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Salinity Tolerance in Plants: Mechanisms and Regulation of Ion Transport

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453696 Year: Pages: 243 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-369-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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Life presumably arose in the primeval oceans with similar or even greater salinity than the present ocean, so the ancient cells were designed to withstand salinity. However, the immediate ancestors of land plants most likely lived in fresh, or slightly brackish, water. The fresh/brackish water origins might explain why many land plants, including some cereals, can withstand moderate salinity, but only 1 – 2 % of all the higher plant species were able to re-discover their saline origins again and survive at increased salinities close to that of seawater. From a practical side, salinity is among the major threats to agriculture, having been one of the reasons for the demise of the ancient Mesopotamian Sumer civilisation and in the present time causing huge annual economic losses of over 10 billion USD. The effects of salinity on plants include osmotic stress, disruption of membrane ion transport, direct toxicity of high cytoplasmic concentrations of sodium and chloride on cellular processes and induced oxidative stress. Ion transport is the crucial starting point that determines salinity tolerance in plants. Transport via membranes is mediated mostly by the ion channels and transporters, which ensure selective passage of specific ions. The molecular and structural diversity of these ion channels and transporters is amazing. Obtaining the detailed descriptions of distinct ion channels and transporters present in halophytes, marine algae and salt-tolerant fungi and then progressing to the cellular and the whole organism mechanisms, is one of the logical ways to understand high salinity tolerance. Transfer of the genes from halophytes to agricultural crops is a means to increase salt tolerance of the crops. The theoretical scientific approaches involve protein chemistry, structure-function relations of membrane proteins, synthetic biology, systems biology and physiology of stress and ion homeostasis. At the time of compiling this e-book many aspects of ion transport under salinity stress are not yet well understood. The e-book has attracted researchers in ion transport and salinity tolerance. We have combined our efforts to achieve a wider, more detailed understanding of salt tolerance in plants mediated by ion transport, to understand present and future ways to modify and manipulate ion transport and salinity tolerance and also to find natural limits for the modifications.

Allorecognition by Leukocytes of the Adaptive Immune System

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453863 Year: Pages: 107 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-386-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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The term allorecognition refers to the series of mechanisms used by an individual’s immune system to distinguish its own cells and tissues from those of another individual belonging to the same species. During evolution, different cells and molecules of both innate and adaptive immune systems have been selected to recognize and respond to antigens expressed by allogeneic cells, but not autologous cells (alloantigens). This research topic focuses on allorecognition by lymphocytes of the adaptive immune system and its involvement in rejection or tolerance of allogeneic transplants. T and B cells recognizing alloantigens via specific receptors become activated and undergo proliferation and differentiation into different types of effector and memory cells. Allorecognition by lymphocytes occurs regularly during pregnancy upon trafficking of both maternal and fetal cells. In this setting, allorecognition triggers an alloresponse that is protective towards the fetus thus preventing abortion. Protective alloimmunity is mediated through cooperation between different lymphocytes and antigen presenting cells (APCs), as well as regulatory mediators and receptors. Likewise, certain transplants placed in organs and tissues called immune-privileged sites such as the eye, the central nervous system and the testis elicit protective rather than destructive adaptive immune responses. Therefore, under certain circumstances, allorecognition by regulatory lymphocytes (Tregs and Bregs) can lead to tolerance of alloantigens. In contrast, allorecognition by T cells in non-immune privileged sites and under inflammatory conditions leads to a destructive immune response. Indeed, after transplantation of most allogeneic organs and tissues, activation of pro-inflammatory T cells (TH1 and TH17), which recognize donor MHC proteins (direct pathway) or peptides derived from donor MHC and minor antigens (indirect pathway), leads to graft rejection. This inflammatory response leads to the differentiation of allospecific cytotoxic T cells as well as production of donor specific antibodies by B cells, both of which contribute to the destruction of the transplant. In this Research Topic, we describe the different pathways of allorecognition by T cells involved in allograft rejection, as well as the role of different antigen presenting cells and graft-derived microvesicles (exosomes) involved in this process. Another aspect of this Research Topic addresses the essential role of alloreactive memory T cells in allograft rejection and resistance to transplant tolerance induction in laboratory rodents, as well as non-human primates and patients. Indeed, it has become evident that laboratory mice display very few memory alloreactive T cells pre-transplantation, essentially due to the fact that they are raised in pathogen-free facilities. In contrast, primates display high frequencies of alloreactive memory T cells, either generated through prior exposure to allogeneic MHC molecules or via cross-reactivity with microbial antigens. We and others have provided ample evidence showing that this feature accounts for differences in terms of tolerance susceptibility between laboratory rodents and patients. This implies that further investigation of tolerance protocols in laboratory mice should be performed using “dirty mice” i.e., mice raised in non-sterile conditions. In summary, this Research Topic addresses key aspects of allorecognition by lymphocytes and alloantigen presentation by dendritic cells, and specifically how these processes shape our immune system and govern the rejection or tolerance of allogeneic tissues and organs.

