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Frontiers in Toxicity and Functionalization of Nanomaterials

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ISBN: 9783038427360 9783038427353 Year: Pages: 182 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-03-16 13:37:44
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Over the last decade, various nanomaterials (NMs) have attracted tremendous attention with the incredible development in nanoscience and nanotechnology. Some NMs are explored increasingly for biomedical applications, including drug delivery carriers, imaging probes, antimicrobial agents, biosensors, and tissue engineering scaffolds. However, the in vitro and in vivo toxicities of NMs related to oxidative stress are the main obstacles to use them in biomedical fields. One of the most promising strategies to address these obstacles is functionalizing NMs with biocompatible molecules or materials. In this Special Issue, we are especially interested in manuscripts that advance the understanding of the interaction of NMs with cells, such as cellular responses to NMs, intracellular behaviors of NMs, therapeutic and imaging potentials of NMs, as well as the functionalization of NMs through coating, patterning and hybridization with other biomolecules for multifaceted biomedical applications.

Shape Memory Alloys 2017

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ISBN: 9783038427735 9783038427742 Year: Pages: VIII, 182 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-774-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Mining and Metallurgy --- Electricity
Added to DOAB on : 2018-04-06 13:33:01
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Shape memory alloys (SMAs) have special property of the shape memory effect. After thermal treatment above the martensitic transition temperature, the alloys come back to the original shape when the alloys heat again after having cooled it to the temperature that is lower than the martensitic transition temperature. By means of this property, many industrial parts and systems were produced. This Special Issue "Shape Memory Alloys 2017" is constructed articles reporting new and progressive research results, as well as reviews of particular classes of fundamental physics of the materials and their applications of SMAs. Through its 17 efficient articles, the reader will approach to researches related to SMAs with their peculiar magnetic, thermo-mechanical properties, superelasticity, plastic deformation and compression under pressure. These physical properties introduce a large number of applications as faster SMA actuators, application of medical devices, industrial joining parts, volts, and magnetic/mechanical/thermal sensors. These articles are intended scientific researchers, professional engineers, students to obtain a better understanding in this field lately.

Structural Design and Properties of Coordination Polymers

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ISBN: 9783038428015 9783038428022 Year: Pages: VIII, 122 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-04-27 13:20:05
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Dear Colleagues,The assembly of organic ligands and metal centres yields coordination polymers, many of which find applications in conductivity, catalysis, magnetism, gas sorption, biological sensing and luminescence. The structure and topology of coordination polymers may be manipulated by changing the reaction conditions, leading to a large variety of structurally and topologically unique products. However, controlling and predicting the final outcome of the self-assembly procedure remains one of the major challenges in the field. The final products are often strongly influenced by factors such as the behaviour of a functional group in a molecule, the influence of the crystallization conditions and the various conformations of the components within the crystal.This Special Issue aims to cover a broad range of subjects in coordination polymer chemistry, which are important to the continued growth of the field, showcase current developments and realise its full potential in applications to address major societal challenges.Therefore, we invite you to contribute a research article to this Special Issue and provide a clear snapshot of your research in this field.

Heat Transfer Processes in Oscillatory Flow Conditions

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ISBN: 9783038427094 9783038427100 Year: Pages: VI, 172 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Heat
Added to DOAB on : 2018-04-27 16:01:54
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Heat exchange processes in steady flows have been studied extensively over the last two hundred years, and are now a part of undergraduate syllabi in most engineering courses. However, heat transfer processes in oscillatory flow conditions are still not very well understood. Their importance is well recognized in applications including Stirling machines, thermoacoustic engines, and refrigerators or pulsed-tube coolers in cryogenics. Additionally, the enhancement of heat transfer by using oscillatory, and, in some cases, pulsating flows is important in many areas of mechanical and chemical engineering for the intensification of heat transfer processes and possible miniaturization of heat exchangers of the future.This Special Issue was intended as a dissemination platform for researchers working in the field to have an opportunity to consolidate recent advances in this important research area. All types of research approaches were invited, including experimental, theoretical, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), and their combinations, while the approaches could be either of a fundamental or applied nature. The guest editor and the editorial team of Applied Sciences hope that the readership will find the selection of ten articles presented here a useful contribution to the emerging field of heat transfer processes in oscillatory flow conditions.

MEMS Mirrors

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ISBN: 9783038428671 9783038428688 Year: Pages: VI, 210 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-05-04 13:32:54
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MEMS mirrors can steer, modulate and switch light, as well as control the wavefront for focusing or phase modulation. MEMS mirrors have found enormous commercial success in projectors, displays and fiberoptic communications. Micro-spectrometers based on MEMS mirrors are starting to appear in the consumer market. There are also many breakthroughs in applying MEMS mirrors for endoscopic imaging. Equally excitingly, a new wave of opportunities for MEMS mirrors is coming up, for example, micro-LiDAR for autonomous driving and robotics, optical cross connect (OXC) for cloud data centers, and optical scanners for virtual reality/augumented reality, just to name a few. Of course, there are a number of big challenges that researchers and engineers must overcome to fully utiltize MEMS mirrors’ potential: modeling and control are inherently complex due to the multiphysics, multi-DOF and nonlinear nature of the microactuators for MEMS mirrors; reliability is always a huge hurdle for commercilization; and the tradeoffs among the speed, aperture, and scan range are often overwhelming. Accordingly, this Special Issue seeks to showcase research papers, short communications, and review articles that focus on: (1) novel designs, fabrication, control, and modeling of MEMS mirrors based on all kinds of actuation mechanisms; and (2) new developments of applying MEMS mirrors of any kind in consumer electronics, optical communications, industry, medicine, agriculture, space, or defense.

