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Multisensory Human-Food Interaction

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455188 Year: Pages: 101 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-518-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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Our food experiences can be significantly influenced by both intrinsic and extrinsic multisensory information. Therefore, it is crucial to understand and apply the principles that govern the systematic connections that exist between the senses in the context of Human-Food Interaction (HFI). In our Research Topic, namely Multisensory Human-Food Interaction (MHFI), several studies that consider such connections in the context of HFI are presented. We also have contributions that focus on multisensory technologies that can be used to share and reproduce specific HFIs. This eBook, which resulted from the Research Topic, presents some of the most recent developments in the field of MHFI. In particular, it consists of two main sections and corresponding articles. The eBook begins with the Editorial, which provides an overview of MHFI. Then, it includes six articles that relate to principles in MHFI and three on technologies in MHFI. We hope that the different contributions featured here will support future developments in MHFI research.

Cooperative Adaptations and Evolution in Plant-Microbe Systems

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455997 Year: Pages: 209 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-599-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Ecological and evolutionary genetics of plant-microbe interactions is of high importance for developing the plant science since the plants originated symbiotically (via incorporation of a phototrophic cyanobacterium into a heterotrophic eukaryon) and further evolve as the multipartite symbiotic systems, harboring the enormously diverse microbial communities. The Research Topic has integrated the top-level research on the genetic interactions in the plant-microbial associations required to develop the novel evolutionary approaches in the molecular and ecological genetics of different kinds of symbioses.

About the Foodborne Pathogen Campylobacter

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453887 Year: Pages: 221 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-388-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology --- Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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A significant increase in the prevalence of campylobacteriosis cases has been observed over the past years. Campylobacter has emerged as the leading cause of bacterial foodborne disease worldwide with a significant impact on human health and an associated economic burdens. Campylobacteriosis human cases have been generally correlated with the handling, preparation and consumption of poultry. In 2017, the European Commission regulation has amended Regulation (EC) No 2073/2005 on the hygiene of foodstuffs as regards Campylobacter on broiler carcasses stating a limit of 1000 cfu/g. Campylobacter is also present in other farm animals and is frequently found on a range of foodstuffs due to cross contamination. Among the pathogenic species, C. jejuni is the most prevalent species followed by C. coli. Current guidelines highlight the importance of biosecurity but these measures are failing to mitigate the risk of pathogenic Campylobacter. As an obligate microaerophile, Campylobacter does not multiply under atmospheric oxygen concentration at ambient temperatures. It therefore constitutes a puzzle as to how it can survive from farm to retail outlets. The underlying molecular mechanisms of persistence, survival and pathogenesis appear to be unique to this pathogen. Recent research has indicated how genomic polymorphism, restricted catabolic capacity, self regulation or deregulation of genes, bacterial cooperation and unknown contamination routes may be connected to this specificity.This book includes original studies on both C. jejuni and C. coli species dealing with epidemiology and animal carriage, host interaction, control strategies, metabolism and regulation specificities of these two pathogenic species, methodology to improve cultural techniques and chicken gut microbiota challenged with Campylobacter.

Can't Get You Out of My Head: Brain-Body Interactions in Perseverative Cognition

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454143 Year: Pages: 111 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-414-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
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Perseverative cognition is defined as the repetitive or sustained activation of cognitive representations of past stressful events or feared events in the future and even at non-clinical levels it causes a “fight-or-flight” action tendency, followed by a cascade of biological events, starting in the brain and ending as peripheral stress responses. In the past decade, such persistent physiological activation has proven to impact individuals’ health, potentially leading to somatic disease. As such, perseverative cognition has recently been proposed as the missing piece in the relationships between stress, psychopathology, and risk for health. Perseverative cognition is indeed a hallmark of conditions such as anxiety and mood disorders that are at increased -though still unexplained- cardiovascular risk. Although the pivotal role of ruminative and worrisome thoughts in determining the onset and maintenance of psychopathological disorders has been acknowledged for a long time, its effects on the body via reciprocal influences between mental processes and the body's physiology have been neglected. Moreover, perseverative cognition is definitely not restricted to psychopathology, it is extremely common and likely even omnipresent, pervading daily life. The objective of the Research Topic is to provide an interdisciplinary examination of cutting-edge neuroscientific research on brain-body signatures of perseverative cognition in both healthy and psychopathological individuals. Despite the evident role of the brain in repetitive thinking and the assumption that our mind is embodied, bran-body pathways from perseverative cognition to health risk have remained largely unexplored.