10 Weltbürger Perspectives and Samhandling (Book chapter)

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9788202535025 Year: Pages: 10 DOI: 10.23865/noasp.36.ch10 Language: English
Publisher: Cappelen Damm Akademisk/NOASP (Nordic Open Access Scholarly Publishing)
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:09
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"The chapter starts with a criticism of management and control concepts
that have been rooted in economic or psychological theories and models, although
society’s complexity and the pace of change will demand a broader and deeper foundation
for the development of effective management systems in the future. Other
voices need to be put forward. Immanuel Kant (1795/1991) argued for his idea of the
Weltbürger (“world citizen”), also known as “The Cosmopolitan Ideal”. His fundamental
philosophy is that all humans are welcome, regardless of time and place, and
that all humans are world citizens, regardless of nationality and cultural belonging
(Kant, 1795/1991). All people are co-citizens, independent of nationality and cultural
affiliation, and the Weltbürger is concerned with global problems and solutions.
Another central thinker is Jacques Derrida (1930–2004), a French philosopher and
writer particularly known for the term “Deconstruction”, which is about splitting up
words and phrases to find out what they really mean, in the light of the culture and
underlying attitudes. Human comprehension requires common words and phrases
(language), and a cultural and social context, both of which have formed the basis
for conceptual analysis of the terms “hospitality” and “threshold of tolerance”. The
conclusion is that the concepts of the Weltbürger and “hospitality” have important
values in and of themselves, and are ideas that are universal and timeless, providing
an important compass for samhandling."

Optimizing Miscanthus for the Sustainable Bioeconomy: From Genes to Products

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455669 Year: Pages: 230 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-566-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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In this Research Topic we report advances in fundamental and applied aspects of the perennial C4 bioenergy crop Miscanthus (Miscanthus spp.) and its role in mitigating climate change as part of the bioeconomy. Miscanthus is extremely well suited for bioenergy, biofuel and bioproduct production over a wide geographic area including Europe and North America as well as its native Asia.

Miscanthus offers a unique perspective within plant science: the challenge is to domesticate this novel crop for diverse environments and uses while simultaneously developing sustainable value chains to displace fossil fuels and contribute to climate change mitigation. Contributions to this Research Topic were offered from leading Miscanthus researchers from different parts of the world. We accepted 16 articles from 95 authors, which have generated 21,161 views at March 26 2018. Nine of the articles are the output of the European FP7 OPTIMISC project and describe multiple experiments investigating a common set of Miscanthus genotypes in Europe and Asia. These papers are complemented by seven additional articles from global authors, providing a comprehensive analysis of the state of the art of Miscanthus research and application.

Entwurfsoptimierung von selbst-adaptiven Wartungsmechanismen für software-intensive technische Systeme

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Book Series: The Karlsruhe Series on Software Design and Quality / Ed. by Prof. Dr. Ralf Reussner ISSN: 18670067 ISBN: 9783731508526 Year: Volume: 28 Pages: XXV, 342 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000086097 Language: GERMAN
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-28 18:37:01
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This work presents novel concepts for efficient decision support in reconfiguring software-intensive technical systems with limited maintenance access. In contrast to purely redundancy-oriented approaches, the proposed methodology is based on the predictive pre-calculation of adequate configuration alternatives in the relevant design space. The knowledge about configuration relationships is manifested early and used for the autonomic cost-efficient assessment of configuration alternatives.