Evaluation of Systems’ Irregularity and Complexity: Sample Entropy, Its Derivatives, and Their Applications across Scales and Disciplines

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ISBN: 9783038973324 9783038973331 Year: Pages: 264 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-333-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2018-12-10 11:20:37
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ca. 200 words; this text will present the book in all promotional forms (e.g. flyers). Please describe the book in straightforward and consumer-friendly terms.[enter Summary/Description]Based on information theory, a number of entropy measures have been proposed since the 1990s to assess systems’ irregularity, such as approximate entropy, sample entropy, permutation entropy, intrinsic mode entropy, and dispersion entropy, to cite only a few. Among them, sample entropy has been used in a very large variety of disciplines for both univariate and multivariate data. However, improvements to the sample entropy algorithm are still being proposed because sample entropy is unstable for short time series, may be sensitive to parameter values, and can be too time-consuming for long data. At the same time, it is worth noting that sample entropy does not take into account the multiple temporal scales inherent in complex systems. It is maximized for completely random processes and is used only to quantify the irregularity of signals on a single scale. This is why analyses of irregularity—with sample entropy or its derivatives—at multiple time scales have been proposed to assess systems’ complexity. This Book presents contributions related to new and original research based on the use of sample entropy or its derivatives.

Mechanical Behaviour of Aluminium Alloys

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ISBN: 9783038973201 9783038973218 Year: Pages: 144 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-321-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Materials --- Mechanical Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2018-12-10 12:04:07
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ca. 200 words; this text will present the book in all promotional forms (e.g. flyers). Please describe the book in straightforward and consumer-friendly terms.[Aluminium alloys are the most common non-ferrous materials utilised for a wide range of engineering applications, namely, automotive, aerospace, mould and structural industries, among others. The wide spread of these alloys in the modern word is due to the unique combination of material properties combining lightness, excellent strength, corrosion resistance, toughness, electrical and thermal conductivity, recyclability, and manufacturability. Last but not least, the relatively low cost of aluminium extrusion is important as it makes aluminium alloys very attractive for applications in different key sectors of the world economy. Despite great interest, extensive previous research, and knowledge accumulated in the past, recent advances in production and processing technologies, combined with the development of new and more ingenious and competitive products, require a profound understanding of the physical and mechanical behaviour of such alloys, specifically in terms of modelling and predictions of the fracture and fatigue life of aluminium alloy components. This Special Issue aims to gather scientific contributions from authors working in different scientific areas, including the improvement and modelling of mechanical properties, alloying design and manufacturing techniques, the characterization of microstructure and chemical composition, and advanced applications.

Metallic Glasses

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ISBN: 9783038425076 9783038425069 Year: Pages: 194 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-01-04 14:58:25
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Due to their amorphous character and the concomitant lack of dislocations, metallic glasses exhibit physical and chemical properties that are quite different from those of other solid materials. For example, they can be twice as strong as steels, exhibit superior soft magnetic behavior and outstanding corrosion resistance and, sometimes, interesting catalytic properties, thus having potential for a widespread range of technological applications. The aim of this book is to address, from both experimental and theoretical points of view, some of the challenges to improve the glass forming ability of these materials, to optimize their overall mechanical performance, and to enhance their functional properties. Through the contributions from different renowned authors in the field, new prospects towards the development of innovative compositions and novel applications, particularly in devices with micrometer and submicrometer sizes, are provided, where the full potential of these glassy materials is being achieved.

The Craft of Fractional Modelling in Science and Engineering

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ISBN: 9783038429838 9783038429845 Year: Pages: X, 128 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Mathematics --- Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-22 14:41:30
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This book is a result of the contributions of scientists involved in a Special Issue entitled “The Craft of Fractional Modelling in Science and Engineering” published by the journal Fractal and Fractional (MDPI). Most of the articles were published at the end of 2017 and the beginning 2018. In accordance with the initial aim of the Special Issue, the best published have now been consolidated into this book. The articles included span a broad area of applications of fractional calculus and demonstrate the feasibility of the non-integer differentiation and integration approach in modeling, directly related to pertinent problems in science and engineering.This a good beginning and it would be beneficial to continue with this collection under the same title and potentially provide a second volume of this book in the future.

Metasurfaces: Physics and Applications

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ISBN: 9783038973447 9783038973454 Year: Pages: 166 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-345-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Mathematics --- Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 11:17:24
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Metasurfaces, the two-dimensional analog of metamaterials, have attracted progressively increasing attention in recent years due to their planar configurations and, thus, ease of fabrication, while enabling an unprecedented control over optical fields. The phase, amplitude, polarization, helicity, and even angular momentum of the reflected or transmitted optical fields can be controlled at will by tailoring optically thin planar arrays of resonant subwavelength elements arranged in a periodic or aperiodic manner. As a result, numerous applications and fascinating devices have been realized by designed planar metasurfaces, including beam deflectors, wave plates, flat lenses, holograms, surface wave couplers, and freeform metasurfaces.This Special Issue is launched to provide a possibility for researchers in the area of metasurfaces to highlight the most recent exciting developments and discuss different metasurface configurations in depth, so as to further promote practical applications of metasurfaces. There are 12 papers selected for this Special Issue, representing fascinating progress and potential applications in the area of metasurfaces, which is highly recommended and believed to benefit readers in various aspects.

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