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Electromagnetic Technologies for Medical Diagnostics. Fundamental Issues, Clinical Applications and Perspectives

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ISBN: 9783038976769 Year: Pages: 240 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-677-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 10:34:31
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The content of this Special Issue will highlight papers exploring non-commutative Fourier harmonic analysis, spectral properties of aperiodic order, the hypoelliptic heat equation, and the relativistic heat equation in the context of Information Theory and Geometric Science of Information.

Sea Surface Temperature Retrievals from Remote Sensing

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ISBN: 9783038974796 9783038974802 Year: Pages: 340 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-480-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-02-14 10:39:15
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This book covers topics ranging from a detailed error analysis of SSTs to new applications employed, for example, in the study of the El Niño–La Niña Southern Oscillation, lake temperatures, and coral bleaching. New techniques for interpolation and algorithm development are presented, including improvements for cloud detection. Analysis of the pixel-to-pixel uncertainties provides insight to applications for high spatial resolutions. New approaches for the estimation and evaluation of SSTs are presented. In addition, an overview of the Climate Change Initiative, with specific applications to SST, is presented. The book provides an excellent overview of the current technology, while also highlighting new technologies and their applications to new missions.

Microwave Indices from Active and Passive Sensors for Remote Sensing Applications

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ISBN: 9783038978206 9783038978213 Year: Pages: 224 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-821-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Geography --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Past research has comprehensively assessed the capabilities of satellite sensors operating at microwave frequencies, both active (SAR, scatterometers) and passive (radiometers), for the remote sensing of Earth’s surface. Besides brightness temperature and backscattering coefficient, microwave indices, defined as a combination of data collected at different frequencies and polarizations, revealed a good sensitivity to hydrological cycle parameters such as surface soil moisture, vegetation water content, and snow depth and its water equivalent. The differences between microwave backscattering and emission at more frequencies and polarizations have been well established in relation to these parameters, enabling operational retrieval algorithms based on microwave indices to be developed. This Special Issue aims at providing an overview of microwave signal capabilities in estimating the main land parameters of the hydrological cycle, e.g., soil moisture, vegetation water content, and snow water equivalent, on both local and global scales, with a particular focus on the applications of microwave indices.

Remote Sensing of Environmental Changes in Cold Regions

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9783039215706 9783039215713 Year: Pages: 210 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-571-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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This Special Issue gathers papers reporting recent advances in the remote sensing of cold regions. It includes contributions presenting improvements in modeling microwave emissions from snow, assessment of satellite-based sea ice concentration products, satellite monitoring of ice jam and glacier lake outburst floods, satellite mapping of snow depth and soil freeze/thaw states, near-nadir interferometric imaging of surface water bodies, and remote sensing-based assessment of high arctic lake environment and vegetation recovery from wildfire disturbances in Alaska. A comprehensive review is presented to summarize the achievements, challenges, and opportunities of cold land remote sensing.

Sea Surface Salinity Remote Sensing

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ISBN: 9783039210763 9783039210770 Year: Pages: 296 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-077-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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This Special Issue gathers papers reporting research on various aspects of remote sensing of Sea Surface Salinity (SSS) and the use of satellite SSS in oceanography. It includes contributions presenting improvements in empirical or theoretical radiative transfer models; mitigation techniques of external interference such as RFI and land contamination; comparisons and validation of remote sensing products with in situ observations; retrieval techniques for improved coastal SSS monitoring, high latitude SSS and the assessment of ocean interactions with the cryosphere; and data fusion techniques combining SSS with sea surface temperature (SST). New instrument technology for the future of SSS remote sensing is also presented.

Keywords

sea surface salinity --- remote sensing --- mediterranean sea --- smos --- alboran sea --- data processing --- quality assessment --- MICAP --- forward model --- combined active/passive SSS retrieval algorithm --- different instrument configurations --- retrieval errors --- SMAP --- sea surface salinity --- Arctic Ocean --- sea ice --- river discharge --- Arctic Gateways --- sea surface salinity --- remote sensing --- aquarius --- SMAP --- retrieval algorithm --- calibration --- validation --- satellite salinity --- Gulf of Maine --- bias characteristics --- Scotian Shelf --- Aquarius satellite --- sea surface salinity --- Aquarius Validation Data System (AVDS) --- ocean salinity --- microwave remote sensing --- remote sensing --- sea surface salinity --- SMAP --- SMOS --- Gulf of Mexico --- validation --- coastal --- salinity --- upwelling --- sea surface salinity --- remote sensing --- Arctic ocean --- SMOS --- Arctic rivers --- data processing --- quality assessment --- Aquarius --- Argo --- Sea Surface Salinity --- Water Cycle Observation Mission (WCOM) --- interferometric microwave imager (IMI) --- one-dimensional (1D) aperture synthesis radiometer --- sea surface salinity (SSS) --- brightness temperature (TB) --- sea surface salinity --- microwave radiometry --- remote sensing --- calibration --- retrieval algorithm --- validation --- Aquarius --- SMOS --- SMAP --- sea surface temperature --- sea surface salinity --- SMOS --- retroflections --- surface velocity --- water transport --- salt transport --- n/a --- sea surface salinity --- ocean surface roughness --- microwave radiometry --- remote sensing --- forward model --- retrieval algorithm

