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3D Printed Microfluidic Devices

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ISBN: 9783038974673 9783038974680 Year: Pages: 211 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-468-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-10 09:24:00
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3D printing has revolutionized the microfabrication prototyping workflow over the past few years. With the recent improvements in 3D printing technologies, highly complex microfluidic devices can be fabricated via single-step, rapid, and cost-effective protocols as a promising alternative to the time consuming, costly and sophisticated traditional cleanroom fabrication. Microfluidic devices have enabled a wide range of biochemical and clinical applications, such as cancer screening, micro-physiological system engineering, high-throughput drug testing, and point-of-care diagnostics. Using 3D printing fabrication technologies, alteration of the design features is significantly easier than traditional fabrication, enabling agile iterative design and facilitating rapid prototyping. This can make microfluidic technology more accessible to researchers in various fields and accelerates innovation in the field of microfluidics. Accordingly, this Special Issue seeks to showcase research papers, short communications, and review articles that focus on novel methodological developments in 3D printing and its use for various biochemical and biomedical applications.

Microfluidics for Cells and Other Organisms

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ISBN: 9783039215621 9783039215638 Year: Pages: 200 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-563-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Microfluidics-based devices play an important role in creating realistic microenvironments in which cell cultures can thrive. They can, for example, be used to monitor drug toxicity and perform medical diagnostics, and be in a static-, perfusion- or droplet-based device. They can also be used to study cell-cell, cell-matrix or cell-surface interactions. Cells can be either single cells, 3D cell cultures or co-cultures. Other organisms could include bacteria, zebra fish embryo, C. elegans, to name a few.

Microscale Surface Tension and Its Applications

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ISBN: 9783039215645 9783039215652 Year: Pages: 240 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-565-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 16:10:12
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Building on advances in miniaturization and soft matter, surface tension effects are a major key to the development of soft/fluidic microrobotics. Benefiting from scaling laws, surface tension and capillary effects can enable sensing, actuation, adhesion, confinement, compliance, and other structural and functional properties necessary in micro- and nanosystems. Various applications are under development: microfluidic and lab-on-chip devices, soft gripping and manipulation of particles, colloidal and interfacial assemblies, fluidic/droplet mechatronics. The capillary action is ubiquitous in drops, bubbles and menisci, opening a broad spectrum of technological solutions and scientific investigations. Identified grand challenges to the establishment of fluidic microrobotics include mastering the dynamics of capillary effects, controlling the hysteresis arising from wetting and evaporation, improving the dispensing and handling of tiny droplets, and developing a mechatronic approach for the control and programming of surface tension effects. In this Special Issue of Micromachines, we invite contributions covering all aspects of microscale engineering relying on surface tension. Particularly, we welcome contributions on fundamentals or applications related to:Drop-botics: fluidic or surface tension-based micro/nanorobotics: capillary manipulation, gripping, and actuation, sensing, folding, propulsion and bio-inspired solutions; Control of surface tension effects: surface tension gradients, active surfactants, thermocapillarity, electrowetting, elastocapillarity; Handling of droplets, bubbles and liquid bridges: dispensing, confinement, displacement, stretching, rupture, evaporation; Capillary forces: modelling, measurement, simulation; Interfacial engineering: smart liquids, surface treatments; Interfacial fluidic and capillary assembly of colloids and devices; Biological applications of surface tension, including lab-on-chip and organ-on-chip systems. We expect novel as well as review contributions on all aspects of surface tension-based micro/nanoengineering. In line with Micromachines' policy, we also invite research proposals that introduce ideas for new applications, devices, or technologies.

