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Silvicultures - Management and Conservation

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ISBN: 9781838807191 9781838807207 9781838807214 Year: Pages: 114 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.83683 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Forestry
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:53

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The history and past management of trees within woodlands are the main objectives of this book. The authors show four points of view about one theme: silvicultures. Wood pasture systems of South East England and Northern Italy, Spanish pollard forests, and Portuguese montado are great examples of European ancient forests. Reconstruction of forest ecology, management, protection, and the understanding of these silvicultures from different perspectives are the main values of this monograph. The authors would like to make all readers aware of the value of ancient forests as cultural and socioecosystem services.

Status and Dynamics of Forests in Germany

Authors: ---
Book Series: Ecological Studies ISBN: 9783030157340 Year: Pages: 384 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-15734-0 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Ecology --- Geology --- Earth Sciences --- Geography --- Science (General) --- Forestry
Added to DOAB on : 2020-02-04 11:21:16
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Life sciences; Ecology ; Forestry; Soil science; Soil conservation; Sustainable development; Geobiology

Agricultural Implications of the Fukushima Nuclear Accident (III)

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ISBN: 9789811332180 Year: Pages: 248 DOI: 10.1007/978-981-13-3218-0 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Zoology --- Environmental Sciences --- Environmental Technology --- Agriculture (General) --- Forestry
Added to DOAB on : 2020-02-04 11:21:24
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This open access book presents the findings from on-site research into radioactive cesium contamination in various agricultural systems affected by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in March 2011. This third volume in the series reports on studies undertaken at contaminated sites such as farmland, forests, and marine and freshwater environments, with a particular focus on livestock, wild plants and mushrooms, crops, and marine products in those environments. It also provides additional data collected in the subsequent years to show how the radioactivity levels in agricultural products and their growing environments have changed with time and the route by which radioactive materials entered agricultural products as well as their movement between different components (e.g., soil, water, and trees) within an environmental system (e.g., forests). The book covers various topics, including radioactivity testing of food products; decontamination trials for rice and livestock production; the state of contamination in, trees, mushrooms, and timber; the dynamics of radioactivity distribution in paddy fields and upland forests; damage incurred by the forestry and fishery industries; and the change in consumers’ attitudes. Chapter 19 introduces a real-time radioisotope imaging system, a pioneering technique to visualize the movement of cesium in soil and in plants. This is the only book to provide systematic data on the actual change of radioactivity, and as such is of great value to all researchers who wish to understand the effect of radioactive fallout on agriculture. In addition, it helps the general public to better understand the issues of radio-contamination in the environment. The project is ongoing; the research groups from the Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences of The University of Tokyo continue their work in the field to further evaluate the long-term effects of the Fukushima accident.

Public Goods Provision in the Early Modern Economy

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9780520972797 9780520303652 Year: Pages: 349 DOI: 10.1525/luminos.63 Language: English
Publisher: University of California Press
Subject: Economics --- History
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-05 11:21:03
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Historically, for sustaining and reproducing their economic lives, people have obtained goods and services through various ways. How did people tackle issues that the market did not handle well? This volume compares early modern efforts to provide “public goods”—defined in contraposition to market-mediated goods and goods provided through personal relations, such as kinship ties. We examine poverty and famine relief, infrastructure building, and forestry management in East Asia and Europe, using Japan’s Tokugawa era (1603–1868) as a benchmark from which consider the cases in Prussia, China, and England. Taking advantage of rich scholarship on the role of autonomous village and regional society in Japan’s early modern history, the volume highlights the diverse approaches to providing public goods across societies, relativizing the discussion on the formation of fiscal state drawn from the experience in “advanced” Western Europe, and it constructs the beginnings of an early modern basis for forecasting the diversity in public-goods provision future into the modern and contemporary periods.

Participatory Forestry: Involvement, Information and Science

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ISBN: 9783039213313 9783039213320 Year: Pages: 250 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-332-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Public participation in forestry is a key issue in ensuring the democratization of decision-making processes, increasing the social acceptance of policies, and reducing conflicts between forest users. Public participation also provides an opportunity for the improvement of the quality of information, public debate, personal reflection, and professionalization, raising awareness. Participation in forestry implies the involvement of stakeholders (the interest group participation approach) and/or the involvement of people (the direct citizen participation approach) in the decision-making process. Since the UN Conference on Environment and Development (1992), new norms and perspectives have emerged encouraging a bottom-up approach in forest governance. Consequently, several participatory techniques, methods, and tools for stakeholder involvement in forest governance have been developed and applied. These different experiences allow us to learn from failures and successes and contribute to knowledge improvement. The future challenges of participatory forestry deal with adaptation to changes in ecological, social, and economic contexts.

