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Ecological Management of Pine Forests

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ISBN: 9783038974253 / 9783038974260 Year: Pages: 262 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-426-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Sciences --- Forestry --- Environmental Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-25 11:16:47
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Natural pine forests characterize many landscapes preserved over time, either as a result of a specific forest management practice or a disturbance. In the event of a lack of management over a long period of time, these formations could evolve with increasingly chaotic structures towards other formations. This process can lead to landscape change, the spread of insects and pathogens, and the risk of fires and watercourse obstruction. Pine forest plantations should be considered as transient tree populations, destined to evolve into more complex and stable formations. However, sometimes they should be preserved for their cultural value. Careful management of these forests also takes into account the close relationship between forest and human settlements. As a first step, ecological management assumes the definition of these two macro types. These approaches include the application of integrated methods for determining the reference conditions of the main functional and structural ecosystem components of forests. The reference conditions are the historical (or natural) variability range of ecological structures and processes, reflecting the recent evolution and dynamic interaction of biotic and abiotic conditions and patterns of disturbance. These conditions form the basis for comparison with contemporary ecosystem processes and structures and are a frame of reference for designing ecological restoration treatments and conservation plans. The productive aspects must not be overlooked; rather, they have to be considered, planned, and managed with a perspective of sustainability and ecosystem functionality. This should be considered for a common approach to forest management, for a forest rehabilitation, and for forest restoration activities.

Richard Falck, Mykologe - Lebensweg und Werk eines jüdischen Gelehrten (1873-1955)

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ISBN: 101787520191154 9783863954062 Year: Language: German
Publisher: Universitätsverlag Göttingen
Subject: Agriculture (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-05-25 11:21:16
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Erzählt wird die Geschichte eines Mannes jüdischer Herkunft, der in Breslau seine Begeisterung für die Mykologie entdeckte und schon nach sehr kurzer Zeit zu den Besten seines Faches gehörte. Als zentraler Quellenbestand diente der wissenschaftliche Nachlass von Richard Falck. Die Lebensspanne Falcks erstreckt sich vom Deutschen Kaiserreich über die Weimarer Republik, deren Anhänger er war, und das „Dritte Reich“ bis zur Gründung des Staates Israel. Sie endet in den Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika, wo Falck seine letzten Lebensjahre verbrachte. Hoffnungsvoll baute Falck seit 1910 an der Kgl. Preußischen Forstakademie in Hann. Münden ein modernes Forschungsinstitut für Technische Mykologie auf. Das Blatt wendete sich, als nach dem Ende des Ersten Weltkriegs radikalisierte Studenten eine antisemitische Hetze gegen Falck und sein Institut entfachten. Der Band schildert Falcks privaten und wissenschaftlichen Lebensweg vor und nach seiner Flucht aus Deutschland 1933. Zentrale Aspekte sind die Umstände seiner Verfolgung und Vertreibung, Stationen der Flucht und des Exils in Palästina (Israel) und den USA sowie Falcks Entwicklung als Forscher. Eine wichtige Frage ist, welche Rolle die Familie, besonders seine Ehefrau Olga, Freunde und Förderer spielten. Diese Studie setzt die Forschungen zur neueren Geschichte der Fakultät für Forstwissenschaften und Waldökologie der Universität Göttingen fort. Mit RichardFalck wird ein Wissenschaftler gewürdigt, der Außergewöhnliches geleistet hat; der engagiert für die akademische Freiheit gekämpft und seinen Glauben an die Möglichkeit friedlicher Koexistenz nicht verloren hat.