Keywords

mist capillary self-alignment --- laser die transfer --- hydrophilic/superhydrophobic patterned surfaces --- microasssembly --- droplet transport --- microfluidics --- vibrations --- contact line oscillation --- asymmetric surfaces --- anisotropic ratchet conveyor --- surface tension --- capillary --- bearing --- wetting --- computational fluid dynamics --- droplet manipulation --- lab-on-a-chip --- microfluidics --- non-invasive control --- photochemical reaction --- photoresponsible surfactant --- surface tension --- two-phase flow --- wettability --- electrowetting --- actuation --- capillary pressure --- lab-on-a-chip --- Nasturtium leaf --- smart superhydrophobic surface --- hot drop --- condensation --- microtexture melting --- self-lubricating slippery surface --- wettability gradient --- electrosurgical scalpels --- anti-sticking --- soft tissue --- continuous-flow reactor --- mixing --- solutal Marangoni effect --- relaxation oscillations --- super-hydrophobic --- durable --- adhesion --- corrosive resistance --- droplet --- vibrations --- transport --- microfluidics --- self-cleaning surface --- superhydrophobic --- superhydrophilic --- superomniphobic --- microfluidics --- electrodynamic screen --- gecko setae --- micropipette-technique --- air-water surface --- oil-water interface --- soluble surfactant --- insoluble lipids --- “black lipid films” --- “droplet-interface-bilayers” --- equilibrium --- dynamic --- adsorption --- gas-microbubbles --- oil-microdroplets --- lung-surfactants --- nanoprecipitation --- microfluidics --- capillary gripper --- pick and place --- micromanufacturing --- two-photon polymerization --- stereolithography --- polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) replication --- rigid gas permeable contact lenses --- wettability --- hydrophilic --- hydrophobic --- 355 nm UV laser --- surface treatment --- microstructure --- contact angle --- droplets --- liquid bridge --- microfabrication --- micromanipulation --- pick-and-place --- soft robotics --- surface tension --- wetting

Experimental and Numerical Studies in Biomedical Engineering

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ISBN: 9783039212477 9783039212484 Year: Pages: 130 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-248-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 16:10:12
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The term ‘biomedical engineering’ refers to the application of the principles and problem-solving techniques of engineering to biology and medicine. Biomedical engineering is an interdisciplinary branch, as many of the problems health professionals are confronted with have traditionally been of interest to engineers because they involve processes that are fundamental to engineering practice. Biomedical engineers employ common engineering methods to comprehend, modify, or control biological systems, and to design and manufacture devices that can assist in the diagnosis and therapy of human diseases. This Special Issue of Fluids aims to be a forum for scientists and engineers from academia and industry to present and discuss recent developments in the field of biomedical engineering. It contains papers that tackle, both numerically (Computational Fluid Dynamics studies) and experimentally, biomedical engineering problems, with a diverse range of studies focusing on the fundamental understanding of fluid flows in biological systems, modelling studies on complex rheological phenomena and molecular dynamics, design and improvement of lab-on-a-chip devices, modelling of processes inside the human body as well as drug delivery applications. Contributions have focused on problems associated with subjects that include hemodynamical flows, arterial wall shear stress, targeted drug delivery, FSI/CFD and Multiphysics simulations, molecular dynamics modelling and physiology-based biokinetic models.

Micro/Nano Devices for Blood Analysis

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ISBN: 9783039218240 9783039218257 Year: Pages: 174 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-825-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-07 09:08:26
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The development of micro- and nanodevices for blood analysis is an interdisciplinary subject that demands the integration of several research fields, such as biotechnology, medicine, chemistry, informatics, optics, electronics, mechanics, and micro/nanotechnologies. Over the last few decades, there has been a notably fast development in the miniaturization of mechanical microdevices, later known as microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), which combine electrical and mechanical components at a microscale level. The integration of microflow and optical components in MEMS microdevices, as well as the development of micropumps and microvalves, have promoted the interest of several research fields dealing with fluid flow and transport phenomena happening in microscale devices. Microfluidic systems have many advantages over their macroscale counterparts, offering the ability to work with small sample volumes, providing good manipulation and control of samples, decreasing reaction times, and allowing parallel operations in one single step. As a consequence, microdevices offer great potential for the development of portable and point-of-care diagnostic devices, particularly for blood analysis. Moreover, the recent progress in nanotechnology has contributed to its increasing popularity, and has expanded the areas of application of microfluidic devices, including in the manipulation and analysis of flows on the scale of DNA, proteins, and nanoparticles (nanoflows). In this Special Issue, we invited contributions (original research papers, review articles, and brief communications) that focus on the latest advances and challenges in micro- and nanodevices for diagnostics and blood analysis, micro- and nanofluidics, technologies for flow visualization, MEMS, biochips, and lab-on-a-chip devices and their application to research and industry. We hope to provide an opportunity to the engineering and biomedical community to exchange knowledge and information and to bring together researchers who are interested in the general field of MEMS and micro/nanofluidics and, especially, in its applications to biomedical areas.