Cell Signaling in Host-Pathogen Interactions: The Host Point of View

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454556 Year: Pages: 414 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-455-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology --- Science (General) --- Microbiology
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The ability of pathogens, such as parasites, bacteria, fungi and viruses to invade, persist and adapt in both invertebrate and vertebrate hosts is multifactorial and depends on both pathogen and host fitness. Communication between a pathogen and its host relies on a wide and dynamic array of molecular interactions. Through this constant communication most pathogens evolved to be relatively benign, whereas killing of its host by a pathogen represents a failure to adapt. Pathogens are lethal to their host when their interaction has not been long enough for adaptation. Evolution has selected conserved immune receptors that recognize signature patterns of pathogens as non-self elements and initiate host innate responses aimed at eradicating infection. Conversely, pathogens evolved mechanisms to evade immune recognition and subvert cytokine secretion in order to survive, replicate and cause disease. The cell signaling machinery is a critical component of the immune system that relays information from the receptors to the nucleus where transcription of key immune genes is activated. Host cells have developed signal transduction systems to maintain homeostasis with pathogens. Most cellular processes and cell signaling pathways are tightly regulated by protein phosphorylation in which protein kinases are key protagonists. Pathogens have developed multiple mechanisms to subvert important signal transduction pathways such as the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) and the nuclear factor kB (NF-kB) pathways. Pathogens also secrete effectors that manipulate actin cytoskeleton and its regulators, hijack cell cycle machinery and alter vesicular trafficking. This research topic focuses on the cellular signaling mechanisms that are essential for host immunity and their subversion by pathogens.

Understanding Selfies

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454655 Year: Pages: 153 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-465-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
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In the year 2013, ‘selfie’ was named word of the year by Oxford Dictionaries in recognition of dramatic changes in frequency, prominence, and register of the term. This drastic increase in selfie-taking was spurred by two factors. The first was the advent of smartphones equipped with front cameras and preview screens that made it easy to compose a photographic self-portrait by a process of deliberately exploring one’s image, choosing a pose, and finally taking the picture. The second key change contributing to the rise of the selfie age was the increasing availability of internet connections. It is estimated that about 50% of the world population has access to the internet today (2018; https://www.internetworldstats.com). At the end of the past century, this percentage was a mere 1%. The growth of the internet infrastructure simultaneously spurred the development of social network applications such as Facebook, Twitter, Snapchat, and Instagram, providing accessible media for sharing photographs including photographic self-portraits. However, despite their tremendous reach and popularity, selfies have so far received relatively little attention by the scientific community, especially within psychology. Thus, we proposed a Frontiers in Psychology Research Topic to expand empirical and theoretical work on the massively popular, yet scientifically unexplored, phenomenon of the selfie. The articles published in this eBook offer a multifaceted insight into current scholarly work on this topic.

Macromolecular Structure Underlying Recognition in Innate Immunity

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455270 Year: Pages: 151 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-527-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology
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Immune molecules have evolved to distinguish “self “molecules from “non-self”, “altered self” and “danger” molecules. Recognition is mediated via interactions between pattern recognition receptor molecules (PPRs) and their ligands, which include hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions between amino acid residues on the PPRs and uncharged or charged groups on amino acid residues, sugar rings or DNA/RNA molecules. Recognition in innate immunity range from cases (C1q, mannin-binding protein etc) where recognition is orchestrated by interaction between many ligands with one receptor molecule, and density of interaction is necessary for strong specific recognition, distinct from weak non-specific binding, and cases such as TLRs and NLRs where recognition involves complexation of single receptor and ligand, followed by oligomerisation of the receptor molecule. The majority of PPR molecules bind and recognise a wide variety of ligands, e.g TLR4 recognises LPS (gram negative bacteria), Lipotechoic acid (gram positive bacteria), heat shock protein hsp60, respiratory syncytial virus fusion protein etc, molecules that are structurally dissimilar to each other. This indicates considerable flexibility in their binding domains (amino acid residue variations) and modes (hydrophobic and charged, direct or mediated via an adaptor molecule). However, in many cases there is a dearth of structural and molecular data available, required to delineate the mechanism of ligand binding underlining recognition in pathogen receptors in innate immunity. Insights into requirements of conformation, charge, surface etc in the recognition and function of innate immunity receptors and their activation pathways, based on current data can suggest valuable avenues for future work.

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