The agroecological transition of agricultural systems in the Global South

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9782759230570 9782759230587 Year: Pages: 360 DOI: 10.35690/978-2-7592-3057-0 Language: English
Publisher: éditions Quae
Subject: Agriculture (General) --- Geology --- Earth Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-02-11 11:21:32
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"Food security, jobs, ecological transition of agricultural production models and consumption patterns... Agroecology could be one of the solutions to meet the future challenges of humanity. Part of the United Nation’s 17 Sustainable Development Goals, it requires a lasting commitment from all of us. To meet the food and economic needs of growing rural and urban communities, fulfil increasingly demanding consumer requirements, conserve natural resources and adapt to climate change, we have to find new ways of agricultural production.&#xD;&#xD;Over the last decade, CIRAD and AFD have conducted experiments in agroecological transitions with farmers, researchers, development agents and policymakers in many countries of the Global South. In this book, they reflect on the future of agroecology as a way for agriculture in the developing world to adapt to global changes and they examine the conditions necessary for a successful agroecological transition."&#xD;

La transition agro-écologique des agricultures du Sud

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9782759228232 9782759228225 9782759228249 Year: Pages: 368 DOI: 10.35690/978-2-7592-2824-9 Language: French
Publisher: éditions Quae
Subject: Geology --- Earth Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-02-11 11:21:33
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Food security, jobs, ecological transition of production and consumption modes and more One of the seventeen Sustainable Development Goals, agro-ecology could be one solution for meeting the forthcoming challenges for humanity. Cirad and AFD set out their thoughts on agro-ecology as a means for Southern agricultural systems to adapt to global change and on conditions for a successful agro-ecological transition.&#xD;

Participatory Forestry: Involvement, Information and Science

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ISBN: 9783039213313 / 9783039213320 Year: Pages: 250 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-332-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Public participation in forestry is a key issue in ensuring the democratization of decision-making processes, increasing the social acceptance of policies, and reducing conflicts between forest users. Public participation also provides an opportunity for the improvement of the quality of information, public debate, personal reflection, and professionalization, raising awareness. Participation in forestry implies the involvement of stakeholders (the interest group participation approach) and/or the involvement of people (the direct citizen participation approach) in the decision-making process. Since the UN Conference on Environment and Development (1992), new norms and perspectives have emerged encouraging a bottom-up approach in forest governance. Consequently, several participatory techniques, methods, and tools for stakeholder involvement in forest governance have been developed and applied. These different experiences allow us to learn from failures and successes and contribute to knowledge improvement. The future challenges of participatory forestry deal with adaptation to changes in ecological, social, and economic contexts.

Hardwood Reforestation and Restoration

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038977308 / 9783038977315 Year: Pages: 192 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-731-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Ecology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:28
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Hardwood-dominated temperate forests (mostly in Eastern North America, Europe, North East Asia) provide valuable renewable timber and numerous ecosystem services. Many of these forests have been subjected to harvesting or conversion to agriculture, sometimes over centuries, that have greatly reduced their former extent and diversity. Natural regeneration following harvesting or during post-agricultural succession has often failed to restore these forests adequately. Past harvesting practices and the valuable timber of some species have led to a reduction in their abundance. The loss of apex predators has caused herbivore populations to increase and exert intense browsing pressure on hardwood regeneration, often preventing it. Particularly important are fruit, nut and acorn bearing species, because of their vital role in forest food webs and biodiversity. Restoring hardwood species to natural forests in which they were formerly more abundant will require a number of forest management actions (e.g., resistant hybrids, deer exclosures/protectors, enrichment planting, underplanting, etc.). Similarly, reforesting areas that were once natural forests will also require new silvicultural knowledge. Global warming trends will intensify the need for interventions to maintain the diversity and function of temperate hardwood forests, as well as for increase hardwood reforestation.

Forest Hydrology and Watershed

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783039213856 / 9783039213863 Year: Pages: 206 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-386-3 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Hydrological processes in forested watersheds are influenced by environmental, physiological, and biometric factors such as precipitation, radiation, temperature, species type, leaf area, and extent and structure of forest ecosystems. Over the past two centuries, forest coverage and forest structures have been impacted globally by anthropogenic activities, for example, forest harvesting, and conversion of forested landscapes for plantations and urbanization. In addition, since the industrial revolution, climate change has resulted in profound impacts on forest ecosystems due to higher carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration or CO2 fertilization, warmer temperatures, changes in frequency and intensity of extreme weather events and natural disturbances. As a result, hydrological processes in forested watersheds have been altered by these natural and anthropogenic factors and these changes are expected to accelerate due to future changing climatic conditions.