Selected Papers from the 8th Symposium on Micro-Nano Science and Technology on Micromachines

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ISBN: 9783038977285 9783038977292 Year: Pages: 154 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-729-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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This Special Issue presents selected papers from the 8th

Gas Flows in Microsystems

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ISBN: 9783039215423 9783039215430 Year: Pages: 220 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-543-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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The last two decades have witnessed a rapid development of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) involving gas microflows in various technical fields. Gas microflows can, for example, be observed in microheat exchangers designed for chemical applications or for cooling of electronic components, in fluidic microactuators developed for active flow control purposes, in micronozzles used for the micropropulsion of nano and picosats, in microgas chromatographs, analyzers or separators, in vacuum generators and in Knudsen micropumps, as well as in some organs-on-a-chip, such as artificial lungs. These flows are rarefied due to the small MEMS dimensions, and the rarefaction can be increased by low-pressure conditions. The flows relate to the slip flow, transition or free molecular regimes and can involve monatomic or polyatomic gases and gas mixtures. Hydrodynamics and heat and mass transfer are strongly impacted by rarefaction effects, and temperature-driven microflows offer new opportunities for designing original MEMS for gas pumping or separation. Accordingly, this Special Issue seeks to showcase research papers, short communications, and review articles that focus on novel theoretical and numerical models or data, as well as on new experimental results and technics, for improving knowledge on heat and mass transfer in gas microflows. Papers dealing with the development of original gas MEMS are also welcome.

Keywords

pressure drop --- microchannels --- heat sinks --- slip flow --- electronic cooling --- Knudsen pump --- thermally induced flow --- gas mixtures --- direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) --- microfluidic --- rarefied gas flows --- micro-scale flows --- Knudsen layer --- computational fluid dynamics (CFD) --- OpenFOAM --- Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) --- Nano-Electro-Mechanical Systems (NEMS) --- backward facing step --- gaseous rarefaction effects --- fractal surface topography --- modified Reynolds equation --- aerodynamic effect --- bearing characteristics --- underexpansion --- Fanno flow --- flow choking --- compressibility --- binary gas mixing --- micro-mixer --- DSMC --- splitter --- mixing length --- control mixture composition --- preconcentrator --- microfluidics --- miniaturized gas chromatograph --- BTEX --- PID detector --- ultraviolet light-emitting diode (UV LED) --- spectrophotometry --- UV absorption --- gas sensors --- Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) --- toluene --- hollow core waveguides --- capillary tubes --- gas mixing --- pulsed flow --- modular micromixer --- multi-stage micromixer --- modelling --- photoionization detector --- microfluidics --- microfabrication --- volatile organic compound (VOC) detection --- toluene --- supersonic microjets --- Pitot tube --- Knudsen pump --- thermal transpiration --- vacuum micropump --- rarefied gas flow --- kinetic theory --- microfabrication --- photolithography --- microfluidics --- resonant micro-electromechanical-systems (MEMS) --- micro-mirrors --- out-of-plane comb actuation --- fluid damping --- analytical solution --- FE analysis --- miniaturization --- gas flows in micro scale --- measurement and control --- integrated micro sensors --- advanced measurement technologies --- n/a

Protein Crystallization under the Presence of an Electric Field

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ISBN: 9783038975199 9783038975205 Year: Pages: 90 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-520-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Electrical and Nuclear Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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This book entitled “Protein Crystallization under the Presence of an Electric Field” covers recent trends and original contributions on the use of electric fields (internal and external) for applications for nucleation control and the effect on the kinetics of crystallization processes. This book also includes basic strategies for growing crystals of biological macromolecules for characterization via X-ray and neutron diffraction as well as using modern X-ray-free electron-lasers. There are six main topics covered on this book, including recent insights into the crystallization process from nucleation and growth peculiarities, when using different kinds of electric fields; the effect of external electric fields on the kinetics of the dislocation-free growth of model proteins; the use of very strong external electric fields for the crystallization of a model protein glucose isomerase; and the use of alternant electric fields using different kinds of pulses and their combination with strong magnetic fields. There are also contributions related to applications in developing electron-transfer devices as well as graphene-based platforms for electrocrystallization and in situ X-ray diffraction characterization.

