) and the Ca2+-ATPases (calcium pumps). Mutations in the alpha2 and alpha3 subunit of Na,K-ATPase have been associated with neurological diseases, including rapid-onset dystonia-parkinsonism, familial hemiplegic migraine and alternating hemiplegia of childhood. Dysregulation and loss of expression of Na,K-ATPase and plasma membrane Ca-ATPases may be involved in cancer progression. Malfunctioning of the Ca-ATPases is also thought to contribute to hypertension and neurodegenerative diseases and mutations can cause cardiac dysfunction, deafness, hypertension and cerebellar ataxia. Mutations in the SERCA calcium pumps can cause heart failure, Brody myopathy and Darier disease and mutations in the Cu-ATPase genes cause Menkes and Wilson disease. Deficiencies in phospholipid flippases have been linked to progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis, obesity, diabetes, hearing loss and neurological diseases.

Beyond Borders: Myotonic Dystrophies - A European Perception

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889457090 Year: Pages: 148 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-709-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Myotonic dystrophies (DMs) are pleotropic multisystemic diseases. These dominantly transmitted repeat disorders affect multiple organs of the human body at all ages – from the newborns to the elderly. The present Research Topic represents a timely addition to the expanding body of evidence which aims to provide novel perspectives in our understanding of myotonic dystrophies. This collection of original contributions and standpoint reviews from multiple leading DM centres in Europe describes the state of the art for the characterization of the DMs diseases, the development of molecular strategies to target its multisystemic nature, and provides evidence of screening and testing novel therapeutic avenues.

Tsunami Science and Engineering II

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ISBN: 9783039216727 9783039216734 Year: Pages: 194 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-673-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Earthquake-tsunamis, including the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami and the 2011 T?hoku Tsunami in Japan, serve as tragic reminders that such waves pose a major natural hazard. Landslide-tsunamis, including the 1958 Lituya Bay case, may exceed 150 m in height, and similar waves generated in lakes and reservoirs may overtop dams and cause significant devastation. This book includes nine peer-review articles from some of the leading experts in the field of tsunami research. The collection represents a wide range of topics covering (i) wave generation, (ii) wave propagation, and (iii) their effects. Within (i), a tsunami source combining an underwater fault rupture and a landslide are addressed in the laboratory. Within (ii), frequency dispersion with the nonlinear shallow-water equations is considered and a detailed account of the 1755 Lisbon earthquake, tsunami, and fire in downtown Lisbon is presented. Two articles involve all three phases (i) to (iii), including runup and dam over-topping. Within (iii), a new semi-empirical equation for runup is introduced and the interaction of tsunamis with bridges and pipelines is investigated in large laboratory experiments. This state-of-the-art collection of articles is expected to improve modelling and mitigate the destructive effects of tsunamis and inspire many future research activities in this challenging and exciting research field.

Semiotische Effizienz interfachlicher Sprache-Bild-Textsorten

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Book Series: Forum für Fachsprachen-Forschung ISBN: 9783732903009 9783732993543 9783732993642 Year: Pages: 488 DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_1006684 Language: German
Publisher: Frank & Timme
Subject: Science (General) --- Linguistics
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-08 11:21:03
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Communicative efficiency can be measured with conventions. Besides linguistic means, pictures and diagrams are also an expression of such conventions. In the practice of technical editing, this refers to multimodal text types with technical language elements, photographs, technical drawings, various types of diagrams, etc. Alexander Holste uses the example of the text type specification sheet to show how an inter-disciplinary team of engineers, lawyers, business economists, etc. negotiates these conventions. The different, technically justified ideas of the text type conventions, especially with regard to the choice of multimodal means of expression, become clearly apparent. Requirement specifications are created in the context of the tendering of public contracts by public authorities. Since such contracts represent an important field of work for the companies involved, the efficient design of the specifications is highly relevant from a business management point of view. Alexander Holste, Dr. phil., studied German as well as business administration in Essen and Turin and headed the technical editorial department of a public transport company before he started teaching professional and scientific writing at the University of Duisburg-Essen in 2009, especially for engineering scientists. His research interests lie in the fields of semiotics, text linguistics, technical communication and writing didactics.

