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New Therapies and Immunological Findings in Melanoma and Other Skin Cancers

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889457120 Year: Pages: 137 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-712-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology --- Oncology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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New therapies are currently being developed in the field of skin cancer. In particular, advances in melanoma now represent the frontline of cancer immunotherapy, as immunological findings in the disease have led to the development of highly effective immune-checkpoint inhibitors. However, these immune-checkpoint inhibitors are only effective in a subset of patients, and may not work in other skin cancer types, thus highlighting the need for further innovation in the field of skin cancer treatment.The purpose of this Research Topic is therefore to provide an up-to-date overview of immune processes and new therapies for melanoma and other skin cancers in order to further stimulate the development of new and even more successful treatments.

Diagnostic, Prognostic and Predictive Biological Markers in Bladder Cancer – Illumination of a Vision

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ISBN: 9783038976349 9783038976356 Year: Pages: 202 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-635-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics --- Pathology --- Urology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-02-21 09:26:53
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This Special Issue has been introduced with the aim of offering the possibility to publish new research results from old and new pioneers in the field of bladder cancer basic research. While editing this Special Issue we learned that an enormous enthusiasm is necessary to go on in bladder cancer research. In our eyes, bladder cancer is on one hand a very heterogenous malignancy, which is what makes it so difficult to focus on only one bladder cancer marker in bladder cancer diagnostics and follow-up. On the other hand, it is very important to find prognostic and predictive factors for bladder cancer due to its high incidence and its enormous costs, as one of the most expensive malignancies in the world. Finding and developing new bladder cancer markers is still a very dynamic field. Because there are many of these markers, it is impossible to report all of them. This Special Issue attempts to highlight the role of bladder cancer markers in diagnosis, and the most important biomarkers that have been recently studied and reported. This Special Issue highlights some of the most important markers. Further determination of recurrence and progression markers will contribute to establishing better treatments for individual patients. Molecular staging of urological tumors will allow the selection of cases that will require systemic treatment. It is necessary and important to integrate basic and clinical research under the same objectives.

Cancer Survivorship

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ISBN: 9781789849066 9781789849073 Year: Pages: 140 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.74342 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Oncology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:52

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This book is a marvelous compendium of eight articles that cover a wide range of topics, including breast cancer: management and survivorship, rectal cancer intersphincteric resection, head and neck cancer diagnosis and radiotherapy, synthetic peptides as antitumor agents, and recent advances in thyroid cancer. It has been a wonderful opportunity to co-edit this special edition. We are greatly appreciative of the work of all the contributors to the book, who brought with them tremendous diversity of perspectives and fields truly reflective of the complexity of the topic and who, through coming together in this project, serve as a nidus of the multidisciplinary collaboration in this field. Finally, we must acknowledge the thousands of cancer patients who have participated in the studies that have provided the information that has advanced the field so greatly in recent years.

Oncogenes and Carcinogenesis

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ISBN: 9781789851717 9781789851724 Year: Pages: 106 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.74727 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Oncology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:52

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Oncogenes are mutated and/or overexpressed at high levels in tumor cells. Tumors of the lung, breast, pancreas, and colon may display specific oncogenetic features. These tumors have been largely associated with exposure to environmental carcinogens and a variety of biological agents, including viruses. These carcinogens can induce specific genetic and epigenetic alterations in these tissues, leading to aberrant functioning of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. On the microRNAs (miRNAs) there are significant modifiers of both transcription and translation of oncogenes in carcinogenesis. In the last 50 years, several oncogenes and microRNAs related to these oncogenes have been identified in different types of human cancers. It is now clear that high expression of oncogenes, DNA damage response, and regulation of the cell cycle are related to the circadian clock. This book will mainly focus on the expressions of different oncogenes in breast, colon, and lung cancers. Moreover, readers will gain qualified scientific knowledge of the alterations in miRNAs in different types of cancers and the effects of the circadian clock on the expression of oncogenes in carcinogenesis.

Current Trends in Cancer Management

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ISBN: 9781838800055 9781838800062 9781839622076 Year: Pages: 156 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.73816 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Oncology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:53

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The field of cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment is constantly advancing. From novel biomarkers to cutting-edge imaging solutions, changing chemotherapy protocols and novel immune-targeting agents, medical teams develop and test new ways to manage this ever-growing threat to the modern age. Imaging has been a reliable method for initial diagnosis and later surveillance of premalignant and cancerous lesions of the digestive tract. This book project aims to characterize the main diagnostic procedures and novel medical and surgical treatments, as well as provide an updated view on current guidelines, premalignant lesions management, and minimally invasive curative techniques.