3D Remote Sensing Applications in Forest Ecology: Composition, Structure and Function

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039217823 9783039217830 Year: Pages: 188 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-783-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Ecology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Dear Colleagues, The composition, structure and function of forest ecosystems are the key features characterizing their ecological properties, and can thus be crucially shaped and changed by various biotic and abiotic factors on multiple spatial scales. The magnitude and extent of these changes in recent decades calls for enhanced mitigation and adaption measures. Remote sensing data and methods are the main complementary sources of up-to-date synoptic and objective information of forest ecology. Due to the inherent 3D nature of forest ecosystems, the analysis of 3D sources of remote sensing data is considered to be most appropriate for recreating the forest’s compositional, structural and functional dynamics. In this Special Issue of Forests, we published a set of state-of-the-art scientific works including experimental studies, methodological developments and model validations, all dealing with the general topic of 3D remote sensing-assisted applications in forest ecology. We showed applications in forest ecology from a broad collection of method and sensor combinations, including fusion schemes. All in all, the studies and their focuses are as broad as a forest’s ecology or the field of remote sensing and, thus, reflect the very diverse usages and directions toward which future research and practice will be directed.

Seedling Production and Field Performance of Seedlings

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ISBN: 9783039212552 9783039212569 Year: Pages: 192 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-256-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Rapid establishment of seedlings in forest regeneration or afforestation sites after planting is a prerequisite for a successful reforestation. Seedling survival after outplanting can be improved by using high-quality seedling material. Seedling quality consists of several features, such as genetic source, morphological properties, nutritional status, stress resistance, and vitality of the seedlings. Field performance of the seedlings is a complex process which can be affected by many nursery and silvicultural practices. Nursery cultural practices strongly affect seedling quality, which is generally at its highest level during the growth period at the nursery. Afterwards, when the seedlings are transported from the nursery to the planting site (including seedling storage, handling, shipping, and planting practices), the quality of seedlings can only remain the same or decline. To ensure successful regeneration, it is important to produce seedlings that retain their high quality until planting, and to establish them quickly in the forest regeneration site.

Forest Insects and Pathogens in a Changing Environment: Ecology, Monitoring & Genetics (IUFRO Joint Meeting of WP7.03.05 & 7.03.10)

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ISBN: 9783039215119 9783039215126 Year: Pages: 158 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-512-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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After the successful conclusion of the Joint Meeting of IUFRO’s 7.03.05 & 7.03.10 working parties and given the exciting and novel studies that have been presented in the framework of this meeting, we decided to present some of these studies in the current Special Issue of Forests. To make this issue more appealing and interesting to everyone in the field of Forest Protection, studies that cover a wide range of topics were selected, ranging from ecology and phylogeography to forest management and protection. More importantly, as these studies refer to pests and pathogens from different parts of the world, it is expected that the knowledge gained can be further used in the protection of natural environment worldwide.

Tropical Forest Ecology and Management for the Anthropocene

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ISBN: 9783039219643 9783039219650 Year: Pages: 242 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-965-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-07 09:08:26
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This Special Issue looks forward as well as backward to best analyze the forest conservation challenges of the Caribbean. This is made possible by 75 years of research and applications by the United States Department of Agriculture, International Institute of Tropical Forestry (the Institute) of Puerto Rico. It transforms Holocene-based scientific paradigms of the tropics into Anthropocene applications and outlooks of wilderness, managed forests, and urban environments. This volume showcases how the focus of the Institute’s programs is evolving to support sustainable tropical forest conservation despite uncertain conditions. The manuscripts showcased here highlight the importance of shared stewardship and a long-term, hands-on approach to conservation, research programs, and novel organizations intended to meet contemporary conservation challenges. Policies relevant to the Anthropocene, as well as the use of experiments to anticipate future responses of tropical forests to global warming, are reexamined in these pages. Urban topics include how cities can co-produce new knowledge to spark sustainable and resilient transformations. Long-term results and research applications of topics such as soil biota, migratory birds, tropical vegetation, substrate chemistry, and the tropical carbon cycle are also described in the volume. Moreover, the question of how to best use land on a tropical island is addressed. This volume is intended to be of interest to all actors involved in long-term sustainable forest management and research in light of the historical lessons and future directions that may come out of a better understanding of tropical cities and forests in the Anthropocene epoch.