Dietary Intake and Type 2 Diabetes

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ISBN: 9783039217045 9783039217052 Year: Pages: 322 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-705-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-07 09:08:26
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The prevalence of diabetes is on the increase in the UK and worldwide, partly due to changes in lifestyle which predispose individuals to overweight and obesity. It is estimated that about 90% of the currently diagnosed adults have type 2 diabetes, and based on the World Health Organisation (WHO) report, about 422 million adults were living with diabetes in 2014 compared with 108 million in 1980; this condition caused about 1.5 million deaths in 2012. In the United States of America, it is estimated that about 30.3 million adults are living with diabetes, with a further 1.5 million new diabetes cases diagnosed every year, representing an increasing prevalence of this condition. Diabetes represents a major public health challenge, despite advances in technology and the pharmaceutical industry. These problems may be in the form of acute or long-term complications. Therefore, in order to attenuate the problems of diabetes, management strategies usually include lifestyle changes such as increased physical activity and dietary interventions. Studies which evaluate the role of nutrition in the management of type 2 diabetes often involve human and animal models as these approaches enable us to have a broader and more in-depth understanding of the condition. In some cases, diabetes may co-exist with other conditions, such as stroke, and these may present unique challenges with regard to nutritional interventions. This Special Issue aims to evaluate the risk factors associated with type 2 diabetes and the role of the diet in the management of people with this condition. This evidence is drawn from both human and animal studies.

Keywords

aronia --- ginseng --- mushroom --- pancreatectomy --- type 2 diabetes --- gut microbiome --- insulin secretion --- energy restricted diet --- low energy diet --- carbohydrate restricted diet --- low carbohydrate diet --- diabetes --- Japanese --- tempeh --- lactic acid bacteria --- short chain fatty acids --- metabolic syndrome --- high fat diet --- feces --- type 2 diabetes mellitus --- peanut --- almond --- glycemic control --- body mass index --- lipids --- interleukin-6 --- muscle --- insulin resistance --- free fatty acids (FFA) --- diabetes --- rosemary extract --- AMPK --- prediabetes --- type 2 diabetes --- total body fat --- total body lean --- appendicular fat --- appendicular lean --- body composition --- cohort study --- micronutrients --- trace elements --- food --- glycated hemoglobin A --- hyperglycemia --- dietary pattern --- triglyceride --- high-density lipoprotein cholesterol --- type 2 diabetes --- type 2 diabetes mellitus --- nutrition --- DASH --- diet quality --- diabetes management --- dietary intake --- longitudinal analysis --- lifestyle management --- carbohydrate counting --- protein and fat counting --- insulin dosage --- glucose monitoring --- diabetes mellitus --- type 1 diabetes --- type 2 diabetes --- Hedychium coronarium --- type 2 diabetes --- aldosterone --- streptozotocin --- metabolic syndrome --- folk medicine --- calcium intake --- dairy products --- vitamin D --- type 2 diabetes --- diabetes --- diabetes reversal --- bariatric surgery --- very-low-calorie --- low-carbohydrate --- zinc intake --- zinc status --- trace elements --- type 2 diabetes mellitus --- systematic review --- meta-analysis --- epidemiology --- PUFA --- polyunsaturated fatty acids --- glycemic control --- nuts --- fish --- fish oil --- vegetable oil --- type 2 diabetes --- vitamin D deficiency --- 25-OH-D --- women --- cardiovascular risk factors --- T2DM --- obesity --- glycaemic index --- incretins --- subjective appetite --- isomaltulose --- sucromalt --- nutritional supplement --- type 2 diabetes --- gestational diabetes --- glycemic index --- randomised controlled trial --- lipid profile --- inflammatory parameters --- diabetes specific formula --- standard formula --- type 2 diabetes --- enteral nutrition --- enteral tube feeding --- lipids --- fasting blood glucose --- glycated haemoglobin --- type 2 diabetes --- dietary intake --- glycaemic control --- dietary management approaches --- micronutrients --- macronutrients --- nutrition --- chronic conditions --- lipid parameters