Tropical Forest Ecology and Management for the Anthropocene

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ISBN: 9783039219643 / 9783039219650 Year: Pages: 242 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-965-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-07 09:08:26
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This Special Issue looks forward as well as backward to best analyze the forest conservation challenges of the Caribbean. This is made possible by 75 years of research and applications by the United States Department of Agriculture, International Institute of Tropical Forestry (the Institute) of Puerto Rico. It transforms Holocene-based scientific paradigms of the tropics into Anthropocene applications and outlooks of wilderness, managed forests, and urban environments. This volume showcases how the focus of the Institute’s programs is evolving to support sustainable tropical forest conservation despite uncertain conditions. The manuscripts showcased here highlight the importance of shared stewardship and a long-term, hands-on approach to conservation, research programs, and novel organizations intended to meet contemporary conservation challenges. Policies relevant to the Anthropocene, as well as the use of experiments to anticipate future responses of tropical forests to global warming, are reexamined in these pages. Urban topics include how cities can co-produce new knowledge to spark sustainable and resilient transformations. Long-term results and research applications of topics such as soil biota, migratory birds, tropical vegetation, substrate chemistry, and the tropical carbon cycle are also described in the volume. Moreover, the question of how to best use land on a tropical island is addressed. This volume is intended to be of interest to all actors involved in long-term sustainable forest management and research in light of the historical lessons and future directions that may come out of a better understanding of tropical cities and forests in the Anthropocene epoch.

Keywords

Anthropocene --- Forest Service --- vision --- contemporary conservation --- biomass --- allometry --- volume expansion factors --- soil organic carbon --- tropical forest area --- forest inventory data --- novel forests --- tree plantations --- secondary forests --- mature forests --- dry tropical forests --- humid tropical forests --- tropical deforestation --- annual cycle --- carry over effects --- climate change --- Guánica --- Nearctic-Neotropical --- novel forests --- stoichiometry of leaf litter --- nitrogen fixing trees --- naturalized species --- C/N --- C/P --- and N/P ratios --- Puerto Rico --- Caribbean --- element concentration in leaf litter --- succession --- species dominance --- tropical forests --- invertebrates --- microbiota --- soil biota --- litter --- wood --- latitude --- elevation --- disturbance --- gradients --- tropical karst --- element concentration --- N/P ratios --- Ca/Al relationship --- ?13C --- ?15N --- knowledge co-production --- idiom of co-production --- knowledge infrastructures --- knowledge systems --- knowledge systems analysis --- cities --- land use governance --- Anthropocene --- disturbance --- hurricane --- succession --- long-term --- basal area --- species composition --- trees --- tropical --- Luquillo Experimental Forest --- Caribbean --- land use planning --- tropical agriculture --- tropical forests --- geospatial analyses --- n/a --- landscape conservation --- network governance --- strategic teams --- communications --- leadership --- adaptive management --- tropical forest --- Anthropocene --- U.S. Forest Service Planning Rule --- El Yunque National Forest --- Luquillo Experimental Forest --- introduced species --- leaf C and N densities --- novel forests --- photosynthetic nitrogen use-efficiency --- leaf mass per area --- Tropical Forestry Research --- Long-Term Ecological Research --- Tropical Forest Management --- Tropical Forest Conservation --- Luquillo Experimental Forest --- tropical --- experiments --- manipulations --- large-scale --- Puerto Rico --- Caribbean --- conservation --- American tropics --- long-term ecological research --- tropical forest management --- Anthropocene --- Puerto Rico