Teaching Tolerance in a Globalized World

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: IEA Research for Education ISSN: 2366-1631 ISBN: 9783319786919 9783319786926 Year: Volume: 4 Pages: 138 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-78692-6 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Grant: International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA)
Subject: Political Science --- Education --- Sociology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-07-27 15:07:49
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This open access thematic report identifies factors and conditions that can help schools and education systems promote tolerance in a globalized world. The IEA’s International Civic and Citizenship Study (ICCS) is a comparative research program designed to investigate the ways in which young people are prepared to undertake their roles as citizens, and provides a wealth of data permitting not only comparison between countries but also comparisons between schools within countries, and students within countries. Advanced analytical methods provide insights into relationships between students’ attitudes towards cultural diversity and the characteristics of the students themselves, their families, their teachers and school principals. The rich diversity of educational and cultural contexts in the 38 countries who participated in ICCS 2009 are also acknowledged and addressed. Readers interested in civic education and adolescents’ attitudes towards cultural diversity will find the theoretical perspectives explored engaging. For readers interested in methodology, the advanced analytical methods employed present textbook examples of how to address cross-cultural comparability of measurement instruments and multilevel data structures in international large-scale assessments (ILSA). Meanwhile, those interested in educational policy should find the identification and comparison of malleable factors across education systems that contribute to positive student attitudes towards cultural diversity a useful and thought-provoking resource.

Metal Metabolism in Animals

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ISBN: 9783038428435 9783038428442 Year: Pages: X, 356 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-04-20 14:25:48
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Through evolution of life, animals have adapted to the ubiquitous presence of metals in the biosphere. They utilize the more frequent ones as essential constituents of their biochemical machinery. In fact, about 40% of all proteins present in animal cells are so-called metalloproteins. On the other hand, animals have invented regulatory and detoxifying mechanisms to protect themselves from critical concentrations of both essential and non-essential metal concentrations. Metallomics is a modern approach applying cellular, biochemical, molecular and analytical methods to investigate the relationships of metals in their cellular context. The present edition contains a number of original articles and reviews dealing with various aspects of metallomics in animals, published as Special Issues of the International Journal of Molecular Sciences in 2016 and 2017. The book addresses subjects such as metal definition in biology, metabolism of metals in invertebrate and vertebrate animals, metal detoxification and regulation strategies, supplementation of essential trace elements, metal behavior in pregnancy and embryonic development, as well as metal toxicology and emerging medical implications.

Safe Spaces, Brave Spaces

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ISBN: 9780262037143 9780262535960 Year: Pages: 192 Language: English
Publisher: The MIT Press
Subject: Political Science --- Education --- Philosophy
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-17 11:41:31
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How the essential democratic values of diversity and free expression can coexist on campus.Safe spaces, trigger warnings, microaggressions, the disinvitation of speakers, demands to rename campus landmarks—debate over these issues began in lecture halls and on college quads but ended up on op-ed pages in the New York Times and the Wall Street Journal, on cable news, and on social media. Some of these critiques had merit, but others took a series of cheap shots at “crybullies” who needed to be coddled and protected from the real world. Few questioned the assumption that colleges must choose between free expression and diversity. In Safe Spaces, Brave Spaces, John Palfrey argues that the essential democratic values of diversity and free expression can, and should, coexist on campus. Palfrey, currently Head of School at Phillips Academy, Andover, and formerly Professor and Vice Dean at Harvard Law School, writes that free expression and diversity are more compatible than opposed. Free expression can serve everyone—even if it has at times been dominated by white, male, Christian, heterosexual, able-bodied citizens. Diversity is about self-expression, learning from one another, and working together across differences; it can encompass academic freedom without condoning hate speech.Palfrey proposes an innovative way to support both diversity and free expression on campus: creating safe spaces and brave spaces. In safe spaces, students can explore ideas and express themselves with without feeling marginalized. In brave spaces—classrooms, lecture halls, public forums—the search for knowledge is paramount, even if some discussions may make certain students uncomfortable. The strength of our democracy, says Palfrey, depends on a commitment to upholding both diversity and free expression, especially when it is hardest to do so.

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