Symmetry in Quantum Optics Models

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ISBN: 9783039218585 9783039218592 Year: Pages: 92 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-859-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 16:39:37
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Prototypical quantum optics models, such as the Jaynes–Cummings, Rabi, Tavis–Cummings, and Dicke models, are commonly analyzed with diverse techniques, including analytical exact solutions, mean-field theory, exact diagonalization, and so on. Analysis of these systems strongly depends on their symmetries, ranging, e.g., from a U(1) group in the Jaynes–Cummings model to a Z2 symmetry in the full-fledged quantum Rabi model. In recent years, novel regimes of light–matter interactions, namely, the ultrastrong and deep-strong coupling regimes, have been attracting an increasing amount of interest. The quantum Rabi and Dicke models in these exotic regimes present new features, such as collapses and revivals of the population, bounces of photon-number wave packets, as well as the breakdown of the rotating-wave approximation. Symmetries also play an important role in these regimes and will additionally change depending on whether the few- or many-qubit systems considered have associated inhomogeneous or equal couplings to the bosonic mode. Moreover, there is a growing interest in proposing and carrying out quantum simulations of these models in quantum platforms such as trapped ions, superconducting circuits, and quantum photonics. In this Special Issue Reprint, we have gathered a series of articles related to symmetry in quantum optics models, including the quantum Rabi model and its symmetries, Floquet topological quantum states in optically driven semiconductors, the spin–boson model as a simulator of non-Markovian multiphoton Jaynes–Cummings models, parity-assisted generation of nonclassical states of light in circuit quantum electrodynamics, and quasiprobability distribution functions from fractional Fourier transforms.

Wine Fermentation

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ISBN: 9783038976745 Year: Pages: 176 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-675-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biotechnology --- Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 11:07:22
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This book is a printed edition of the Special Issue Wine Fermentation that was published in Fermentation

Green Synthesis of Nanomaterials

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ISBN: 9783039217861 9783039217878 Year: Pages: 224 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-787-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 16:10:12
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Nanomaterials possess astonishing physical and chemical properties. They play a key role in the development of novel and effective drugs, catalysts, sensors, and pesticides, to cite just a few examples. Notably, the synthesis of nanomaterials is usually achieved with chemical and physical methods needing the use of extremely toxic chemicals or high-energy inputs. To move towards more eco-friendly processes, researchers have recently focused on so-called “green synthesis”, where microbial, animal-, and plant-borne compounds can be used as cheap reducing and stabilizing agents to fabricate nanomaterials. Green synthesis routes are cheap, environmentally sustainable, and can lead to the fabrication of nano-objects with controlled sizes and shapes—two key features determining their bioactivity.

Advancing Earth Surface Representation via Enhanced Use of Earth Observations in Monitoring and Forecasting Applications

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9783039210640 9783039210657 Year: Pages: 262 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-065-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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The representation of the Earth's surface in global monitoring and forecasting applications is moving towards capturing more of the relevant processes, while maintaining elevated computational efficiency and therefore a moderate complexity. These schemes are developed and continuously improved thanks to well instrumented field-sites that can observe coupled processes occurring at the surface–atmosphere interface (e.g., forest, grassland, cropland areas and diverse climate zones). Approaching global kilometer-scale resolutions, in situ observations alone cannot fulfil the modelling needs, and the use of satellite observation becomes essential to guide modelling innovation and to calibrate and validate new parameterization schemes that can support data assimilation applications. In this book, we review some of the recent contributions, highlighting how satellite data are used to inform Earth surface model development (vegetation state and seasonality, soil moisture conditions, surface temperature and turbulent fluxes, land-use change detection, agricultural indicators and irrigation) when moving towards global km-scale resolutions.

Higher Symmetries and Its Application in Microwave Technology, Antennas and Metamaterials

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ISBN: 9783039218769 9783039218776 Year: Pages: 98 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-877-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-07 09:08:26
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Artificial materials have been widely studied and used in photonics and microwaves in the last few decades. Recent research has proven that the introduction of specific higher symmetries in each cell of a periodic medium is an effective approach to obtain unprecedented exotic behaviors and to overcome the current limitations of these devices. For example, simple symmetries of a purely spatial type (glide or twist transformations) can have a huge impact on the properties of the resulting materials, thus defining wideband behaviors for flat lenses or large stop bands for novel EBG materials. This Special Issue opens with a novel discussion on the effect of time-reversal symmetries in antenna theory and presents new structures exploiting symmetries for antenna and microwave components, such as flat lenses, helix antennas, and gap-waveguides. Finally, new modeling methods are discussed for the study of wave propagation along glide surfaces and twist lines.

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