Data and Text Processing for Health and Life Sciences

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Book Series: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology ISBN: 9783030138455 Year: Pages: 98 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-13845-5 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2020-02-05 11:21:03
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This open access book is a step-by-step introduction on how shell scripting can help solve many of the data processing tasks that Health and Life specialists face everyday with minimal software dependencies. The examples presented in the book show how simple command line tools can be used and combined to retrieve data and text from web resources, to filter and mine literature, and to explore the semantics encoded in biomedical ontologies. To store data this book relies on open standard text file formats, such as TSV, CSV, XML, and OWL, that can be open by any text editor or spreadsheet application. The first two chapters, Introduction and Resources, provide a brief introduction to the shell scripting and describe popular data resources in Health and Life Sciences. The third chapter, Data Retrieval, starts by introducing a common data processing task that involves multiple data resources. Then, this chapter explains how to automate each step of that task by introducing the required commands line tools one by one. The fourth chapter, Text Processing, shows how to filter and analyze text by using simple string matching techniques and regular expressions. The last chapter, Semantic Processing, shows how XPath queries and shell scripting is able to process complex data, such as the graphs used to specify ontologies. Besides being almost immutable for more than four decades and being available in most of our personal computers, shell scripting is relatively easy to learn by Health and Life specialists as a sequence of independent commands. Comprehending them is like conducting a new laboratory protocol by testing and understanding its procedural steps and variables, and combining their intermediate results. Thus, this book is particularly relevant to Health and Life specialists or students that want to easily learn how to process data and text, and which in return may facilitate and inspire them to acquire deeper bioinformatics skills in the future.

The Tumor Microenvironment of High Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783038975540 9783038975557 Year: Pages: 434 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-555-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology --- Oncology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-02-06 09:22:42
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The Special Issue on high grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) and the contribution of the tumor microenviroment (TME) consists of reviews contributed by leaders in the OC field. As HGSOC metastases have a highly complex TME, there is an urgent need to better understand the TME in general, its distinct components in particular, and the role of the TME in the context of disease recurrence and development of chemoresistance. The Special Issue incorporates the current understanding of the different parts of thd TME components, including the cancer cells themselves, the cells surrounding the cancer cells or stromal cells, and the cells of the immune system, which are attracted to the site of metastases. In addition to these cells of the TME, the role of various cellular factors made by the cells of the TME are also the subject of the reviews. In addition, reviews in this Special Issue cover the complex relationships between the molecular mechanisms of HGSOC progression, including genomic, epigenomic and transcriptomic changes and changes in the immune cell landscape, as these may provide attractive new molecular targets for HGSOC therapy.

Anticancer Drugs

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ISBN: 9783039215867 9783039215874 Year: Pages: 214 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-587-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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The past decades have seen major developments in the understanding of the cellular and molecular biology of cancer. Significant progress has been achieved regarding long-term survival for the patients of many cancers with the use of tamoxifen for treatment of breast cancer, treatment of chronic myeloid leukaemia with imatinib, and the success of biological drugs. The transition from cytotoxic chemotherapy to targeted cancer drug discovery and development has resulted in an increasing selection of tools available to oncologists. In this Special Issue of Pharmaceuticals, we highlight the opportunities and challenges in the discovery and design of innovative cancer therapies, novel small-molecule cancer drugs and antibody–drug conjugates, with articles covering a variety of anticancer therapies and potential relevant disease states and applications. Significant efforts are being made to develop and improve cancer treatments and to translate basic research findings into clinical use, resulting in improvements in survival rates and quality of life for cancer patients. We demonstrate the possibilities and scope for future research in these areas and also highlight the challenges faced by scientists in the area of anticancer drug development leading to improved targeted treatments and better survival rates for cancer patients.

Application of Bioinformatics in Cancers

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ISBN: 9783039217885 9783039217892 Year: Pages: 418 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-789-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- Biotechnology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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This collection of 25 research papers comprised of 22 original articles and 3 reviews is brought together from international leaders in bioinformatics and biostatistics. The collection highlights recent computational advances that improve the ability to analyze highly complex data sets to identify factors critical to cancer biology. Novel deep learning algorithms represent an emerging and highly valuable approach for collecting, characterizing and predicting clinical outcomes data. The collection highlights several of these approaches that are likely to become the foundation of research and clinical practice in the future. In fact, many of these technologies reveal new insights about basic cancer mechanisms by integrating data sets and structures that were previously immiscible.