Carbohydrate Intake in Non-communicable Disease Prevention and Treatment

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ISBN: 9783038978183 9783038978190 Year: Pages: 156 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-819-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
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In 2011, carbohydrates provided 63% of the dietary energy intake to the world&rsquo;s population. Historically, carbohydrate-rich diets have been associated with good health and longevity but there has been a move away from traditional carbohydrate-rich diets, with refined carbohydrate taking much criticism for contributing to non-communicable disease. The aim of this Special Issue is to discuss the appropriate use of environmentally sustainable carbohydrate-rich foods in the modern diet in developing and developed countries in the context of prevention and treatment of non-communicable disease.

Personalized Nutrition

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ISBN: 9783039214457 9783039214464 Year: Pages: 154 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-446-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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“Personalised Nutrition” represents any initiative that attempts to provide tailor-made healthy eating advice based on the nutritional needs of each individual, as these are dictated by the individual’s behaviour, phenotype and/or genotype, and their interactions. This Special Issue of Nutrients is dedicated to the development, implementation and assessment of the effectiveness of evidence-based “Personalised Nutrition” strategies. In this regard, a selection of reviews and original research manuscripts will bring together the latest evidence on how lifestyle habits, physiology, nutraceuticals, gut microbiome and genetics can be integrated into nutritional solutions, specific to the needs of each individual, for maintaining health and preventing diseases.

New Lipid Lowering Therapies for Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases: Lessons from the Past and Future Challenges

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ISBN: 9783039216765 9783039216772 Year: Pages: 116 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-677-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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This book illustrates some of the most recent research efforts that have been made in lowering plasma cholesterol levels in patients with CVD. Selected articles aimed to illuminate advances and urgent challenges in the management of CVD, including disease management using statin-combined therapeutic strategies.

Water-Worked Bedload: Hydrodynamic and Mass Transport

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ISBN: 9783039213016 9783039213023 Year: Pages: 152 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-302-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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The state-of-the-art in water-worked bed hydraulics can only be examined through a careful exploration of the experimental (both laboratory and field) results via theoretical development. This book is primarily focused on the research aspects that involve a comprehensive knowledge of sediment dynamics in turbulent flows, as the most up-to-date research findings in the field are presented. It begins with two reviews on bedload transport and water-work bed experimental studies. The sediment dynamics is then analyzed from a classical perspective by applying the mean bed shear approach and additionally incorporating a statistical description for the role of turbulence. The work finally examines the local scour problems at hydraulic structures and results from field studies. It is intended as a course guide for field professionals, keeping up with modern technological developments. Therefore, as a simple prerequisite, readers should have a basic knowledge of hydraulics to an undergraduate level.

Computer Algebra in Scientific Computing

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ISBN: 9783039217304 9783039217311 Year: Pages: 160 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-731-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Although scientific computing is very often associated with numeric computations, the use of computer algebra methods in scientific computing has obtained considerable attention in the last two decades. Computer algebra methods are especially suitable for parametric analysis of the key properties of systems arising in scientific computing. The expression-based computational answers generally provided by these methods are very appealing as they directly relate properties to parameters and speed up testing and tuning of mathematical models through all their possible behaviors. This book contains 8 original research articles dealing with a broad range of topics, ranging from algorithms, data structures, and implementation techniques for high-performance sparse multivariate polynomial arithmetic over the integers and rational numbers over methods for certifying the isolated zeros of polynomial systems to computer algebra problems in quantum computing.

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