Growth and Ecosystem Services of Urban Trees

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ISBN: 9783039215928 / 9783039215935 Year: Pages: 170 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-593-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Ecology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Numerous studies indicate an accelerated growth of forest trees, induced by ongoing climate change. Similar trends were recently found for urban trees in major cities worldwide. Studies frequently report about substantial effects of climate change and the urban heat island effect (UHI) on plant growth. The combined effects of increasing temperatures, changing precipitation patterns, and extended growing season lengths, in addition to increasing nitrogen deposition and higher CO2 concentrations, can increase but also reduce plant growth. Closely related to this, the multiple functions and services provided by urban trees may be modified. Urban trees generate numerous ecosystem services, including carbon storage, mitigation of the heat island effect, reduction of rainwater runoff, pollutant filtering, recreation effects, shading, and cooling. The quantity of the ecosystem services is often closely associated with the species, structure, age, and size of the tree as well as with a tree’s vitality. Therefore, greening cities, and particularly planting trees, seems to be an effective option to mitigate climate change and the UHI. The focus of this Special Issue is to underline the importance of trees as part of the urban green areas for major cities in all climate zones. Empirical as well as modeling studies of urban tree growth and their services and disservices in cities worldwide are included. Articles about the dynamics, structures, and functions of urban trees as well as the influence of climate and climate change on urban tree growth, urban species composition, carbon storage, and biodiversity are also discussed.

Remote Sensing of Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Other Vegetation Parameters

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039212392 / 9783039212408 Year: Pages: 334 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-240-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Monitoring of vegetation structure and functioning is critical to modeling terrestrial ecosystems and energy cycles. In particular, leaf area index (LAI) is an important structural property of vegetation used in many land surface vegetation, climate, and crop production models. Canopy structure (LAI, fCover, plant height, and biomass) and biochemical parameters (leaf pigmentation and water content) directly influence the radiative transfer process of sunlight in vegetation, determining the amount of radiation measured by passive sensors in the visible and infrared portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Optical remote sensing (RS) methods build relationships exploiting in situ measurements and/or as outputs of physical canopy radiative transfer models. The increased availability of passive (radar and LiDAR) RS data has fostered their use in many applications for the analysis of land surface properties and processes, thanks also to their insensitivity to weather conditions and the capability to exploit rich structural and textural information. Data fusion and multi-sensor integration techniques are pressing topics to fully exploit the information conveyed by both optical and microwave bands.

Keywords

conifer forest --- leaf area index --- smartphone-based method --- canopy gap fraction --- terrestrial laser scanning --- forest inventory --- density-based clustering --- forest aboveground biomass --- root biomass --- tree heights --- GLAS --- artificial neural network --- allometric scaling and resource limitation --- structure from motion (SfM) --- 3D point cloud --- remote sensing --- local maxima --- fixed tree window size --- managed temperate coniferous forests --- point cloud --- spectral information --- structure from motion (SfM) --- unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) --- chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) --- drought --- Mediterranean --- photochemical reflectance index (PRI) --- photosynthesis --- R690/R630 --- recovery --- BAAPA --- remote sensing --- household survey --- forest --- farm types --- automated classification --- sampling design --- adaptive threshold --- over and understory cover --- LAI --- leaf area index --- EPIC --- simulation --- satellite --- MODIS --- biomass --- evaluation --- southern U.S. forests --- VIIRS --- leaf area index (LAI) --- Fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation absorbed by vegetation (FPAR) --- MODIS --- consistency --- uncertainty --- evaluation --- downscaling --- Pléiades imagery --- unmanned aerial vehicle --- stem volume estimation --- remote sensing --- clumping index --- leaf area index --- trunk --- terrestrial LiDAR --- HemiView --- forest above ground biomass (AGB) --- polarization coherence tomography (PCT) --- P-band PolInSAR --- tomographic profiles --- canopy closure --- global positioning system --- hemispherical sky-oriented photo --- signal attenuation --- geographic information system --- digital aerial photograph --- aboveground biomass --- leaf area index --- photogrammetric point cloud --- recursive feature elimination --- machine-learning --- forest degradation --- multisource remote sensing --- modelling aboveground biomass --- random forest --- Brazilian Amazon --- validation --- phenology --- NDVI --- LAI --- spectral analyses --- European beech --- altitude --- forests biomass --- remote sensing --- REDD+ --- random forest --- Tanzania --- RapidEye

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