Keywords

comorbidity score --- mortality --- locoregionally advanced --- HNSCC --- curative surgery --- traditional Chinese medicine --- health strengthening herb --- cancer treatment --- network pharmacology --- network target --- high-throughput analysis --- brain metastases --- colorectal cancer --- KRAS mutation --- PD-L1 --- tumor infiltrating lymphocytes --- drug resistance --- gefitinib --- erlotinib --- biostatistics --- bioinformatics --- Bufadienolide-like chemicals --- molecular mechanism --- anti-cancer --- bioinformatics --- cancer --- brain --- pathophysiology --- imaging --- machine learning --- extreme learning --- deep learning --- neurological disorders --- pancreatic cancer --- TCGA --- curation --- DNA --- RNA --- protein --- single-biomarkers --- multiple-biomarkers --- cancer-related pathways --- colorectal cancer --- DNA sequence profile --- Monte Carlo --- mixture of normal distributions --- somatic mutation --- tumor --- mutable motif --- activation induced deaminase --- AID/APOBEC --- transcriptional signatures --- copy number variation --- copy number aberration --- TCGA mining --- cancer CRISPR --- firehose --- gene signature extraction --- gene loss biomarkers --- gene inactivation biomarkers --- biomarker discovery --- chemotherapy --- microarray --- ovarian cancer --- predictive model --- machine learning --- overall survival --- observed survival interval --- skin cutaneous melanoma --- The Cancer Genome Atlas --- omics --- breast cancer prognosis --- artificial intelligence --- machine learning --- decision support systems --- cancer prognosis --- independent prognostic power --- omics profiles --- histopathological imaging features --- cancer --- intratumor heterogeneity --- genomic instability --- epigenetics --- mitochondrial metabolism --- miRNAs --- cancer biomarkers --- breast cancer detection --- machine learning --- feature selection --- classification --- denoising autoencoders --- breast cancer --- feature extraction and interpretation --- concatenated deep feature --- cancer modeling --- interaction --- histopathological imaging --- clinical/environmental factors --- oral cancer --- miRNA --- bioinformatics --- datasets --- biomarkers --- TCGA --- GEO DataSets --- hormone sensitive cancers --- breast cancer --- StAR --- estrogen --- steroidogenic enzymes --- hTERT --- telomerase --- telomeres --- alternative splicing --- network analysis --- hierarchical clustering analysis --- differential gene expression analysis --- cancer biomarker --- diseases genes --- variable selection --- false discovery rate --- knockoffs --- bioinformatics --- copy number variation --- cell-free DNA --- methylation --- mutation --- next generation sequencing --- self-organizing map --- head and neck cancer --- treatment de-escalation --- HP --- molecular subtypes --- tumor microenvironment --- Bioinformatics tool --- R package --- machine learning --- meta-analysis --- biomarker signature --- gene expression analysis --- survival analysis --- functional analysis --- bioinformatics --- machine learning --- artificial intelligence --- Network Analysis --- single-cell sequencing --- circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) --- Neoantigen Prediction --- precision medicine --- Computational Immunology

Central Nervous System Metastases in Lung Cancer Patients: From Prevention to Diagnosis and Treatment

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889457076 Year: Pages: 94 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-707-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Oncology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Approximately 40% of lung cancer patients will develop central nervous system (CNS) metastases during the course of their disease. Most of these are brain metastases, but up to 10% will develop leptomeningeal metastases. Known risk factors for CNS metastases development are small cell lung cancer (SCLC), adenocarcinoma histology, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutant or anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearranged lung cancer, advanced nodal status, tumor stage and younger age. CNS metastases can have a negative impact on quality of life (QoL) and overall survival (OS). The proportion of lung cancer patients diagnosed with CNS metastases has increased over the years due to increased use of brain imaging as part of initial cancer staging, advances in imaging techniques and better systemic disease control. Post contrast gadolinium enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (gd-MRI) is preferred, however when this is contra-indicated a contrast enhanced computed tomography (CE-CT) is mentioned as an alternative option. When CNS metastases are diagnosed, local treatment options consist of radiotherapy (stereotactic or whole brain) and surgery. Local treatment can be complicated by symptomatic radiation necrosis for which no high level evidence based treatment exists. Moreover, differential diagnosis with metastasis progression is difficult. Systemic treatment options have expanded over the last years. Until recently, chemotherapy was the only treatment option with a poor penetration in the CNS. Angiogenesis inhibitors are promising in the treatment of primary CNS tumors as well as radiation necrosis but clinical trials of anti-angiogenic agents in NSCLC have largely excluded patients with CNS metastases. Furthermore, research has also focused on methods to prevent development of CNS disease, for example with prophylactic cranial irradiation. Recently, checkpoint inhibitors have become available for NSCLC patients, and tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have improved prognosis significantly in those with a druggable driver mutation. Newer TKIs are often designed to have better CNS penetration compared to first-generation TKIs. Despite advances in treatment options CNS metastases remain a problem in lung cancer and cause morbidity and mortality.This Research Topic provides an extensive resource of articles describing advances in CNS metastases management in lung cancer patients, from prevention to diagnosis and treatment.

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