Micro- and Nanofluidics for Bionanoparticle Analysis

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ISBN: 9783039215942 9783039215959 Year: Pages: 138 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-595-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Bionanoparticles such as microorganisms and exosomes are recoganized as important targets for clinical applications, food safety, and environmental monitoring. Other nanoscale biological particles, includeing liposomes, micelles, and functionalized polymeric particles are widely used in nanomedicines. The recent deveopment of microfluidic and nanofluidic technologies has enabled the separation and anslysis of these species in a lab-on-a-chip platform, while there are still many challenges to address before these analytical tools can be adopted in practice. For example, the complex matrices within which these species reside in create a high background for their detection. Their small dimension and often low concentration demand creative strategies to amplify the sensing signal and enhance the detection speed. This Special Issue aims to recruit recent discoveries and developments of micro- and nanofluidic strategies for the processing and analysis of biological nanoparticles. The collection of papers will hopefully bring out more innovative ideas and fundamental insights to overcome the hurdles faced in the separation and detection of bionanoparticles.

Computational Aerodynamic Modeling of Aerospace Vehicles

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ISBN: 9783038976103 Year: Pages: 294 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-611-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Transportation
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-08 11:42:05
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Currently, the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solutions is considered as the state-of-the-art in the modeling of unsteady nonlinear flow physics and offers an early and improved understanding of air vehicle aerodynamics and stability and control characteristics. This Special Issue covers recent computational efforts on simulation of aerospace vehicles including fighter aircraft, rotorcraft, propeller driven vehicles, unmanned vehicle, projectiles, and air drop configurations. The complex flow physics of these configurations pose significant challenges in CFD modeling. Some of these challenges include prediction of vortical flows and shock waves, rapid maneuvering aircraft with fast moving control surfaces, and interactions between propellers and wing, fluid and structure, boundary layer and shock waves. Additional topic of interest in this Special Issue is the use of CFD tools in aircraft design and flight mechanics. The problem with these applications is the computational cost involved, particularly if this is viewed as a brute-force calculation of vehicle’s aerodynamics through its flight envelope. To make progress in routinely using of CFD in aircraft design, methods based on sampling, model updating and system identification should be considered.

Keywords

wake --- bluff body --- square cylinder --- DDES --- URANS --- turbulence model --- large eddy simulation --- Taylor–Green vortex --- numerical dissipation --- modified equation analysis --- truncation error --- MUSCL --- dynamic Smagorinsky subgrid-scale model --- kinetic energy dissipation --- computational fluid dynamics (CFD) --- microfluidics --- numerical methods --- gasdynamics --- shock-channel --- microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) --- discontinuous Galerkin finite element method (DG–FEM) --- fluid mechanics --- characteristics-based scheme --- multi-directional --- Riemann solver --- Godunov method --- bifurcation --- wind tunnel --- neural networks --- modeling --- unsteady aerodynamic characteristics --- high angles of attack --- hypersonic --- wake --- chemistry --- slender-body --- angle of attack --- detection --- after-body --- S-duct diffuser --- flow distortion --- flow control --- vortex generators --- aeroelasticity --- reduced-order model --- flutter --- wind gust responses --- computational fluid dynamics --- convolution integral --- sharp-edge gust --- reduced order aerodynamic model --- geometry --- meshing --- aerodynamics --- CPACS --- MDO --- VLM --- Euler --- CFD --- variable fidelity --- multi-fidelity --- aerodynamic performance --- formation --- VLM --- RANS --- hybrid reduced-order model --- quasi-analytical --- aeroelasticity --- flexible wings --- subsonic --- wing–propeller aerodynamic interaction --- p-factor --- installed propeller --- overset grid approach

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MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (13)


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english (13)


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2019 (13)