Keywords

Anthropocene --- Forest Service --- vision --- contemporary conservation --- biomass --- allometry --- volume expansion factors --- soil organic carbon --- tropical forest area --- forest inventory data --- novel forests --- tree plantations --- secondary forests --- mature forests --- dry tropical forests --- humid tropical forests --- tropical deforestation --- annual cycle --- carry over effects --- climate change --- Guánica --- Nearctic-Neotropical --- novel forests --- stoichiometry of leaf litter --- nitrogen fixing trees --- naturalized species --- C/N --- C/P --- and N/P ratios --- Puerto Rico --- Caribbean --- element concentration in leaf litter --- succession --- species dominance --- tropical forests --- invertebrates --- microbiota --- soil biota --- litter --- wood --- latitude --- elevation --- disturbance --- gradients --- tropical karst --- element concentration --- N/P ratios --- Ca/Al relationship --- ?13C --- ?15N --- knowledge co-production --- idiom of co-production --- knowledge infrastructures --- knowledge systems --- knowledge systems analysis --- cities --- land use governance --- Anthropocene --- disturbance --- hurricane --- succession --- long-term --- basal area --- species composition --- trees --- tropical --- Luquillo Experimental Forest --- Caribbean --- land use planning --- tropical agriculture --- tropical forests --- geospatial analyses --- n/a --- landscape conservation --- network governance --- strategic teams --- communications --- leadership --- adaptive management --- tropical forest --- Anthropocene --- U.S. Forest Service Planning Rule --- El Yunque National Forest --- Luquillo Experimental Forest --- introduced species --- leaf C and N densities --- novel forests --- photosynthetic nitrogen use-efficiency --- leaf mass per area --- Tropical Forestry Research --- Long-Term Ecological Research --- Tropical Forest Management --- Tropical Forest Conservation --- Luquillo Experimental Forest --- tropical --- experiments --- manipulations --- large-scale --- Puerto Rico --- Caribbean --- conservation --- American tropics --- long-term ecological research --- tropical forest management --- Anthropocene --- Puerto Rico

Planning, Development and Management of Sustainable Cities

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038979067 9783038979074 Year: Pages: 440 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-907-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Environmental Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-05-09 17:16:14
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The concept of ‘sustainable urban development’ has been pushed to the forefront of policymaking and politics as the world wakes up to the impacts of climate change and the destructive effects of the Anthropocene. Climate change has emerged to be one of the biggest challenges faced by our planet today, threatening both built and natural systems with long-term consequences, which may be irreversible. While there is a vast body of literature on sustainability and sustainable urban development, there is currently limited focus on how to cohesively bring together the vital issues of the planning, development, and management of sustainable cities. Moreover, it has been widely stated that current practices and lifestyles cannot continue if we are to leave a healthy living planet to not only the next generation, but also to the generations beyond. The current global school strikes for climate action (known as Fridays for Future) evidences this. The book advocates the view that the focus needs to rest on ways in which our cities and industries can become green enough to avoid urban ecocide. This book fills a gap in the literature by bringing together issues related to the planning, development, and management of cities and focusing on a triple-bottom-line approach to sustainability.

Keywords

spatial decision support systems --- urban planning --- sustainability indicators --- urban metabolism --- sustainable regional development --- land use governance --- regional stakeholder involvement --- precision farming (PF) --- wood fuel --- technology roadmapping (TRM) --- open innovation (OI) --- Germany --- sustainability assessment --- sustainable urban development --- neighborhood sustainability --- neighborhood sustainability assessment index --- sustainable city --- Ipoh --- Malaysia --- scaling-up strategy --- sustainable development --- local new town --- neoliberal capitalism --- Wujin --- China --- low-energy transport --- carbon --- energy consumption --- sociotechnical transition --- innovation --- cities --- United Kingdom --- sustainability --- tree --- urban forest --- forest values --- urban transport --- sustainable transport --- developing cities --- medium-sized cities --- infrastructure --- transport projects --- sustainability --- knowledge management --- practitioner perceptions --- frames --- framing processes --- low carbon cities --- visioning --- urban resilience --- sustainability --- sustainability literacy --- urban development --- public participation --- urban planning --- civic engagement --- green economy --- built environment sector --- eco-cities --- sustainable urban development --- green innovation --- low carbon economy --- socio-technical transition --- urban fire --- spatio-temporal features --- SDM, humidity --- GDP --- the fire assimilation effect --- fire inertia effect --- fire caution effect --- urban land development --- natural environmental impact --- driving forces-pressure-state-impact-policy and pattern (DPSIP) --- water supply --- demand --- time-series forecasting --- ARIMA --- urban water sustainability --- Istanbul --- ecosystem approach --- urban ecology --- eco-cities --- process-function ecology --- heat island mitigation --- urban forestry --- green infrastructure --- ecological landscape management --- sustainability index --- mixed land-use --- neighbourhood --- travel behaviour --- perception --- indicator --- stakeholder --- megacity --- co-design --- co-production --- bottom-up --- anthropogenic impact --- environmental threshold --- road grades --- heavy-duty vehicles --- emissions --- sustainable transportation --- China --- water asset management --- Gap analysis --- LOS (level of service) --- PIs (performance indicators) --- customer value --- noise pollution --- low-frequency noise --- DEFRA --- human well-being --- sustainability --- power poles --- City Biodiversity Index --- Satoyama Index --- land use mixture --- land cover --- GIS --- sustainability --- sustainable development --- sustainable urban development --- sustainable city --- sustainable urban ecosystems --- sustainability assessment --- smart cities

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